|Commitments and Contingencies
||Commitments and Contingencies
Commercial Manufacturing, Collaboration, License, and Distribution Agreements
The Company continues to seek to enhance its product line and develop a balanced portfolio of differentiated products through product acquisitions and in-licensing. Accordingly, the Company, in certain instances, may be contractually obligated to make potential future development, regulatory, and commercial milestone, royalty and/or profit sharing payments in conjunction with collaborative agreements or acquisitions that the Company has entered into with third parties. The Company has also licensed certain technologies or intellectual property from various third parties. The Company is generally required to make upfront payments as well as other payments upon successful completion of regulatory or sales milestones. The agreements generally permit the Company to terminate the agreement with no significant continuing obligation. The Company could be required to make significant payments pursuant to these arrangements. These payments are contingent upon the occurrence of certain future events and, given the nature of these events, it is unclear when, if ever, the Company may be required to pay such amounts. Further, the timing of any future payment is not reasonably estimable. Certain of these arrangements are with related parties (refer to Note 16. Related Party Transactions).
The Company's legal proceedings are complex, constantly evolving and subject to uncertainty. As such, the Company cannot predict the outcome or impact of the legal proceedings set forth below. Additionally, the Company is subject to legal proceedings that are not set forth below. While the Company believes it has valid claims and/or defenses to the matters described below, the nature of litigation is unpredictable, and the outcome of the following proceedings could include damages, fines, penalties and injunctive or administrative remedies. For any proceedings where losses are probable and reasonably capable of estimation, the Company accrues for a potential loss. When the Company has a probable loss for which a reasonable estimate of the liability is a range of losses and no amount within that range is a better estimate than any other amount, the Company records the loss at the low end of the range. While these accruals have been deemed reasonable by the Company’s management, the assessment process relies heavily on estimates and assumptions that may ultimately prove inaccurate or incomplete. Additionally, unforeseen circumstances or events may lead the Company to subsequently change its estimates and assumptions. Unless otherwise indicated below, the Company is unable at this time to estimate the possible loss or the range of loss, if any, associated with such legal proceedings and claims.
The Company currently intends to vigorously prosecute and/or defend these proceedings as appropriate. From time to time, however, the Company may settle or otherwise resolve these matters on terms and conditions that it believes to be in its best interest. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company recorded net charges of $5 million (none for the three months ended March 31, 2021) for commercial legal proceedings and claims. The Company had total liabilities for legal proceedings as of both March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 of $11 million. The ultimate resolution of any or all claims, legal proceedings or investigations could differ materially from our estimate and have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations and/or cash flows in any given accounting period, or on the Company's overall financial condition.
Additionally, the Company manufactures and derives a portion of its revenue from the sale of pharmaceutical products in the opioid class of drugs and may therefore face claims arising from the regulation and/or consumption of such products.
The Company believes it has meritorious claims and defenses in these matters and intends to vigorously prosecute and defend them. However, because the ultimate outcome and costs associated with litigation are inherently uncertain and difficult to predict, except as otherwise stated, the Company is not in a position to predict the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome or provide an estimate of the amount or range of potential loss in the event of an unfavorable outcome in any of these matters, and any adverse outcome could negatively affect the Company and could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations, cash flows and/or overall financial condition.
Medicaid Reimbursement and Price Reporting Matters
The Company is required to provide pricing information to state agencies, including agencies that administer federal Medicaid programs. Certain state agencies have alleged that manufacturers have reported improper pricing information, which allegedly caused them to overpay reimbursement costs. Other agencies have alleged that manufacturers have failed to timely file required
reports concerning pricing information. Reserves are periodically established by the Company for any potential claims or settlements of overpayment. The Company intends to vigorously defend against any such claims. The ultimate settlement of any potential liability for such claims may be higher or lower than estimated.
There is substantial litigation in the pharmaceutical, biological, and biotechnology industries with respect to the manufacture, use, and sale of new products which are the subject of conflicting patent and intellectual property claims. One or more patents often cover the brand name products for which the Company is developing generic versions and the Company typically has patent rights covering the Company’s branded products.
