|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("U.S. GAAP"). All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Principles of Consolidation
Although the Company has a minority economic interest in Amneal, it is Amneal’s sole managing member, having the sole voting power to make all of Amneal’s business decisions and control its management. Therefore, the Company consolidates the financial statements of Amneal and its subsidiaries. The Company’s consolidated financial statements are a continuation of Amneal’s financial statements, with adjustments to equity to reflect the Combination, the PIPE Investment and non-controlling interests for the portion of Amneal’s economic interests that is not held by the Company. Prior to the closing of the Combination and PIPE Investment, the Company did not conduct any activities other than those incidental to the formation of it and Merger Sub and the matters contemplated by the BCA and had no operations and no material assets or liabilities. Results for the year ended December 31, 2018 include the impact of the Combination from May 4, 2018 to December 31, 2018.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the Company's management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported financial position at the date of the financial statements and the reported results of operations during the reporting period. Such estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The following are some, but not all, of such estimates: the determination of chargebacks, sales returns, rebates, billbacks, valuation of intangible and other assets acquired in business combinations, allowances for accounts receivable, accrued liabilities, stock-based compensation, valuation of inventory balances, the determination of useful lives for product rights and the assessment of expected cash flows used in evaluating goodwill and other long-lived assets for impairment. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-9, Revenue from Contracts with Customers and associated ASUs (collectively "Topic 606"), which sets forth a new five-step revenue recognition model which replaces the prior revenue recognition guidance in its entirety and is intended to eliminate numerous industry-specific sections of revenue recognition guidance that have historically existed.
When assessing its revenue recognition, the Company performs the following five steps in accordance with Topic 606: (i) identify the contract with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies the performance obligation. The Company recognizes revenue when it transfers control of its products to customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those products. For further details on the Company’s revenue recognition policies under Topic 606, refer to Note 4. Revenue Recognition.
The Company’s stock-based compensation consists of stock options, restricted stock units ("RSUs") and market performance-based restricted stock units (“MPRSUs”) awarded to employees and non-employee directors. Stock options are measured at their fair value on the grant date or date of modification, as applicable. RSUs, including MPRSUs, are measured at the stock price on the grant date or date of modification, as applicable. The Company recognizes compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service and/or performance period, as applicable. Forfeitures of awards are accounted for as a reduction in stock-based compensation expense in the period such awards are forfeited. The Company's policy is to issue new shares upon option exercises and the vesting of RSUs and MPRSUs.
The Company has operations in the U.S., India, Ireland, and other international jurisdictions. The results of its non-U.S. dollar based operations are translated to U.S. Dollars at the average exchange rates during the period. Assets and liabilities are translated at the rate of exchange prevailing on the balance sheet date. Investment accounts are translated at historical exchange rates. Translation adjustments are accumulated in a separate component of stockholders’/members’ deficit in the consolidated balance sheet and are included in the determination of comprehensive income. Transaction gains and losses are included in the determination of net income (loss) in the Company consolidated statements of operations as a component of foreign exchange gains and losses. Such foreign currency transaction gains and losses include fluctuations related to long term intercompany loans that are payable in the foreseeable future.
Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. Under the acquisition method, the acquiring entity in a business combination records the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the date of acquisition at their fair values. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets and other identifiable intangible assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Acquisition-related costs, primarily professional fees, are expensed as incurred.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on deposit and highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. A portion of the Company’s cash flows are derived outside the U.S. As a result, the Company is subject to market risk associated with changes in foreign exchange rates. The Company maintains cash balances at both U.S.-based and foreign-based commercial banks. At various times during the year, cash balances in the U.S. may exceed amounts that are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, the Company had restricted cash balances of $6 million and $2 million in its bank accounts primarily related to the purchase of certain land and equipment.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and do not bear interest. The Company limits its credit risk with respect to accounts receivable by performing credit evaluations when deemed necessary. The Company does not require collateral to secure amounts owed to it by its customers.
