|. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Business
Floor & Decor Holdings, Inc. (f/k/a FDO Holdings, Inc.), together with its subsidiaries (the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us”) is a highly differentiated, rapidly growing specialty retailer of hard surface flooring and related accessories. We offer a broad in-stock assortment of tile, wood, laminate, vinyl, and natural stone flooring along with decorative and installation accessories at everyday low prices. Our stores appeal to a variety of customers, including professional installers and commercial businesses (“Pro”), Do It Yourself customers (“DIY”), and customers who buy the products for professional installation (“Buy it Yourself” or “BIY”). We operate within one reportable segment.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company, through its wholly owned subsidiary, Floor and Decor Outlets of America, Inc. (“F&D”), operates 133 warehouse-format stores, which average 78,000 square feet, and two small-format standalone design studios in 31 states, as well as four distribution centers and an e-commerce site, FloorandDecor.com.
The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period ending on the Thursday on or preceding December 31st. The fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 (fiscal "2020") includes 53 weeks, while the fiscal years ended December 26, 2019 (“fiscal 2019”) and December 27, 2018 (“fiscal 2018”) include 52 weeks. When a 53-week fiscal year occurs, we report the additional week at the end of the fiscal fourth quarter. 52-week fiscal years consist of thirteen-week periods in the first, second, third, and fourth quarters of the fiscal year. The 53-week fiscal year consists of thirteen-week periods in the first, second, and third quarters of the fiscal year and a fourteen-week period in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization announced that infections of the coronavirus (COVID-19) had become a pandemic, and on March 13, 2020, the President of the United States announced a National Emergency relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. While the full impact that the COVID-19 pandemic could have on the Company's business remains highly uncertain, it had a material negative impact on the Company's operations and financial results during the first half of fiscal 2020. The following summarizes certain actions taken and impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic during and subsequent to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020:
•Beginning in late March 2020, for the health and safety of its customers and employees, the Company temporarily closed some of its stores and shifted its remaining stores to a curbside pickup model. Under this model, customers were not allowed to enter the Company's stores, resulting in a significant decline in sales compared to the same period of the prior year.
•In May 2020, the Company began a phased approach to reopening its stores for in-store shopping with enhanced safety and sanitation measures such as requiring associates to wear face masks, installing social distancing markers on floors and protective shields at cash registers, and regularly sanitizing shopping carts, pin pads, design desks, and other high-traffic areas. By the end of the second quarter of fiscal 2020, all of the Company's stores were reopened for in-store shopping and have remained open other than for temporary cleaning or in response to certain weather events. Sales have recovered since reopening stores, with third and fourth quarter fiscal 2020 sales higher than in the same periods of the prior year.
•To provide additional liquidity in response to the business uncertainties resulting from the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, the Company entered into a $75.0 million incremental term loan on May 18, 2020. See Note 10, "Debt" for additional information.
•In response to the impact and uncertainties caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company initially implemented a number of measures to minimize cash outlays, including lowering inventory purchases and related supply chain costs to align with reduced sales, temporarily reducing compensation for all executive officers and most employees, temporarily freezing new hiring, reducing or eliminating non-essential spending, reducing advertising spending, furloughing certain employees, and delaying or reducing rent payments and planned capital expenditures, including new store investments. Since the Company began to reopen stores for in-store shopping starting in May, many of these cost saving measures have been eliminated or relaxed as the Company's financial results have improved.
•On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was enacted, which includes provisions related to income taxes, the temporary deferral of the employer portion of social security taxes, and retention credits for 50% of eligible wages and health benefits paid to employees not providing services due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Refer to Note 6, "Income Taxes" for additional information.
The COVID-19 pandemic remains a rapidly evolving situation. The extent of the impact of the pandemic on the Company's business and financial results will depend on future developments, including the duration of the pandemic and the spread of COVID-19 within the markets in which the Company operates as well as the related impact on consumer confidence and spending, all of which are highly uncertain.
Within the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, prior period amounts for “other assets” and “other” have been combined and reclassified to the “other, net” line item to conform to the current period presentation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash consists of currency and demand deposits with banks.