Under federal law, when a drug developer files an Abbreviated New Drug Application ("ANDA") for a generic drug seeking approval before expiration of a patent which has been listed with the FDA as covering the brand name product, the developer must certify its product will not infringe the listed patent(s) and/or the listed patent is invalid or unenforceable (commonly referred to as a "Paragraph IV" certification). Notices of such certification must be provided to the patent holder, who may file a suit for patent infringement within 45 days of the patent holder’s receipt of such notice. If the patent holder files suit within the 45-day period, the FDA can review and tentatively approve the ANDA, but generally is prevented from granting final marketing approval of the product until a final judgment in the action has been rendered in favor of the generic drug developer, or 30 months from the date the notice was received, whichever is sooner. The Company’s Generics segment is typically subject to patent infringement litigation brought by branded pharmaceutical manufacturers in connection with the Company’s Paragraph IV certifications seeking an order delaying the approval of the Company’s ANDA until expiration of the patent(s) at issue in the litigation. Likewise, the Company’s Specialty segment is currently involved in patent infringement litigation against generic drug manufacturers that have filed Paragraph IV certifications to market their generic drugs prior to expiration of the Company’s patents at issue in the litigation.
The uncertainties inherent in patent litigation make the outcome of such litigation difficult to predict. For the Company’s Generics segment, the potential consequences in the event of an unfavorable outcome in such litigation include delaying launch of its generic products until patent expiration. If the Company were to launch its generic product prior to successful resolution of a patent litigation, the Company could be liable for potential damages measured by the profits lost by the branded product manufacturer rather than the profits earned by the Company if it is found to infringe a valid, enforceable patent, or enhanced treble damages in cases of willful infringement. For the Company’s Specialty segment, an unfavorable outcome may significantly accelerate generic competition ahead of expiration of the patents covering the Company’s branded products. All such litigation typically involves significant expense.
The Company is generally responsible for all of the patent litigation fees and costs associated with current and future products not covered by its alliance and collaboration agreements. The Company has agreed to share legal expenses with respect to third-party and Company products under the terms of certain of the alliance and collaboration agreements. The Company records the costs of patent litigation as expense in the period when incurred for products it has developed, as well as for products which are the subject of an alliance or collaboration agreement with a third-party.
Patent Defense Matter
Biogen International GMBH, et al. v. Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC, et al. (Dimethyl Fumarate)
In June 2017, Biogen International GMBH (“Biogen”) filed suit against Amneal and various other generic manufacturers in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware (“D. Del.”) alleging patent infringement based on the filing of ANDAs by Amneal and others for generic alternatives to Biogen’s Tecfidera® (dimethyl fumarate) capsules product (Biogen International GMBH, et al. v. Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC, et al., No. 1:17-cv-00823-MN). Biogen also filed suit in June 2017 against Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. (“Mylan”) in the United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia (“N.D. W. Va.”) relating to Mylan’s own ANDA for Tecfidera®. On June 18, 2020, the N.D. W. Va. court issued an order finding the sole Biogen patent at issue invalid. Biogen has appealed the order to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. On September 22, 2020, the D. Del. court entered judgment in favor of defendants (including Amneal), adopting the finding of invalidity made by the N.D. W. Va. court but ordering that claims could be reinstated based on the result of the appeal of the N.D. W. Va. court’s order. Amneal, like Mylan and a number of other generic manufacturers, has now launched its generic dimethyl fumarate capsules product “at-risk,” pending the outcome of Biogen’s appeal of the N.D. W. Va. court’s order before the Federal Circuit.
Other Litigation Related to the Company’s Business
Opana ER® FTC Matters
On February 25, 2014, Impax received a Civil Investigative Demand (“CID”) from the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) concerning its investigation into the drug Opana® ER and its generic equivalents. On March 30, 2016, the FTC filed a complaint against Impax, Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc. ("Endo"), and others in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, alleging that Impax and Endo violated antitrust laws when they entered into a June 2010 settlement agreement that resolved patent litigation in connection with the submission of Impax’s ANDA for generic original Opana® ER. In October 2016, the Court granted Impax’s motion to sever, formally terminating the suit against Impax. In January 2017, the FTC filed a Part 3 Administrative Complaint against Impax with similar allegations regarding the 2010 settlement. Following trial, in May 2018, the Administrative Law Judge ruled in favor of Impax and dismissed the Complaint in its entirety. In March 2019, the FTC issued an Opinion & Order reversing the Administrative Law Judge’s decision, and in June 2019, Impax filed a Petition for Review of the FTC’s Opinion & Order with the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. The Opinion & Order did not contain any monetary damages but enjoined Impax from entering into similar future agreements. On April 13, 2021, the Fifth Circuit issued a decision affirming the FTC’s Opinion & Order.
On July 12, 2019, the Company received a CID from the FTC concerning an August 2017 settlement agreement between Impax and Endo, which resolved a subsequent patent infringement and breach of contract dispute between the parties regarding the above-referenced June 2010 settlement agreement related to Opana® ER. The Company cooperated with the FTC regarding the CID. On January 25, 2021, the FTC filed a complaint against Endo, Impax and Amneal in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, alleging that the 2017 settlement violated antitrust laws. Impax and Amneal believe that they have strong defenses to the FTC’s allegations and intend to vigorously defend the action.
