|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Valvoline’s significant accounting policies, which conform to U.S. GAAP and are applied on a consistent basis in all periods presented, except when otherwise disclosed, are described below.
Use of estimates, risks and uncertainties
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the disclosures of contingent matters. Although management bases its estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, actual results could differ significantly from the estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Valvoline has substantially maintained its operations throughout the novel coronavirus ("COVID-19") pandemic to-date and has continued precautionary measures to protect the Company's employees and customers and manage through the currently known impacts on its business. Given the unprecedented nature of the pandemic, the extent of future impacts cannot be reasonably estimated at this time due to numerous uncertainties, including the ultimate duration and severity of the pandemic.
Cash and cash equivalents
All short-term, highly liquid investments having original maturities of three months or less are considered to be cash equivalents.
Receivables and allowance for credit losses
Valvoline invoices customers and recognizes a receivable within its Consolidated Balance Sheets once the Company performs a service or transfers control of a product, at which point its right to consideration becomes unconditional and only the passage of time is required before payment of that consideration is due. As the majority of the Company’s performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time and customers typically do not make material payments in advance, nor does Valvoline have a right to consideration in advance of control transfer, the Company has no contract assets or contract liabilities.
Valvoline adopted guidance in fiscal 2021 that changes the recognition of credit losses from an incurred or probable loss methodology to a current expected credit loss model, which results in the immediate recognition of losses that are expected to occur over the life of the financial instruments, principally trade and other receivables. Allowances are maintained to estimate expected lifetime credit losses that are based on a broad range of reasonable and supportable information and factors, including the length of time receivables are past due, the financial health of its customers, macroeconomic conditions, and historical collection experience. If the financial condition of its customers deteriorates or other circumstances occur that result in an impairment of customers’ ability to make payments, the Company records additional allowances as needed. The Company writes off uncollectible receivables against the allowance when collection efforts have been exhausted and/or any legal action taken by the Company has concluded.
Inventories are primarily carried at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the weighted average cost method. In addition, certain lubricants are valued at the lower of cost or market using the last-in, first-out (“LIFO”) method to provide matching of revenues with current costs. Inventory costs include materials, labor and manufacturing overhead related to the purchase and production of inventories. The Company regularly reviews inventory quantities on hand and the estimated utilization of inventory. Excess and obsolete reserves are established when inventory is estimated to not be usable based on forecasts, product demand, life cycle, or utility.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment is recorded at cost and is depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Buildings generally have useful lives of to twenty-five years and machinery and equipment typically have to year useful lives, dependent on the nature and utility of the assets. Building and leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the period from which the date the assets are placed in service to the end of the lease term, as appropriate. Depreciation expense is recognized in Cost of sales or Selling, general and administrative expenses within the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income based on the function the underlying asset supports. Property, plant and equipment is relieved of the cost and related accumulated depreciation when assets are disposed of or otherwise retired. Gains or losses on the dispositions of property, plant and equipment are included in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income and generally reported in Equity and other income, net.
Property, plant and equipment carrying values are evaluated for recoverability at the lowest level of identifiable cash flows when impairment indicators are present. Such indicators could include, among other factors, operating losses, unused capacity, market value declines and technological obsolescence. Recorded values of asset groups of long-lived assets that are not expected to be recovered through undiscounted future net cash flows are written down to fair value, which generally is determined from estimated discounted future net cash flows (assets held for use) or net realizable value (assets held for sale).
Certain of the properties Valvoline utilizes, including its retail service center stores, offices, blending and warehouse facilities, in addition to certain equipment, are leased, with a small portion subleased primarily to Valvoline's franchisees. In fiscal 2020, Valvoline adopted new guidance related to leases using the optional transition approach, with prospective application from adoption on October 1, 2019 and the financial statements prior to
adoption reported in accordance with the previous guidance. Valvoline's policies under the new guidance are outlined below.
Valvoline determines if an arrangement contains a lease at inception primarily based on whether or not the Company has the right to control the asset during the contract period. For all agreements where it is determined that a lease exists, the related lease assets and liabilities are recognized within the Consolidated Balance Sheets as either operating or finance leases at the commencement date.
The lease liability is measured based on the present value of future payments over the lease term, and the right-of-use asset is measured as the lease liability, adjusted for prepaid lease payments, lease incentives, and initial direct costs (e.g., commissions). Valvoline's leases generally have terms ranging from less than one year to more than 20 years, and leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are included in the measurement of its right-of-use asset and lease liability balances. The lease term includes options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised.