Receivables consist primarily of amounts due from credit card companies and receivables from vendors. The Company typically collects its credit card receivables within to business days of the underlying sale to the customer. The Company has agreements with a majority of its large merchandise vendors that allow for specified rebates based on purchasing volume. Generally, these agreements are on an annual basis, and beginning in fiscal 2020, the Company collects the majority rebates earned each quarter subsequent to quarter end. In prior years, rebates earned during the fiscal year were primarily collected annually after the Company's fiscal year-end. Additionally, the Company has agreements with substantially all vendors that allow for the return of certain merchandise throughout the normal course of business. When inventory is identified to return to a vendor, it is removed from inventory and recorded as a receivable on the Consolidated Balance Sheet, and any variance between capitalized inventory cost associated with the return and the expected vendor reimbursement is expensed in Cost of sales in the Consolidated Statement of Income when the inventory is identified to be returned to the vendor. The Company reserves for estimated uncollected receivables based on historical trends, which historically have been immaterial. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $0.3 million as of December 31, 2020 and December 26, 2019, respectively.
On November 7, 2019, the U.S. Trade Representative (“USTR”) made a ruling to grant exclusions from Section 301 tariffs for select types of flooring products imported from China, including certain “click” vinyl and engineered products that the Company has sold and continues to sell. The Section 301 tariffs from which these goods are now excluded were implemented at 10% beginning in September 2018 and increased to 25% in June 2019. In addition, on November 20, 2019, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“U.S. Customs”) issued Chapter 99 exclusions for each unique article number identified under the November 7, 2019 USTR ruling. During fiscal 2020, additional Chapter 99 exclusions were issued for certain Bamboo and other flooring products imported from China. For the Company, some of the granted exclusions apply retroactively to tariffs paid as early as September 2018.
While tariff refund claims are subject to the approval of U.S. Customs, the Company currently expects to recover a total of $24.3 million related to Section 301 tariff payments, of which $12.9 million was received in fiscal 2020. As of December 31, 2020 and December 26, 2019, receivables included $11.4 million and 19.3 million of expected tariff refunds from U.S. Customs. The tariff refund receivables outstanding as of December 31, 2020 are expected to be received during fiscal 2021.
During fiscal 2020, the Company recognized a $4.5 million reduction to cost of sales and $0.6 million of interest income related to tariff refunds. Interest accrues from the date that tariff payments were originally made through the date that such payments are refunded to the Company.
Of the $19.3 million of expected tariff recoveries expected as of December 26, 2019, the Company recognized a $14.0 million reduction to cost of sales related to tariff refunds during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2019. This reduction to cost of sales included $11.0 million for products that had already been sold as of the date U.S. Customs issued Chapter 99 exclusions on November 20, 2019 and $3.0 million related to products sold after November 20, 2019 through the end of fiscal 2019. In addition, the Company recognized a $5.0 million reduction to the carrying cost of inventory as of December 26, 2019 for tariff refunds related to merchandise on hand. Approximately $0.3 million of interest income was also recognized in fiscal 2019 related to anticipated tariff recoveries.
Credit is offered to the Company's customers through a proprietary credit card underwritten by third-party financial institutions at no recourse to the Company. Beginning in fiscal 2018, the Company began offering limited credit to its commercial clients. The total exposure at the end of fiscal 2020 and fiscal 2019 was $1.2 million and $1.0 million, respectively.
Inventory Valuation and Shrinkage
Inventories consist of merchandise held for sale and are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. When evidence exists that the net realizable value of inventory is lower than its cost, the difference is recorded in cost of sales in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income as a loss in the period in which it occurs. The Company determines inventory costs using the moving weighted average cost method. The Company capitalizes transportation, duties, and other costs to get product to its retail locations. The Company records reserves for estimated losses related to shrinkage and other amounts that are otherwise not expected to be fully recoverable. These reserves are calculated based on historical shrinkage, selling price, margin, and current business trends. The estimates have calculations that require management to make assumptions based on the current rate of sales, age, salability, and profitability of inventory, historical percentages that can be affected by changes in the Company's merchandising mix, customer preferences, and changes in actual shrinkage trends. These reserves totaled $5,434 thousand and $4,468 thousand as of December 31, 2020 and December 26, 2019, respectively.