Opana ER® Antitrust Litigation
From June 2014 to April 2015, a number of complaints styled as class actions on behalf of direct purchasers and indirect purchasers (or end-payors) and several separate individual complaints on behalf of certain direct purchasers (the “opt-out plaintiffs”) of Opana ER® were filed against Endo and Impax.
The direct purchaser plaintiffs comprise Value Drug Company and Meijer Inc. The end-payor plaintiffs comprise the Fraternal Order of Police, Miami Lodge 20, Insurance Trust Fund; Wisconsin Masons’ Health Care Fund; Massachusetts Bricklayers; Pennsylvania Employees Benefit Trust Fund; International Union of Operating Engineers, Local 138 Welfare Fund; Louisiana Health Service & Indemnity Company d/b/a Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Louisiana; Kim Mahaffay; and Plumbers & Pipefitters Local 178 Health & Welfare Trust Fund. The opt-out plaintiffs comprise Walgreen Co.; The Kroger Co.; Safeway, Inc.; HEB Grocery Company L.P.; Albertson’s LLC; Rite Aid Corporation; Rite Aid Hdqtrs. Corp.; and CVS Pharmacy, Inc.
In December 2014, the United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation (the "JPML") transferred the actions to the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois (“N.D. Ill.”) for coordinated pretrial proceedings, as In Re: Opana ER Antitrust Litigation (MDL No. 2580).
In each case, the complaints allege that Endo engaged in an anticompetitive scheme by, among other things, entering into an anticompetitive settlement agreement with Impax to delay generic competition of Opana ER® and in violation of state and federal antitrust laws. Plaintiffs seek, among other things, unspecified monetary damages and equitable relief, including disgorgement and restitution. On March 25, 2019, plaintiffs filed motions for class certification and served expert reports. Defendants’ oppositions to class certification and expert reports were filed and served on August 29, 2019. On February 5, 2020, the court entered a case schedule setting a trial date of March 15, 2021, which subsequently was re-set for November 1, 2021. On April 15, 2020, defendants filed motions for summary judgment and each side moved to exclude certain opposing experts. These various motions remain pending.
Attorney General of the State of Connecticut Interrogatories and Subpoena Duces Tecum
On July 14, 2014, Impax received a subpoena from the State of Connecticut Attorney General ("Connecticut AG") concerning its investigation into sales of Impax's generic product, digoxin. According to the Connecticut AG, the investigation concerned whether anyone engaged in a contract, combination or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce which had the effect of (i) fixing, controlling or maintaining prices or (ii) allocating or dividing customers or territories relating to the sale of digoxin. Impax cooperated in the investigation and produced documents and information in response to the Subpoena in 2014 and 2015. However, no assurance can be given as to the timing or outcome of this investigation.
United States Department of Justice Investigations
On November 6, 2014, Impax disclosed that one of its sales representatives received a grand jury subpoena from the Antitrust Division of the United States Department of Justice (the "DOJ"). On March 13, 2015, Impax received a grand jury subpoena from the DOJ requesting the production of information and documents regarding the sales, marketing, and pricing of four generic prescription medications. Impax has cooperated in the investigation and produced documents and information in response to the subpoenas from 2014 to 2016. However, no assurance can be given as to the timing or outcome of the investigation.
On April 30, 2018, Impax received a CID from the Civil Division of the DOJ (the "Civil Division"). The CID requests the production of information and documents regarding the pricing and sale of Impax’s pharmaceuticals and interactions with other generic pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding whether generic pharmaceutical manufacturers engaged in market allocation and price-fixing agreements, paid illegal remuneration, and caused false claims to be submitted to the Federal government. Impax has cooperated with the Civil Division’s investigation. However, no assurance can be given as to the timing or outcome of the investigation.
In Re Generic Pharmaceuticals Pricing Antitrust Litigation
Since March 2016, multiple putative antitrust class action complaints have been filed on behalf of direct purchasers, indirect purchasers (or end-payors), and indirect resellers, as well as individual complaints on behalf of certain direct and indirect purchasers, and municipalities (the “opt-out plaintiffs”) against manufacturers of generic drugs, including Impax and the Company. The complaints allege a conspiracy to fix, maintain, stabilize, and/or raise prices, rig bids, and allocate markets or customers for various generic drugs in violation of federal and state antitrust and consumer protection laws. Plaintiffs seek unspecified monetary damages and equitable relief, including disgorgement and restitution. The lawsuits have been consolidated in an MDL in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (In re Generic Pharmaceuticals Pricing Antitrust Litigation, No. 2724, (E.D. Pa.)).