Trade accounts receivable are stated at their net realizable value. The allowance for doubtful accounts reflects the best estimate of expected credit losses of the accounts receivable portfolio determined on the basis of historical experience, current information, and forecasts of future economic conditions. The Company determines its allowance methodology by pooling receivable balances at the customer level. We consider various factors, including the Company’s previous loss history, individual credit risk associated to each customer, and the current and future condition of the general economy. These credit risk factors are monitored on a quarterly basis and updated as necessary. To the extent that any individual debtor is identified whose credit quality has deteriorated, the Company establishes allowances based on the individual risk characteristics of such customer. The Company makes concerted efforts to collect all outstanding balances due from customers; however, account balances are charged off against the allowance when management believes it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The Company does not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to customers.
Chargebacks Received from Manufacturers
When a sale occurs on a contracted item, the difference between the cost the Company pays to the manufacturer of that item and the contract price that the end customer has with the manufacturer is rebated to the Company by the manufacturer as a chargeback. Chargebacks are recorded as a reduction to cost of sales and either a reduction in the amount due to the manufacturer (if there is a right of offset) or as a receivable from the manufacturer.
Inventories consist of finished goods held for sale, raw materials, and work in process. Inventories are stated at net realizable value, with cost determined using the first-in, first-out method. Adjustments for excess and obsolete inventories are established based upon historical experience and management’s assessment of current product demand. These assessments include inventory obsolescence based on its expiration date, damaged or rejected product, and slow-moving products.
Property, Plant, and Equipment
Property, plant, and equipment are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation expense is computed primarily using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which are as follows:
|Asset Classification|| ||Estimated Useful Life|
|Buildings|| ||30 years|
|Computer equipment|| ||5 years|
|Furniture and fixtures|| ||7 years|
|Leasehold improvements|| ||Shorter of asset's useful life or remaining life of lease|
|Machinery and equipment|| |
5 - 10 years
|Vehicles|| ||5 years|
Upon retirement or disposal, the cost of the asset disposed and the accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any gain or loss is reflected as part of operating income (loss) in the period of disposal. Expenditures that significantly increase value or extend useful lives of property, plant, and equipment are capitalized, whereas those for normal maintenance and repairs are expensed. The Company capitalizes interest on borrowings during the construction period of major capital projects as part of the related asset and amortizes the capitalized interest into earnings over the related asset’s remaining useful life.
All significant lease arrangements are recognized as right-of-use (ROU) assets and lease liabilities at lease commencement. ROU assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of the future lease payments using the Company's incremental borrowing rate, which is assessed quarterly.
Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. At each balance sheet date, operating and financing lease liabilities continue to represent the present value of the future payments. Financing lease ROU assets are expensed using the straight-line method, unless another basis is more representative of the pattern of economic benefit, to lease expense. Interest on financing lease liabilities is recognized in interest expense.
Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less (short-term leases) are not recognized in the balance sheet and the related lease payments are recognized as incurred over the lease term. The Company separates lease and non-lease components. A portion of the Company's real estate leases are subject to periodic changes in the Consumer Price Index ("CPI"). The changes to the CPI are treated as variable lease payments and recognized in the period in which the obligation for those payments was incurred.
For further details regarding the Company's leases, refer to Note 12. Leases.
In-Process Research and Development
The fair value of in-process research and development ("IPR&D") acquired in a business combination is determined based on the present value of each research project’s projected cash flows using an income approach. Revenues are estimated based on
relevant market size and growth factors, expected industry trends, individual project life cycles and the life of each research project’s underlying marketability. In determining the fair value of each research project, expected cash flows are adjusted for certain risks of completion, including technical and regulatory risk.
The value attributable to IPR&D projects at the time of acquisition is capitalized as an indefinite-lived intangible asset and tested for impairment until the project is completed or abandoned. Upon completion of the project, the indefinite-lived intangible asset is then accounted for as a finite-lived intangible asset and amortized over the estimated useful life of the asset based on the pattern in which the economic benefits are expected to be consumed or otherwise used up or, if that pattern is not readily determinable, on a straight-line basis. If the project is abandoned, the indefinite-lived intangible asset is charged to expense.