Physical inventory counts and cycle counts are performed on a regular basis in each store and distribution center to ensure that amounts reflected in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets are properly stated. During the period between physical inventory counts in our stores, the Company accrues for estimated losses related to shrinkage on a store-by-store basis. Shrinkage is the difference between the recorded amount of inventory and the physical inventory. Shrinkage may occur due to theft or loss, among other things.
Fixed assets consist primarily of furniture, fixtures, and equipment, leasehold improvements (including those that are reimbursed by landlords as tenant improvement allowances), buildings and building improvements, computer software and hardware, and land. Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation utilizing the straight-line method over the assets’ estimated useful lives. The Company capitalizes interest on borrowings during the active construction period of certain capital projects.
Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of (i) the original term of the lease, (ii) renewal term of the lease if the renewal is reasonably certain or (iii) the useful life of the improvement. The Company’s fixed assets are depreciated using the following estimated useful lives:
|Furniture, fixtures and equipment|
2 - 7 years
10 - 25 years
|Buildings and building improvements|
10 - 40 years
|Computer software and hardware|
3 - 7 years
The cost and related accumulated depreciation of assets sold or otherwise disposed are removed from the accounts, and the related gain or loss is reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
.Capitalized Software Costs
The Company capitalizes certain costs related to the acquisition and development of software and amortizes these costs using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the software. Certain development costs not meeting the criteria for capitalization are expensed as incurred.
Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired. The Company does not amortize goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives resulting from business combinations but, in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, does assess the recoverability of goodwill annually in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year, or more often if events occur or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill may not be recoverable. Such circumstances could include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in customer demand or business climate or an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. In accordance with ASC 350, identifiable intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives. Each year, the Company may assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the single reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to complete quantitative impairment assessments.
Impairment Assessment of Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
The Company tests goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year, or more often if events occur or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable. We assess the value of our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets under either a qualitative or quantitative approach. Under a qualitative approach, the Company evaluates various market and other factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the Company’s goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets have been impaired. In performing the qualitative assessment, the Company considers the carrying value of its single reporting unit compared to its fair value as well as events and changes in circumstances that could include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in customer demand or business climate, an adverse action or assessment by a regulator, and significant adverse changes in the price of the Company’s common stock. If such qualitative assessment indicates that impairment may have occurred, an additional quantitative assessment is performed by comparing the carrying value of the assets to their respective estimated fair values. If the recorded carrying value of goodwill or an indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded to write the asset down to its estimated fair value.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, the Company qualitatively assessed whether it was more likely than not that the goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets were impaired. Based on this assessment, the Company determined that its goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets were not impaired as of October 22, 2020. No events or changes in circumstances have occurred since the date of the Company's most recent annual impairment test that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount.
The estimated lives of the Company’s intangible assets are as follows:
|Vendor relationships||10 years|
The Company’s goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets impairment loss calculations contain uncertainties because they require management to make significant judgments in estimating the fair value of the Company’s reporting unit and indefinite-lived intangible asset, including the projection of future cash flows, assumptions about which market participants are the most comparable, the selection of discount rates, and the weighting of the income and market approaches. These calculations contain uncertainties because they require management to make assumptions such as estimating economic factors, including the profitability of future business operations and, if necessary, the fair value of the reporting unit’s assets and liabilities. Further, the Company’s ability to realize the future cash flows used in its fair value calculations is affected by factors such as changes in economic conditions, changes in the Company’s operating performance, and changes in the Company’s business strategies. Significant changes in any of the assumptions involved in calculating these estimates could affect the estimated fair value of the Company’s reporting unit and indefinite-lived intangible assets and could result in impairment charges in a future period.
