|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the accounts of the Company, its wholly-owned subsidiaries and less than wholly-owned subsidiaries, including a variable interest entity (“VIE”) in which the Company is the primary beneficiary. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Risks and Uncertainties
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic related to the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”). Through the end of June 2020, the Company's business was significantly disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In Asia, the Company's operations were impacted earlier in the year and were at varying stages of recovery at the end of June, with Korea nearly fully recovered while Japan and other markets continued to progress. In the United States and Europe, as a result of government-ordered shutdowns, most on-course retail pro shops and off-course retail partner locations were closed for some portion of March, most of April and part of May 2020. Also, as a result of these orders, the Company was forced to temporarily close or substantially limit its operations in its manufacturing facilities and distribution centers in the United States and Europe from the end of March until mid-May 2020. During this period, the Company was largely unable to manufacture or ship products in these regions and took steps to strengthen its financial position and balance sheet, bolster its liquidity position and provide additional financial flexibility, including by reducing discretionary spending, reducing capital expenditures, suspending its share repurchase program, and amending its credit agreement (see Note 10). The Company's manufacturing facilities and distribution centers were re-opened in mid-May 2020 with protocols designed to promote the health and safety of its associates in accordance with state and local government re-opening guidance. The protocols included reconfiguring the Company's manufacturing and distribution facilities to allow for social distancing, implementing stringent safety measures in all facilities, implementing work-from-home policies wherever possible and suspending non-critical business travel. By the end of June 2020, substantially all of the golf courses, on-course retail pro shops and off-course retail partner locations in the United States and Europe had re-opened and rounds of play have been strong since golf courses have reopened. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve and remains highly uncertain including the duration and severity of the pandemic, additional government related shutdowns and a significant decrease in the current level of rounds of play and the related demand for golf-related products.
The Company has evaluated and continues to evaluate the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on its consolidated financial statements, including: impairment of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets; impairment of long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment; the fair value and collectability of receivables and other financial assets; the valuation of inventory; the effectiveness of foreign exchange forward contracts designated as cash flow hedges and the
credit quality of the financial institutions with which the Company enters into derivative contracts; continuing compliance with debt covenants related to the Company's credit facility; and the probability of achievement of the performance metrics related to the Company's performance stock units (“PSUs”). The primary impacts to the Company’s consolidated financial statements as of the year ended December 31, 2020 include the hedge de-designation of certain foreign exchange forward contracts deemed ineffective (Note 11) and an impairment loss related to goodwill recorded in connection with the KJUS acquisition (Note 8).
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, and both the full impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic remain highly uncertain. Accordingly, the Company's business, results of operations, financial position and cash flows could continue to be materially impacted in ways that the Company cannot currently predict.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company has also made estimates related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic within its consolidated financial statements and there may be changes to those estimates in future periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Variable Interest Entities
VIEs are entities that, by design, either (i) lack sufficient equity to permit the entity to finance its activities independently, or (ii) have equity holders that do not have the power to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact its economic performance, the obligation to absorb the entity’s expected losses, or the right to receive the entity’s expected residual returns. The Company consolidates a VIE when it is the primary beneficiary, which is the party that has both (i) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (ii) through its interests in the VIE, the obligation to absorb expected losses or the right to receive expected benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
The Company consolidates the accounts of Acushnet Lionscore Limited, a VIE which is 40% owned by the Company. The sole purpose of the VIE is to manufacture the Company’s golf footwear and as such, the Company is deemed to be the primary beneficiary. The Company has presented separately on its consolidated balance sheets, to the extent material, the assets of its consolidated VIE that can only be used to settle specific obligations of its consolidated VIE and the liabilities of its consolidated VIE for which creditors do not have recourse to its general credit. The general creditors of the VIE do not have recourse to the Company. Certain directors of the VIE have guaranteed the credit lines of the VIE, for which there were no outstanding borrowings as of December 31, 2020 and 2019. In addition, pursuant to the terms of the agreement governing the VIE, the Company is not required to provide financial support to the VIE.