Fixed rental payments, including variable payments based on a rate or index, are included in the determination of the lease liability. Many leases also require the payment of taxes, insurance, operating expenses, and maintenance. In instances where these other components are fixed, they are included in the measurement of the lease liability due to Valvoline's election to combine lease and non-lease components and account for them as a single component. Otherwise, these components are recognized along with other variable lease payments in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred.
As most leases do not provide the rate implicit in the lease, the Company estimates its incremental borrowing rate to best approximate the rate of interest that Valvoline would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Valvoline applies the incremental borrowing rate to groups of leases with similar lease terms in determining the present value of future payments. In determining the incremental borrowing rate, the Company considers information available at the commencement date, including lease term, interest rate yields for specific interest rate environments and the Company's credit spread.
The Company allocates the purchase consideration to the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations based on their acquisition-date fair values. The excess of the purchase consideration over the amounts assigned to the identifiable assets and liabilities is recognized as goodwill, or if the fair value of the net assets acquired exceeds the purchase consideration, a bargain purchase gain is recorded. Factors giving rise to goodwill generally include operational synergies that are anticipated as a result of the business combination and growth expected to result in economic benefits from access to new customers and markets. The fair values of identifiable intangible assets acquired in business combinations are generally determined using an income approach, requiring financial forecasts and estimates as well as market participant assumptions.
The incremental financial results of the businesses that Valvoline has acquired are included in the Company’s consolidated financial results from the respective dates of each acquisition.
Goodwill and other intangible assets
Valvoline evaluates goodwill for impairment annually as of July 1 or when events and circumstances indicate an impairment may have occurred. This assessment consists of evaluating each reporting unit’s fair value compared to its carrying value. Valvoline's historical reporting units were evaluated as a result of the realignment of its global operations during the third quarter of fiscal 2021. As a result, Valvoline determined its reporting units were Retail Services and Global Products, consistent with its realigned operating and reportable segments. In connection with the identification of its current operating and reportable segments and reporting units, goodwill balances and activity presented herein were reclassified to conform to the current presentation and were subject to assessment for goodwill impairment at the reporting unit level.
In evaluating goodwill for impairment, Valvoline has the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary or to perform a quantitative assessment by comparing the fair value
of a reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. Under the qualitative assessment, the Company is not required to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless the entity determines that it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount. Qualitative factors considered include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, cost factors, and overall financial performance, among others.
Under the quantitative assessment, if the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the amount of the impairment loss, if any, is measured as the excess of the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill over its fair value, not to exceed the total goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. Fair values of the reporting units are estimated using a weighted methodology considering the output from both the income and market approaches. The income approach incorporates the use of a discounted cash flow (“DCF”) analysis, and a number of significant assumptions and estimates are involved in the application of the DCF model to forecast operating cash flows, including markets and market shares, sales volumes and prices, costs to produce, tax rates, capital spending, discount rate, weighted average cost of capital, terminal values, and working capital changes. Several of these assumptions vary among reporting units, and the cash flow forecasts are generally based on approved strategic operating plans. The market approach is performed using the Guideline Public Companies method based on earnings multiple data. The Company also performs a reconciliation between market capitalization and the estimated aggregate fair value of the reporting units, including consideration of a control premium.
Valvoline performed a quantitative assessment during fiscal 2021 and determined that the fair values of the Company's reporting units were substantially in excess of carrying values and no impairment existed.
Acquired finite-lived intangible assets principally consist of certain trademarks and trade names, reacquired franchise rights, and customer relationships. Intangible assets acquired in an asset acquisition are carried at cost, less accumulated amortization. For intangible assets acquired in a business combination, the estimated fair values of the assets acquired are used to establish the carrying values, which are determined using assumptions from the perspective of a market participant and generally an income approach. These intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Valvoline evaluates finite-lived intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, and any assets not expected to be recovered through undiscounted future net cash flows are written down to current fair value.
Equity method investments
Investments in companies, including joint ventures, where Valvoline has the ability to exert significant influence over, but not control, operating and financial policies of the investee are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Judgment regarding the level of influence over each investment includes considering key factors such as the Company’s ownership interest, representation on the board of directors, and participation in policy-making decisions. The Company’s proportionate share of the net income or loss of these companies is included within Equity and other income, net in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
The Company evaluates equity method investments for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the investment may not be recoverable. Factors considered by the Company when reviewing an equity method investment for other-than-temporary impairment include the length of time and extent to which the fair value of the equity method investment has been less than its carrying amount, the investee’s financial condition and near-term prospects, and the intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for anticipated recovery. An impairment that is other-than-temporary is recognized in the period identified.