Intangible assets with indefinite lives, including IPR&D, are tested for impairment if impairment indicators arise and, at a minimum, annually. However, an entity is permitted to first assess qualitative factors to determine if a quantitative impairment test is necessary. Further testing is only required if the entity determines, based on the qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that an indefinite-lived intangible asset’s fair value is less than its carrying amount. Otherwise, no further impairment testing is required. The indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test consists of a one-step analysis that compares the fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of an intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The Company considers many factors in evaluating whether the value of its intangible assets with indefinite lives may not be recoverable, including, but not limited to, expected growth rates, the cost of equity and debt capital, general economic conditions, the Company's outlook and market performance of the Company's industry and recent and forecasted financial performance.
Goodwill, which represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired, is carried at cost. Goodwill is not amortized; rather, it is subject to a periodic assessment for impairment by applying a fair value based test. The Company reviews goodwill for possible impairment annually during the fourth quarter, or whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.
In order to test goodwill for impairment, an entity is permitted to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether a quantitative assessment of goodwill is necessary. The qualitative factors considered by the Company may include, but are not limited to, general economic conditions, the Company’s outlook, market performance of the Company’s industry and recent and forecasted financial performance. Further testing is only required if the entity determines, based on the qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying amount. Otherwise, no further impairment testing is required. If a quantitative assessment is required, the Company determines the fair value of its reporting unit using a combination of the income and market approaches. If the net book value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the Company recognizes a goodwill impairment charge for the reporting unit equal to the lesser of (i) the total goodwill allocated to that reporting unit and (ii) the amount by which that reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value. See Note 15. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, for further discussion of the Company's quantitative assessment of goodwill.
Assumptions and estimates used in the evaluation of impairment may affect the carrying value of long-lived assets, which could result in impairment charges in future periods. Such assumptions include projections of future cash flows and the current fair value of the asset.
Amortization of Intangible Assets with Finite Lives
Intangible assets, other than indefinite-lived intangible assets, are amortized over the estimated useful life of the asset based on the pattern in which the economic benefits are expected to be consumed or otherwise used up or, if that pattern is not readily determinable, on a straight-line basis. The useful life is the period over which the assets are expected to contribute directly or indirectly to future cash flows. Intangible assets are not written-off in the period of acquisition unless they become impaired during that period.
The Company regularly evaluates the remaining useful life of each intangible asset that is being amortized to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization. If the estimate of the intangible asset’s remaining useful life is changed, the remaining carrying amount of the intangible asset is amortized prospectively over that revised remaining useful life. See Note 15. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, for further discussion of the Company's intangible assets.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets (Including Intangible Assets with Finite Lives)
The Company reviews its long-lived assets, including intangible assets with finite lives, for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. The Company evaluates assets for potential impairment by comparing estimated future undiscounted net cash flows to the carrying amount of the asset. If the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the estimated future undiscounted cash flows, impairment is measured based on the difference between the carrying amount of the assets and fair value which is generally an expected present value cash flow technique. Management’s policy in determining whether an impairment indicator exists comprises measurable operating performance criteria as well as other qualitative measures. See Note 15. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, for further discussion of the Company's assessment of intangible asset impairment.
The Company minimizes its risks from interest fluctuations through its normal operating and financing activities and, when deemed appropriate through the use of derivative financial instruments. Derivative financial instruments are used to manage risk and are not used for trading or other speculative purposes. The Company does not use leveraged derivative financial instruments. Derivative financial instruments that qualify for hedge accounting must be designated and effective as a hedge of the identified risk exposure at the inception of the contract. Accordingly, changes in fair value of the derivative contract must be highly correlated with changes in fair value of the underlying hedged item at inception of the hedge and over the life of the hedge contract.
All derivatives are recorded on the balance sheet as assets or liabilities and measured at fair value. For derivatives designated as cash flow hedges, the effective portion of the changes in fair value of the derivatives are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of income taxes and subsequently amortized as an adjustment to interest expense over the period during which the hedged forecasted transaction affects earnings, which is when the Company recognizes interest expense on the hedged cash flows. Cash flows of such derivative financial instruments are classified consistent with the underlying hedged item.
Highly effective hedging relationships that use interest rate swaps as the hedging instrument and that meet criteria under ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, may qualify for the “short-cut method” of assessing effectiveness. The short-cut method allows the Company to make the assumption of no ineffectiveness, which means that the change in fair value of the hedged item can be assumed to be equal to the change in fair value of the derivative. Unless critical terms change, no further evaluation of effectiveness is performed for these hedging relationships unless a critical term is changed.