Noncontrolling Interests and Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
The ownership interests held by owners other than the Company in less than wholly-owned subsidiaries are classified as noncontrolling interests. Redeemable noncontrolling interests are those noncontrolling interests which are or may become redeemable at a fixed or determinable price on a fixed or determinable date, at the option of the holder, or upon occurrence of an event. The financial results and position of the noncontrolling interests are included in their entirety in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The value attributable to the noncontrolling interests is presented on the consolidated balance sheets, separately from the equity attributable to the Company. The value attributable to the redeemable noncontrolling interest and the related loan to the minority shareholders, which is recorded as a reduction to redeemable noncontrolling interest, is presented in the consolidated balance sheets as temporary equity between liabilities and shareholders’ equity. The amount of the loan to minority shareholders included in temporary equity on the consolidated balance sheets was $4.4 million as of both December 31, 2020 and 2019. Net income (loss) and comprehensive income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests are presented separately on the consolidated statements of operations and consolidated statements of comprehensive income, respectively.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
Cash held in Company checking accounts is included in cash. Cash equivalents consist of short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less which are readily convertible into cash. The Company classifies as restricted certain cash that is not available for use in its operations. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the amount of restricted cash included in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash on the consolidated balance sheets was $2.0 million. Book overdrafts not subject to offset with other accounts with the same financial institution are classified as accounts payable. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, book overdrafts in the amount of $4.4 million and $2.4 million, respectively, were recorded in accounts payable.
Concentration of Credit Risk and of Significant Customers
Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentration of credit risk are cash and accounts receivable. Substantially all of the Company's cash deposits are maintained at large, creditworthy financial institutions. The Company's deposits, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company does not believe that it is subject to unusual credit risk beyond the normal credit risk associated with commercial banking relationships. As part of its ongoing procedures, the Company monitors its concentration of deposits with various financial institutions in order to avoid any undue exposure. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had $83.8 million and $30.0 million, respectively, in banks located outside the United States. The risk with respect to the Company's accounts receivable is managed by the Company through its policy of monitoring the creditworthiness of its customers to which it grants credit terms in the normal course of business.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Approximate cost is determined on the first-in, first-out basis. The inventory balance, which includes material, labor and manufacturing overhead costs, is recorded net of an allowance for obsolete or slow moving inventory. The Company's allowance for obsolete or slow moving inventory contains estimates regarding uncertainties. Such estimates are updated each reporting period and require the Company to make assumptions and to apply judgment regarding a number of factors, including market conditions, selling environment, historical results and current inventory trends. See Note 6 for additional information.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is recorded on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Gains or losses resulting from disposals are included in income from operations. Betterments and renewals, which improve and extend the life of an asset, are capitalized. Maintenance and repair costs are expensed as incurred.
Estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment asset categories were as follows:
|Buildings and improvements||15||-||40 years|
|Machinery and equipment||3||-||10 years|
|Furniture, fixtures and computer hardware||3||-||10 years|
|Computer software||1||-||10 years|
Leasehold and tenant improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful lives of the assets.
Certain costs incurred in connection with the development of the Company's internal-use software are capitalized. Internal-use software development costs are primarily related to the Company's enterprise resource planning system. Costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development are expensed as incurred. Internal and external costs incurred in the application development phase, if direct and incremental, are capitalized until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing performed to ensure the product is ready for its intended use. Costs such as maintenance and training are expensed as incurred. The capitalized internal-use software costs are included in property, plant and equipment and once the software is placed into service are amortized over the estimated useful life which ranges from to ten years. See Note 7 for additional information.
Long-lived assets are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are recorded on a straight-line basis, generally over the estimated useful lives of the assets. A long-lived asset (including amortizing intangible assets) or asset group is tested for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate
that its carrying amount may not be recoverable. When such events occur, the Company compares the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset or asset group to the carrying amount of the asset or asset group. The cash flows are based on the best estimate of future cash flows derived from the most recent business projections. If the carrying value exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows, an impairment loss is recognized based on the excess of the asset's or asset group's carrying value over its fair value. Fair value is determined based on discounted expected future cash flows on a market participant basis.
The Company continually evaluates whether events and circumstances have occurred that indicate the remaining estimated useful life of long-lived assets may warrant revision or that the remaining balance may not be recoverable. These factors may include a significant deterioration of operating results, changes in business plans, or changes in anticipated cash flows.
Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized but instead are measured for impairment at least annually, or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may be impaired. The Company performs its annual impairment tests in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year.
Goodwill is assigned to reporting units for purposes of impairment testing. A reporting unit may be the same as an operating segment or one level below an operating segment. For purposes of assessing potential impairment, the Company compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value of the net assets assigned to that unit, goodwill is considered not impaired. If the carrying value of the net assets assigned to the reporting unit exceeds the fair value of the reporting unit, then the Company records goodwill impairment in the amount of the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying value over its fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. The fair value of the reporting units is determined using the income approach. The income approach uses a discounted cash flow analysis which involves applying appropriate discount rates to estimated future cash flows based on forecasts of sales, costs and capital requirements.
Purchased intangible assets other than goodwill are amortized over their useful lives unless those lives are determined to be indefinite. Certain of the Company's trademarks have been assigned an indefinite life as the Company currently anticipates that these trademarks will contribute to its cash flows indefinitely. Indefinite-lived trademarks are reviewed for impairment annually and may be reviewed more frequently if indicators of impairment are present. Impairment losses are recorded to the extent that the carrying value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its fair value. The Company measures the fair value of its trademarks using the relief-from-royalty method, which estimates the present value of royalty income that could be hypothetically earned by licensing the brand name to a third party over the remaining useful life. See Note 8 for additional information.
Debt Issuance Costs
The Company defers costs directly associated with acquiring third-party financing. These debt issuance costs are amortized as interest expense over the term of the related indebtedness. Debt issuance costs associated with the revolving credit facilities are included in other current and noncurrent assets and debt issuance costs associated with all other indebtedness are netted against long-term debt on the consolidated balance sheet. See Note 10 for additional information.
Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under U.S. GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value are to be classified and disclosed in one of the following three levels of the fair value hierarchy, of which the first two are considered observable and the last is considered unobservable:
•Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
•Level 2—Observable inputs (other than Level 1 quoted prices), such as quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets or liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data.
•Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to determining the fair value of the assets or liabilities, including pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies and similar techniques.
The Company’s derivative instrument assets and liabilities are carried at fair value determined according to the fair value hierarchy described above (Note 11 and 12). The carrying value of accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these assets and liabilities.
See Note 12 for additional information regarding the Company's fair value measurements.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans
The Company provides U.S. and foreign defined benefit and defined contribution plans to certain eligible employees and postretirement benefits to certain retirees, including pensions, postretirement healthcare benefits and other postretirement benefits.
Plan assets and obligations are measured using various actuarial assumptions, such as discount rates, rate of compensation increase, mortality rates, turnover rates and health care cost trend rates, as determined at each year end measurement date. The measurement of net periodic benefit cost is based on various actuarial assumptions, including discount rates, expected return on plan assets and rate of compensation increase, which are determined as of the prior year measurement date. The determination of the discount rate is generally based on an index created from a hypothetical bond portfolio consisting of high-quality fixed income securities with durations that match the timing of expected benefit payments. The expected return on plan assets is determined based on several factors, including adjusted historical returns, historical risk premiums for various asset classes and target asset allocations within the portfolio. Adjustments made to the historical returns are based on recent return experience in the equity and fixed income markets and the belief that deviations from historical returns are likely over the relevant investment horizon. Actual cost is also dependent on various other factors related to the employees covered by these plans. The effects of actuarial deviations from assumptions are generally accumulated and, if over a specified corridor, amortized over the remaining service period of the employees. The cost or benefit of plan changes, such as increasing or decreasing benefits for prior employee service (prior service cost), is deferred and included in expense on a straight-line basis over the average remaining service period of the related employees. The Company's actuarial assumptions are reviewed on an annual basis and modified when appropriate.
To calculate the U.S. pension and postretirement benefit plan expense in 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company applied the individual spot rates along the yield curve that correspond with the timing of each future cash outflow for the benefit payments in order to calculate interest cost and service cost. See Note 13 for additional information.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between consolidated financial statement carrying amounts and tax basis amounts at enacted tax rates expected to be in effect when the temporary differences reverse. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce deferred income tax assets when it is more-likely-than-not that such assets will not be realized. Potential for recovery of deferred tax assets is evaluated by estimating the future taxable profits expected and considering prudent and feasible tax planning strategies.