Pension and other postretirement benefit plans
Valvoline sponsors defined benefit pension and other postretirement plans in the U.S and in certain other countries. The Company's U.S. pension plans are closed to new participants and the accrual of pension benefits has been frozen since September 30, 2016. In addition, most international pension plans are closed to new participants while those that remain open relate to areas where local laws require such plans. Valvoline also sponsors retiree healthcare and life insurance plans for certain qualifying participants with amendments effective in fiscal 2017 to limit annual per capita costs.
Valvoline recognizes the funded status of each applicable plan within the Consolidated Balance Sheets whereby each unfunded plan is recognized as a liability and each funded plan is recognized as either an asset or liability based on its funded status. The funded status is measured as the difference between the fair value of plan assets and the benefit obligation. Changes in the fair value of plan assets and net actuarial gains or losses are recognized upon remeasurement as of September 30, the annual measurement date, and whenever a remeasurement is triggered. The remaining components of pension and other postretirement benefits income or expense are recorded ratably throughout the year.
The fair value of plan assets represents the current market value of assets held by irrevocable trust funds for the sole benefit of participants, and the benefit obligation is the actuarial present value of the benefits expected to be paid upon retirement, death, or other distributable event based on estimates. These valuations reflect the terms of the plans and use participant-specific information such as compensation, age and years of service, as well as certain key assumptions that require significant judgment, including, but not limited to, estimates of discount rates, rate of compensation increases, interest rates and mortality rates. Actuarial gains and losses may be related to actual results that differ from assumptions as well as changes in assumptions, which may occur each year.
Due to the freeze of U.S. pension benefits effective September 30, 2016, continuing service costs are limited to certain international pension plans, and are reported in the same caption of the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income as the related employee costs. All components of net periodic benefit income or costs other than service cost are recognized below operating income within Net pension and other postretirement plan (income) expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
Commitments and contingencies
Liabilities for loss contingencies arising from claims, assessments, litigation, fines, penalties and other sources are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Legal costs such as outside counsel fees and expenses are charged to expense in the period incurred and are recorded in Selling, general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
Revenue is recognized for the amount that reflects the consideration the Company is expected to be entitled to receive based on when control of the promised good or service is transferred to the customer. Revenue recognition is evaluated through the following five steps: (i) identification of the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identification of the performance obligation(s) in the contract(s); (iii) determination of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligation(s) in the contract(s); and (v) recognition of revenue when or as a performance obligation is satisfied.
Nature of goods and services
Valvoline generates all revenues from contracts with customers, primarily as a result of the sale and service delivery of engine and automotive maintenance products to its customers. Valvoline derives its sales from its broad line of products and complementary services through the following three principal activities managed across its two reportable segments: (i) engine and automotive maintenance products, (ii) company-operated service center operations, and (iii) franchised service center operations. Valvoline’s sales are generally to mass market and auto parts retail, installer, industrial, distributor, franchise, and end consumers to facilitate vehicle and equipment preventive maintenance.
Valvoline's sales are predominantly comprised of products and services sold at a point in time with approximately 98% recognized either through ship-and-bill performance obligations or company-operated service center operations. The remainder of the Company's sales generally relate to franchise fees, including royalties, transferred over time. The following table summarizes Valvoline's sales by timing of revenue recognized for the fiscal years ended September 30:
|Sales at a point in time||$||2,931 ||$||2,313 ||$||2,347 |
|Franchised revenues transferred over time||50 ||40 ||43 |
|Total consolidated sales||$||2,981 ||$||2,353 ||$||2,390 |
Below is a summary of the key considerations for Valvoline's material revenue-generating activities:
Engine and automotive maintenance products
Engine and automotive maintenance products primarily include lubricants, antifreeze, chemicals, filters, and other complementary products for use across a wide array of vehicles and engines. The Company’s customers typically enter into a sales agreement which outlines a framework of terms and conditions that apply to all current and future purchase orders for the customer submitted under such sales agreement. In these situations, the Company’s contract with the customer is the sales agreement combined with the customer purchase order as specific products and quantities are not indicated until a purchase order is submitted. As the Company’s contract with the customer is typically for a single purchase order under the supply agreement to be delivered at a point in time, the duration of the contract is almost always one year or less.