For a hedging relationship that does not qualify for the short-cut method, the Company measures its effectiveness using the “hypothetical derivative method”, in which the change in fair value of the hedged item must be measured separately from the change in fair value of the derivative. At inception and quarterly thereafter, the Company formally assesses whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item. The Company compares the change in the fair value of the actual interest rate derivative to the change in the fair value of a hypothetical interest rate derivative with critical terms that match the hedged interest rate payments. After the initial quantitative assessment, this analysis is performed on a qualitative basis and, if it is determined that the hedging relationship was and continues to be highly effective, no further analysis is required.
All components of each derivative financial instrument's gain or loss are included in the assessment of hedge effectiveness. If it is determined that a derivative ceases to be a highly effective hedge, the Company discontinues hedge accounting and any deferred gains or losses related to a discontinued cash flow hedge shall continue to be reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) net of income taxes, unless it is probable that the forecasted transaction will not occur. If it is probable that the forecasted transaction will not occur by the originally specified time period, the Company discontinues hedge accounting, and any deferred gains or losses reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) are classified into earnings immediately.
The Company is subject to credit risk as a result of nonperformance by counterparties to the derivative agreements. Upon inception and quarterly thereafter, the Company makes judgments on each counterparty’s creditworthiness for nonperformance by counterparties.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes, which requires the recognition of tax benefits or expenses on temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of its assets and
liabilities by applying the enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Such net tax effects on temporary differences are reflected on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets as deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when the Company believes that it is more-likely-than-not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
ASC 740-10 prescribes a two-step approach for the recognition and measurement of tax benefits associated with the positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return that affect amounts reported in the financial statements. The Company has reviewed and will continue to review the conclusions reached regarding uncertain tax positions, which may be subject to review and adjustment at a later date based on ongoing analyses of tax laws, regulations and interpretations thereof. To the extent that the Company’s assessment of the conclusions reached regarding uncertain tax positions changes as a result of the evaluation of new information, such change in estimate will be recorded in the period in which such determination is made. The Company reports income tax-related interest and penalties relating to uncertain tax positions, if applicable, as a component of income tax expense.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) includes net income (loss) and all changes in stockholders’ equity (except those arising from transactions with stockholders) including foreign currency translation adjustments resulting from the consolidation of foreign subsidiaries’ financial statements and unrealized gains on cash flows hedges, net of income taxes.
Research and Development
Research and development ("R&D") activities are expensed as incurred. R&D expenses primarily consist of direct and allocated expenses incurred with the process of formulation, clinical research, and validation associated with new product development. Upfront and milestone payments made to third parties in connection with R&D collaborations are expensed as incurred up to the point of regulatory approval or when there is no alternative future use.
Intellectual Property Legal Development Expenses
The Company expenses external intellectual property legal development expenses as incurred. These costs relate to legal challenges of innovator’s patents for invalidity or non-infringement, which are customary in the generic pharmaceutical industry, and are incurred predominately during development of a product and prior to regulatory approval. Associated costs include, but are not limited to, formulation assessments, patent challenge opinions and strategy, and litigation expenses to defend the intellectual property supporting the Company's regulatory filings.
The Company records the costs of shipping product to its customers as a component of selling, general, and administrative expenses as incurred. Shipping costs were $17 million, $15 million and $21 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which modified the disclosure requirements on fair value measurement. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 effective January 1, 2020, and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, guidance that changes the impairment model for most financial assets including trade receivables and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net income. The standard replaced today’s "incurred loss" approach with an "expected loss" model for instruments measured at amortized cost and requires entities to record allowances for available-for-sale debt securities rather than reduce the carrying amount, as they did under the other-than-temporary impairment model. It also simplifies the accounting model for purchased credit-impaired debt securities and loans. Entities apply the standard’s provisions as a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 effective January 1, 2020, and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform, which provided elective amendments for entities that have contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. The amendments may be applied to impacted contracts and hedges prospectively through December 31, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on its consolidated financial statements.