The Company records liabilities for uncertain income tax positions based on the two step process. The first step is recognition, where an individual tax position is evaluated as to whether it has a likelihood of greater than 50% of being sustained upon examination based on the technical merits of the position, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes. For tax positions that are currently estimated to have a less than 50% likelihood of being sustained, no tax benefit is recorded. For tax positions that have met the recognition threshold in the first step, the Company performs the second step of measuring the benefit to be recorded. The amount of the benefit that may be recognized is the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized on ultimate settlement. The actual benefits ultimately realized may differ from the estimates. In future periods, changes in facts, circumstances, and new information may require the Company to change the recognition and measurement estimates with regard to individual tax positions. Changes in recognition and measurement estimates are recorded in income tax expense and liability in the period in which such changes occur. The Company recognizes accrued interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the provision for income taxes on the consolidated statements of operations.
Beam has indemnified certain tax obligations that relate to periods during which Fortune Brands, Inc. owned Acushnet Company (Note 22). These estimated tax obligations are recorded in accrued taxes and other noncurrent liabilities, and the related indemnification receivable is recorded in other assets on the consolidated balance sheet. Any changes in the value of these specifically identified tax obligations are recorded in the period identified in income tax expense and the related change in the indemnification asset is recorded in other expense, net on the consolidated statements of operations. See Note 14 for additional information.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted the 2017 Tax Act. The 2017 Tax Act contains a new law that subjects the Company to a tax on Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”), beginning in 2018. GILTI is a tax on foreign income in excess of a deemed return on tangible assets of related foreign corporations. Companies subject to GILTI have the option to account for the GILTI tax as a period cost if and when incurred, or to recognize deferred taxes for temporary differences, including outside basis differences, expected to reverse as GILTI. The Company has elected to account for GILTI as a period cost.
Cost of Goods Sold
Cost of goods sold includes all costs to make products salable, such as inbound freight, purchasing and receiving costs, inspection costs and transfer costs. In addition, all depreciation expense associated with assets used to manufacture products and make them salable is included in cost of goods sold.
The Company has defined warranties generally ranging from to two years. Products covered by the defined warranty policies primarily include all Titleist golf products, FootJoy golf shoes, and FootJoy golf outerwear. These product warranties generally obligate the Company to pay for the cost of replacement products, including the cost of shipping replacement products to its customers. The estimated cost of satisfying future warranty claims is accrued at the time the sale is recorded. In estimating future warranty obligations, the Company considers various factors, including its warranty policies and practices, the historical frequency of claims, and the cost to replace or repair products under warranty. See Note 9 for additional information.
Advertising and Promotion
Advertising and promotional costs are included in selling, general and administrative expense on the consolidated statement of operations and include product endorsement arrangements with members of the various professional golf tours, media placement and production costs (television, print and internet), tour support expenses and point-of-sale materials. Advertising production costs are expensed as incurred. Media placement costs are expensed in the month the advertising first appears. Product endorsement arrangements are expensed based upon the specific provisions of player contracts. Advertising and promotional expense was $162.1 million, $193.5 million and $192.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Selling expenses including field sales, sales administration and shipping and handling costs are included in selling, general and administrative expense on the consolidated statements of operations. Shipping and handling costs included in selling expenses were $35.3 million, $36.7 million and $34.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses include product development, product improvement, product engineering, and process improvement costs and are expensed as incurred.
Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions
Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated into U.S. dollars at the actual rates of exchange at the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated at the average rates of exchange for the reporting period. The related translation adjustments are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax. Transactions denominated in a currency other than functional currency are re-measured into functional currency with resulting transaction gains or losses recorded as selling, general and administrative expense on the consolidated statements of operations. Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) included in selling, general and administrative expense was a gain of $3.9 million, a loss of $0.5 million and a loss of $1.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Derivative Financial Instruments
All derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet and are measured at fair value. If the derivative instrument is designated as a fair value hedge, the changes in the fair value of the derivative instruments and of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognized in earnings in the same period. If the derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge, the effective portions of changes in the fair value of the derivative are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss and are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations when the hedged item affects earnings. Any portion of the change in fair value that is determined to be ineffective is immediately recognized in the consolidated statement of operations. Cash flows from derivative financial instruments and the related hedged transactions are included in cash flows from operating activities. See Note 11 for additional information.