The Company’s products are distinct and separately identifiable on customer purchase orders, with each product sale representing a separate performance obligation that is generally delivered simultaneously. The Company has elected to not disclose information about remaining performance obligations as substantially all of the Company's product sales contracts have a duration of one year or less. Valvoline is the principal to these contracts as the Company has control of the products prior to transfer to the customer. Accordingly, revenue is recognized on a gross basis.
The Company determines the point in time at which control is transferred and the performance obligation is satisfied by considering when the customer has the ability to direct the use of and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits of the product, which generally coincides with the transfer of title and risk of loss to the customer and is typically determined based on delivery terms within the underlying contract.
Customer payment terms vary by region and customer and are generally 30 to 60 days after delivery. Valvoline does not provide extended payment terms greater than one year and therefore, does not adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component.
Company-operated service center operations
Performance obligations related to company-operated service center operations primarily include the sale of engine and automotive maintenance products and related services. These performance obligations are distinct and are delivered simultaneously at a point in time. Accordingly, sales from company-operated service center operations is recognized when payment is tendered at the point of sale, which coincides with the completion of product and service delivery and the transfer of control and benefits from the performance obligations to the customer.
Franchised service center operations
The primary performance obligations related to franchised service center operations include product sales as described above and the license of intellectual property, which provides access to the Valvoline brand and proprietary information to operate service center stores over the term of a franchise agreement. Other franchise performance obligations do not result in material revenue. Each performance obligation is distinct, and franchisees generally receive and consume the benefits provided by the Company’s performance over the course of the franchise agreement, which typically ranges from 10 to 15 years. Billings and payments occur monthly. Variable consideration is not disclosed as remaining performance obligations qualify for the sales-based royalty and usage-based exemptions.
In exchange for the license of Valvoline intellectual property, franchisees generally remit initial fees upon opening a service center store and royalties at a contractual rate of the applicable service center store sales over the term of the franchise agreement. The license provides access to the intellectual property over the term of the franchise agreement and is considered a right-to-access license of symbolic intellectual property as substantially all of its
utility is derived from association with the Company’s past and ongoing activities. The license granted to operate each franchised service center store is the predominant item to which the royalties relate and represents a distinct performance obligation which is recognized over time as the underlying sales occur, as this is the most appropriate measure of progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation.
The Company only offers an assurance-type warranty with regard to the intended functionality of products sold, which does not represent a distinct performance obligation within the context of the contract. Product returns and refunds are generally not material and are not accepted unless the item is defective as manufactured. Estimated product returns are recorded as a reduction in reported revenues at the time of sale based upon historical product return experience and is adjusted for known trends to arrive at the amount of consideration to which Valvoline expects to receive.
The nature of Valvoline’s contracts with customers often give rise to variable consideration consisting primarily of promotional rebates and customer pricing discounts based on achieving certain levels of sales activity that generally decrease the transaction price. The Company determines the transaction price as the amount of consideration it expects to be entitled to in exchange for fulfilling the performance obligations, including the effects of any variable consideration, or amounts payable to the customer when there is a basis to reasonably estimate the amount and it is probable there will not be a significant reversal. Variable consideration is recorded as a reduction of the transaction price at the time of sale and is primarily estimated utilizing the most likely amount method that is expected to be earned as the Company is able to estimate the anticipated discounts within a sufficiently narrow range of possible outcomes based on its extensive historical experience with certain customers, similar programs and management’s judgment with respect to estimating customer participation and performance levels. Variable consideration is reassessed at each reporting date and adjustments are made, when necessary.
The reduction of transaction price due to customer incentives was $402 million, $332 million, and $346 million in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the years ended September 30, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. Reserves for these customer programs and incentives were $71 million and $64 million as of September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and are recorded within Accrued expenses and other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Allocation of transaction price
In each contract with multiple performance obligations, Valvoline allocates the transaction price, including variable consideration, to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis, which is generally determined based on the directly observable data of the Company’s standalone sales of the performance obligations in similar circumstances to similar customers. The amount allocated to each performance obligation is recognized as sales commensurate with the transfer of control to the customer.
Shipping and handling activities that occur after the customer has obtained control are treated as fulfillment activities (i.e., an expense) rather than as a performance obligation. Accordingly, amounts billed for shipping and handling are a component of the transaction price included in net sales, while costs incurred are included in cost of sales. Shipping and handling costs recorded in sales were $10 million in fiscal 2021, $9 million in fiscal 2020, and $10 million in fiscal 2019. Furthermore, the Company excludes taxes collected from customers from sales, which are reflected in accrued expenses until remitted to the appropriate governmental authority.