On May 10, 2019, Attorneys General of 43 States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut against various manufacturers and individuals, including the Company, alleging a conspiracy to fix, maintain, stabilize, and/or raise prices, rig bids, and allocate markets or customers for multiple generic drugs. On November 1, 2019, the State Attorneys General filed an Amended Complaint on behalf of nine additional states and territories. On June 10, 2020, Attorneys General of 46 States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Territory of Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia filed a new complaint against various manufacturers and individuals, including the Company, alleging a conspiracy to fix prices, rig bids, and allocate markets or customers for additional generic drugs. Plaintiff States seek unspecified monetary damages and penalties and equitable relief, including disgorgement and restitution. These lawsuits have been incorporated into MDL No. 2724.
Fact and document discovery in MDL No. 2724 are proceeding. In July 2020, the Court ordered certain plaintiffs’ complaints regarding three generic drug products to proceed as bellwether cases, along with the Plaintiff States’ November 2019 amended complaint. In February 2021, the Court vacated the prior order regarding bellwether cases. Revised bellwether cases are under consideration and no scheduling order has yet been issued for this matter.
Prescription Opioid Litigation
The Company and certain of its affiliates have been named as defendants in various matters filed in state and federal courts relating to the sale of prescription opioid pain relievers. Plaintiffs in these actions include state Attorneys General, county and municipal governments, hospitals, Indian tribes, pension funds, third-party payors and individuals. Plaintiffs seek unspecified monetary damages and other forms of relief based on various causes of action, including negligence, public nuisance, unjust enrichment, and civil conspiracy, as well as alleged violations of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (“RICO”), state and federal controlled substances laws and other statutes. All cases involving the Company also name other manufacturers, distributors and retail pharmacies as defendants, and there are numerous other cases involving allegations relating to prescription opioid pain relievers against other manufacturers, distributors and retail pharmacies in which the Company and its affiliates are not named.
Nearly all cases pending in federal district courts have been consolidated for pre-trial proceedings in an MDL in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio (In re: National Prescription Opiate Litigation, Case No. 17-mdl-2804). There are approximately 880 cases in the MDL in which the Company or its affiliates have been named as defendants. The Company also is named in approximately 120 state court cases pending in 11 states. The Company has filed motions to dismiss
in many of these cases. No trial dates have been set except in New Mexico (September 2022), Alabama (July 2022) and West Virginia (November 2021); it is not known at this time if the Company will be involved in the West Virginia case trial.
Securities Class Actions
On April 17, 2017, New York Hotel Trades Council & Hotel Association of New York City, Inc. Pension Fund filed an amended putative class action complaint in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California against Impax and four former Impax officers alleging violations of Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5 (Fleming v. Impax Laboratories Inc., et al., No. 4:16-cv-6557-HSG). Plaintiff alleges that Impax (1) concealed collusion with a competitor to fix the price of the generic drug digoxin; (2) concealed anticipated erosion in the price of generic drug diclofenac; and (3) overstated the value of the generic drug budesonide. In August 2019, the Court granted Impax’s motion to dismiss Plaintiff’s subsequent second amended complaint in its entirety. Plaintiff appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, and on January 11, 2021, the Ninth Circuit issued an unpublished opinion affirming in part and reversing in part the District Court’s decision. Impax subsequently filed a motion for rehearing with the Ninth Circuit, and Plaintiff filed a motion to intervene seeking to add Sheet Metal Workers’ Pension Fund of Southern California, Arizona and Nevada (“Sheet Metal Workers”) as an additional named Plaintiff The Ninth Circuit denied the motions, and on April 1, 2021, the case was remanded to the District Court. On April 19, 2021, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the remaining claims and an opposition to Sheet Metal Workers’ renewed motion to intervene.
On December 18, 2019, Cambridge Retirement System filed a putative class action complaint in the Superior Court of New Jersey, Somerset County against the Company and certain current or former officers alleging violations of Sections 11, 12(a)(2) and 15 of the Securities Act of 1933 (Cambridge Retirement System v. Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Inc., et al., No. SOM-L-1701-19). Plaintiffs allege that the May 7, 2018 amended registration statement and prospectus issued in connection with the Amneal/Impax business combination was materially false and/or misleading because it failed to disclose that Amneal allegedly engaged in anticompetitive conduct to fix generic drug prices. Plaintiff filed a motion for class certification on October 30, 2020, and in response to Amneal’s opposition, Plaintiffs amended their complaint to include similar allegations with regard to a November, 2017 registration statement issued by an Impax-related entity. The Court has set a briefing schedule for Amneal’s motion to dismiss the Amended Complaint.