The Company has a share-based compensation plan for members of the Board of Directors, officers, employees, consultants and advisors of the Company. All awards granted under the plan are measured at fair value at the date of the grant. The estimated fair value is determined based on the closing price of the Company's common stock, generally on the award date, multiplied by the number of shares per the stock award. The Company issues share-based awards with service-based vesting conditions and performance-based vesting conditions. Awards with service-based vesting conditions are amortized as expense over the requisite service period of the award, which is generally the vesting period of the respective award. For awards with performance-based vesting conditions, the measurement of the expense is based on the Company’s performance against specified metrics as defined in the applicable award agreements. The Company accounts for forfeitures in compensation expense when they occur. See Note 16 for additional information.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Defined Benefit Plans—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans
On December 31, 2020, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2018-14, "Compensation —Retirement Benefits —Defined Benefit Plans —General (Subtopic 715-20) —Disclosure Framework —Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans" ("ASU 2018-14"). The amendments in this update remove defined benefit plan disclosures that are no longer considered cost-beneficial, clarify the specific requirements of disclosures, and add disclosure requirements identified as relevant. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Intangibles —Goodwill and Other —Internal-Use Software
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU 2018-15, "Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that is a Service Contract" ("ASU 2018-15"). The amendments in this update aligned the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Financial Instruments —Credit Losses
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments" ("ASU 2016-13"), which replaces the incurred loss methodology with an expected loss methodology that is referred to as the current expected credit loss ("CECL") methodology. The CECL methodology requires the measurement of all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The measurement of expected credit losses under the CECL methodology is applicable to financial assets measured at amortized cost, including trade receivables. The only financial assets held by the Company that are subject to evaluation under the CECL model are trade receivables. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 using the modified retrospective method. The adoption of this standard did not have an impact on the carrying value of trade receivables. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2020 are presented under ASU 2016-13 while prior period amounts continue to be reported in accordance with previously applicable U.S. GAAP.
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 842, Leases ("ASC 842"), which requires the recognition of right-of-use assets and related operating and finance lease liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet. The Company adopted ASC 842 using the optional transition approach, which allowed for a cumulative effect adjustment as of January 1, 2019, which is the date of initial application, and did not restate prior periods.
Under ASC 842, all leases are required to be recorded on the consolidated balance sheet and are classified as either operating or finance leases. A lease is classified as a finance lease if any one of the following criteria are met: the lease transfers ownership of the asset by the end of the lease term, the lease contains an option to purchase the asset that is reasonably certain to be exercised, the lease term is for a major part of the remaining useful life of the asset, the present value of the lease payments equals or exceeds substantially all of the fair value of the asset, or the leased asset is of a highly specialized nature. A lease is classified as an operating lease if it does not meet any one of these criteria.
The lease classification affects the expense recognition in the consolidated statement of operations. Operating lease expense consists of the lease payments plus any initial direct costs and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term in the consolidated statement of operations. Finance lease charges are split, where amortization of the right-of-use asset is recorded as depreciation and amortization expense and an implied interest component is recorded in interest expense, net. Variable lease costs are expensed as incurred and include maintenance costs, real estate taxes and property insurance. The expense recognition for operating leases and finance leases under ASC 842 is consistent with previous guidance. As a result, there is no impact on the results of operations presented in the Company's consolidated statements of operations and consolidated statements of comprehensive income for the periods presented as a result of the adoption of ASC 842.
As permitted under ASC 842, the Company also elected to not reassess prior conclusions related to the identification, classification and accounting for initial direct costs for leases that commenced prior to January 1, 2019. As permitted under ASC 842, the Company elected to not use hindsight to determine lease terms. As permitted under ASC 842, the Company has elected to not separate non-lease components within its lease portfolio. As permitted under ASC 842, the Company has also elected not to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for short-term leases that have a term of 12 months or less. The effect of short-term leases on the Company's operating right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities was not material.