Incremental direct costs of obtaining a contract, primarily sales commissions, are expensed when incurred due to the short-term nature of individual contracts, which would result in amortization periods of one year or less. These costs are not material and are recorded within Selling, general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
Cost of sales are expensed as incurred and include costs associated with operation of the Company's plants, distribution network and retail service center stores, including depreciation, occupancy, labor and benefits, material and production, inbound and outbound freight, purchasing and receiving, inspection, warehousing, and all other distribution network costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses are recognized as incurred and include
sales and marketing costs, research and development costs, advertising, customer support, and other administrative costs. Advertising costs were $90 million in fiscal 2021, $72 million in fiscal 2020 and $73 million in fiscal 2019, and research and development costs were $15 million in fiscal 2021 and $13 million in both fiscal 2020 and 2019.
The Company recognizes expense related to stock-based compensation, net of actual forfeitures, over the requisite vesting period based on the grant date fair value of new or modified awards. The Company’s outstanding stock-based compensation awards are primarily classified as equity, with a small portion of liability-classified awards based on award terms and conditions.
Income tax expense is provided based on income before income taxes. The Company estimates its tax expense based on current tax laws in the statutory jurisdictions in which it operates. These estimates include judgments about the recognition and realization of deferred tax assets and liabilities resulting from the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to be recovered or settled. As changes in tax laws or rates occur, deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted in the period changes are enacted through income tax expense. Valvoline records valuation allowances related to its deferred income tax assets when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized.
Valvoline records estimated incremental withholding taxes on undistributed earnings to account for certain of its non-U.S. subsidiaries as being immediately subject to tax, while certain other outside basis differences restricted by regulations, operational or investing needs for non-U.S. subsidiaries are indefinitely reinvested. If these outside basis differences were no longer to be indefinitely reinvested in the future, the Company may be subject to additional income and withholding taxes, which are not practicable to estimate.
The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being sustained upon examination by authorities. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are recognized as part of the provision for income taxes and are accrued beginning in the period that such interest and penalties would be applicable under relevant tax law and until such time that the related tax benefits are recognized. Interest and penalties were not material to any of the periods presented herein.
Valvoline’s derivative instruments consist of currency exchange and interest rate swap agreements, each of which is described further below.
The Company's currency exchange contracts are used to manage non-functional currency denominated balance sheet exposures and exchange on currency for another at a fixed rate on a future date of generally a month or less. These contracts are not designated as hedging instruments and are accounted for as either assets or liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value with the resulting gains or losses recognized as adjustments to earnings within Selling, general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income. Gains and losses are recognized as exchange rates change the fair value of these instruments and upon settlement to offset the remeasurement gain or loss on the related currency-denominated exposures in the same period. The Company classifies its cash flows related to currency exchange contracts as investing activities in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Interest rate swap agreements
The Company's interest rate swap agreements effectively modify its exposure to interest rate risk by converting floating rate debt to a fixed rate for the term of the swap agreements, reducing the impact of interest rate changes on future interest expense. These agreements involve the receipt of floating rate amounts in exchange for fixed rate interest payments over the life of the agreement without an exchange of the underlying principal amount.
Valvoline's interest rate swap agreements are designated as cash flow hedges with effectiveness of the hedges assessed at inception and quarterly thereafter. To the extent the hedging relationship is highly effective, the unrealized gains or losses on the swaps are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive income and reclassified into earnings within Net interest and other financing expenses when the payments occur. The Company classifies its cash flows related to interest rate swap agreements as operating activities in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
The fair values of the interest rate swaps are reflected as an asset or liability in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and the change in fair value is reported in Accumulated other comprehensive income. The fair values of the interest rate swaps are estimated as the net present value of projected cash flows based upon forward interest rates at the balance sheet date. The Company does not offset fair value amounts recognized in its Consolidated Balance Sheets for presentation purposes.
Fair value measurements
Fair value is defined as an exit price, representing an amount that would be received to sell an asset or the amount paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, the accounting guidance prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into the following three-tier fair value hierarchy for which an instrument’s classification within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the instrument’s fair value measurement:
•Level 1 - Observable inputs such as unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
•Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. These include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets and quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active.