United States Department of Justice / Drug Enforcement Administration Subpoenas
On July 7, 2017, Amneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC received an administrative subpoena issued by the Long Island, NY District Office of the Drug Enforcement Administration (the “DEA”) requesting information related to compliance with certain recordkeeping and reporting requirements. On or about April 12, 2019 and May 28, 2019, the Company received grand jury subpoenas from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of New York (the "USAO”) relating to similar topics concerning the Company’s suspicious order monitoring program and its compliance with the Controlled Substances Act. The Company is cooperating with the USAO in responding to the subpoenas and has entered tolling agreements with the USAO through approximately May 12, 2021. It is not possible to determine the exact outcome of these investigations at this time.
On March 14, 2019, Amneal received a subpoena (the “Subpoena”) from an Assistant U.S. Attorney (“AUSA”) for the Southern District of Florida. The Subpoena requests information and documents generally related to the marketing, sale, and distribution of oxymorphone. The Company intends to cooperate with the AUSA regarding the Subpoena. However, no assurance can be given as to the timing or outcome of its underlying investigation.
The Company and its affiliates have been named as defendants, along with numerous other pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesale distributors, and retail pharmacy chains, in In re Zantac/Ranitidine NDMA Litigation (MDL No. 2924), pending in the Southern District of Florida. Plaintiffs allege that defendants failed to disclose and/or concealed the alleged inherent presence of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (or “NDMA”) in brand-name Zantac® or generic ranitidine and the alleged associated risk of cancer. Consolidated groups of (a) personal injury plaintiffs, (b) economic loss/medical monitoring class action plaintiffs, and (c) third-party payor plaintiffs have each filed master complaints against brand and generic pharmaceutical manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and repackagers of ranitidine-containing products. The Company or its affiliates have been named in the three master complaints and approximately 190 personal injury short form complaints. On December 31, 2020, the Court dismissed in full the three master complaints against the generic manufacturers, including the Company and its affiliates, with leave to file amended complaints on certain claims relating to manufacturing, storage and transportation. Plaintiffs filed amended complaints on February 8 and February 22, 2021, and Defendants have filed various motions to dismiss the amended complaints. Discovery remains ongoing.
On November 12, 2020, Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC was named in a lawsuit filed in state court in Baltimore, Maryland, on behalf of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, alleging claims of public nuisance, negligence, and violations of state consumer protection laws against brand and generic manufacturers and store-brand distributors of Zantac®/ranitidine. Plaintiffs seek unspecified compensatory and punitive damages, as well as civil penalties and injunctive relief. Defendants removed the case to federal court, and on January 6, 2021, a conditional transfer order to the MDL was issued. On April 2, 2021, the MDL Court remanded the case to state court. On February 5, 2021, the MDL similarly remanded a New Mexico state case that also had been removed to federal court.
Amneal and AvKARE, Inc. were named as defendants, along with numerous other manufacturers, retail pharmacies, and wholesalers, in several putative class action lawsuits pending in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey (“D.N.J.”), consolidated as In Re Metformin Marketing and Sales Practices Litigation (No. 2:20-cv-02324-MCA-MAH). The lawsuits all allege that defendants made and sold to putative class members generic metformin products that were “adulterated” or “contaminated” with NDMA.
An economic loss complaint filed on behalf of consumers and third-party payors who purchased or paid or made reimbursements for metformin alleges that plaintiffs suffered economic losses in connection with their purchases or reimbursements due to the purported contamination. Medical monitoring class action complaints filed on behalf of consumers who consumed allegedly contaminated metformin allege “cellular damage, genetic harm, and/or are at an increased risk of developing cancer", and seek medical monitoring, including evaluation and treatment.
Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) Antitrust LitigationAmneal has been named as a defendant, along with Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Jazz”) and numerous other manufacturers of generic versions of Jazz’s Xyrem® (sodium oxybate), in several putative class action lawsuits filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California and the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, alleging that the generic manufacturers entered into anticompetitive agreements with Jazz in connection with settling patent litigation related to Xyrem®. Plaintiffs seek unspecified monetary damages and penalties as well as equitable relief, including disgorgement and restitution. On December 16, 2020, the JPML transferred the actions to the United States District Court for the Northern District of California for consolidated pretrial proceedings.