Upon adoption of ASC 842, the Company recognized operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities. The right-of-use asset represents the right to use the leased asset for the lease term. The lease liability represents the present value of the lease payments under the lease. The right-of-use asset is initially measured at cost, which primarily comprises the initial amount of the lease liability, plus any initial direct costs incurred less any lease incentives received. Lease payments included in the measurement of the lease liability comprise the following: the fixed non-cancelable lease payments, payments for optional renewal periods where it is reasonably certain the renewal period will be exercised, and payments for early termination options unless it is reasonably certain the lease will not be terminated early. The discount rate implicit within the Company's leases is generally not determinable and therefore the Company determines the discount rate based on its incremental collateralized borrowing rate applicable to the location where the lease is held. The incremental borrowing rate for each of the Company's leases is determined based on the lease term and currency in which such lease payments are made. On January 1, 2019, the Company recorded an adjustment to operating lease right-of-use assets and the related lease liabilities of $49.8 million.
The Company leases office and warehouse space, machinery and equipment, and vehicles, among other items. Certain leases include one or more options to renew, with renewal terms that can extend the lease term up to three years. For contracts entered into on or after the effective date, at the inception of a contract the Company assesses whether the contract is, or contains, a lease. The Company's assessment is based on: (1) whether the contract involves the use of a distinct identified asset, (2) whether the Company obtained the right to substantially all the economic benefit from the use of the asset throughout the period, and (3) whether the Company has the right to direct the use of the asset.
Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017‑12, “Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities” ("ASU 2017-12"). The amendments in this update expand and refine hedge accounting guidance and align the recognition and presentation of the effects of the hedging instrument and the hedged item in the financial statements. ASU 2017-12 also simplified the application of hedge accounting guidance, hedge documentation requirements and the assessment of hedge effectiveness. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2018-13, "Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) —Disclosure Framework —Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement" ("ASU 2018-13"). The amendments in this update are meant to provide more relevant information regarding valuation techniques and inputs used to arrive at measures of fair value, uncertainty in the fair value measurements, and how changes in fair value measurements impact an entity's performance and cash flows. The adoption of this standard did not have an impact on the consolidated financial statements or related disclosures.
Financial Instruments—Recognition and Measurement
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2016-01, "Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities" ("ASU 2016-01"). ASU 2016-01 superseded the guidance to classify equity securities with readily determinable fair values into different categories (that is, trading or available-for-sale) and required equity securities to be measured at fair value with changes in the fair value recognized through net income, among other items (Note 17). As a result of the adoption of the amendments in this update, the Company recorded a reclassification of unrealized gains of $2.1 million from accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax to retained earnings.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC Topic 606, Revenue ("ASC 606") using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. The Company recorded a net reduction to opening retained earnings of $1.6 million as of January 1, 2018 due to the cumulative impact of adopting ASC 606, with the impact primarily related to a promotional holiday program. The adoption of ASC 606 did not have any other material impacts to the financial statements.
During 2018, the Company early adopted ASU 2018-02, “Income Statement—Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220)” ("ASU 2018-02") under the aggregate portfolio approach. ASU 2018-02 allows for reclassification of stranded tax effects on items resulting from the 2017 Tax Act from accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax to retained earnings. Certain tax effects become stranded in accumulated other comprehensive income when deferred tax balances originally recorded at the historical income tax rate are adjusted in income from continuing operations based on a lower newly enacted income tax rate. As a result of the adoption, the Company reclassified the stranded income tax effects resulting from the 2017 Tax Act, decreasing accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax by $4.1 million with a corresponding increase to retained earnings. The reclassification was primarily comprised of amounts relating to available-for-sale securities, pension, postretirement benefit plan obligations and currency translation matters.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU 2019-12, "Income Taxes (Topic 740) —Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes ("ASU 2019-12"). The amendments in this update simplify the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to general principles in Topic 740. The amendments also improve consistent application and simplify U.S. GAAP for other areas of Topic 740 by clarifying and amending existing guidance. ASU 2019-12 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.