•Level 3 - Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability for which there is little, if any, market activity at the measurement date. Unobservable inputs reflect the Valvoline's assumptions about what market participants would use to price the asset or liability. The inputs are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances, which may include the Company's own financial data, such as internally developed pricing models, DCF methodologies, as well as instruments for which the fair value determination requires significant management judgment.
Certain investments which measure fair value using the net asset value (“NAV”) per share practical expedient are not classified within the fair value hierarchy and are separately disclosed.
Valvoline measures its financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value based on one or more of the following three valuation techniques:
•Market approach: Prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities
•Cost approach: Amount that would be required to replace the service capacity of an asset (replacement cost)
•Income approach: Techniques to convert future amounts to a single present amount based upon market expectations (including present value techniques, option pricing and excess earnings models)
The Company generally uses a market approach, when practicable, in valuing financial instruments. In certain instances, when observable market data is lacking, the Company uses valuation techniques consistent with the income approach whereby future cash flows are converted to a single discounted amount. The Company uses multiple sources of pricing as well as trading and other market data in its process of reporting fair values.
The fair values of accounts receivables and accounts payable approximate their carrying values due to the relatively short-term nature of the instruments. Valvoline's notes receivable primarily consist of variable-rate interest term loans extended to franchisees to provide financial assistance as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These notes bear interest comparable with the market rates within Valvoline's variable rate borrowings, and accordingly, their carrying amounts approximate fair value.
The methods described above may produce a fair value that may not be indicative of net realizable value or reflective of future fair values. Furthermore, while the Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different fair value measurement.
Operations outside the United States are measured primarily using the local currency as the functional currency. Upon consolidation, the results of operations of the subsidiaries and affiliates whose functional currency is other than the U.S. dollar are translated into U.S. dollars at the average exchange rates for the year while assets and liabilities are translated at year-end exchange rates. Adjustments to translate assets and liabilities into U.S. dollars are recorded in the stockholders’ equity section of the Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of Accumulated other comprehensive income and are included in net earnings only upon sale or substantial liquidation of the underlying non-U.S. subsidiary or affiliated company.
Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reported period. Diluted EPS is calculated similar to basic EPS, except that the weighted-average number of shares outstanding includes the number of shares that would have been outstanding had potentially dilutive common shares been issued. Potentially dilutive securities include stock appreciation rights and nonvested stock-based awards. Nonvested market and performance-based share awards are included in the weighted-average diluted shares outstanding each period if established market or performance criteria have been met at the end of the respective periods.
Shares that are repurchased are retired and returned to the status of authorized, unissued shares. The excess of the repurchase price over the par value of shares acquired is recognized in Retained earnings.
Recent accounting pronouncements
The following standards relevant to Valvoline were either issued or adopted in the current year, or are expected to have a meaningful impact on Valvoline in future periods.
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued updated guidance that changes the recognition of credit losses from an incurred or probable loss methodology to a current expected credit loss model that results in the immediate recognition of credit losses that are expected to occur over the life of the financial instruments that are within the scope of the guidance, principally trade and other receivables for Valvoline. The new credit loss guidance was adopted on October 1, 2020 using the required modified retrospective approach. Under this approach, the new accounting guidance is applied prospectively from the date of adoption through a cumulative effect adjustment in retained deficit, while prior period financial statements continue to be reported in accordance with the previous guidance. Adoption did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements and resulted in a $2 million, net of tax, cumulative effect of accounting change that increased retained
deficit and allowances for credit losses. Refer to Note 16 for additional information regarding the Company's trade and other receivables and its allowances for credit losses.
Issued but not yet adopted
In March 2020, the FASB issued guidance regarding the effects of reference rate reform on financial reporting. This guidance provides temporary optional expedients and exceptions to accounting guidance for certain contract modifications and hedging arrangements to ease financial reporting burdens as the market transitions from the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") and other interbank reference rates to alternative reference rates.
The Company has interest rate swap hedging arrangements and long-term debt as described in Notes 3 and 8 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, respectively, for which existing payments are LIBOR-based. This guidance is available to be adopted on a prospective basis through the end of calendar 2022 to simplify the accounting for arrangements modified for the transition to alternative reference rates. The Company expects to adopt this guidance to the extent its arrangements are modified for the underlying reference rate prior to the end of calendar 2022 and does not expect adoption will have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
The FASB issued other accounting guidance during the period that is not currently applicable or not expected to have a material impact on Valvoline’s financial statements, and therefore, is not described above.