Long-lived assets, such as fixed assets, operating lease right-of-use assets, and intangible assets with finite lives, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Conditions that may indicate impairment include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in customer demand or business climate that could affect the value of an asset, significant changes or planned changes in our use of an asset, a product recall, or an adverse action by a regulator. In accordance with ASC 360, the evaluation is performed at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are available that are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets or asset groups. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying value of the related asset or asset group, an impairment loss is recognized equal to the difference between carrying value and fair value.
Since there is typically no active market for the Company’s definite-lived intangible asset, the Company estimates fair value based on expected future cash flows at the time they are identified. When events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, the Company estimates future cash flows based on store-level historical results, current trends, and operating and cash flow projections. The definite-lived intangible asset is amortized over its estimated useful life on a straight-line basis, which the Company believes to be the amortization methodology that best matches the pattern of economic benefit that is expected from the asset. The useful life of the definite-lived intangible asset is evaluated on an annual basis.
The Company recognizes lease assets and corresponding lease liabilities for all operating leases on the balance sheet, excluding short-term leases (leases with terms of 12 months or less) as described under ASU No. 2016-2, “Leases (Topic 842).” The majority of our long-term operating lease agreements include options to extend, which are also factored into the recognition of their respective assets and liabilities when appropriate based on management’s assessment of the probability that the options will be exercised. Lease payments are discounted using the rate implicit in the lease, or, if not readily determinable, a third-party secured incremental borrowing rate based on information available at lease commencement. The secured incremental borrowing rate is estimated based on yields obtained from Bloomberg for U.S. consumers with a BB- credit rating and is adjusted for collateralization as well as inflation. Additionally, certain of our lease agreements include escalating rents over the lease terms which, under Topic 842, results in rent being expensed on a straight-line basis over the life of the lease that commences on the date we have the right to control the property.
During fiscal 2020, the Company negotiated rent deferrals or abatements for a significant number of its stores due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company has also delayed rent payments for some stores as negotiations are in process with landlords. Total payments delayed or deferred as of December 31, 2020 were approximately $5.5 million, of which $4.5 million was included in the current portion of lease liabilities and $1.0 million was included in lease liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
In accordance with FASB Staff Q&A - Topic 842: "Accounting for Lease Concessions Related to the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic" issued in April 2020, the Company has elected to account for lease concessions that do not result in a substantial increase in the rights of the lessor or the obligations of the lessee as though enforceable rights and obligations for those concessions existed in the original lease agreements. For qualified rent deferrals, the Company has recognized a non-interest bearing accrued liability, which will be reduced when the deferred payment is made in the future. For qualifying rent abatement concessions, which are immaterial in aggregate, the Company is recognizing negative lease expense for the amount of the abatement on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. During fiscal 2020, the Company recognized approximately $0.1 million of negative lease expense related to rent abatement concessions.
The Company is partially self-insured for workers’ compensation and general liability claims less than certain dollar amounts and maintains insurance coverage with individual and aggregate limits. The Company also has a basket aggregate limit to protect against losses exceeding $11.0 million (subject to adjustment and certain exclusions) for workers' compensation claims and general liability claims. The Company’s liabilities represent estimates of the ultimate cost for claims incurred, including loss adjusting expenses, as of the balance sheet date. The estimated liabilities are not discounted and are established based upon analysis of historical data, actuarial estimates, regulatory requirements, an estimate of claims incurred but not yet reported, and other relevant factors. Management utilizes independent third-party actuarial studies to help assess the liability on a regular basis.
Commitments and Contingencies
Liabilities for loss contingencies arising from claims, assessments, litigation, fines, penalties, and other sources are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated.
Asset Retirement Obligations
An asset retirement obligation (“ARO”) represents a legal obligation associated with the retirement of a tangible long-lived asset that is incurred upon the acquisition, construction, development or normal operation of that long-lived asset. The Company’s AROs are primarily associated with leasehold improvements that, at the end of a lease, the Company is contractually obligated to remove in order to comply with certain lease agreements. The ARO is recorded in Other long-term liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and will be subsequently adjusted for changes in fair value. The associated estimated asset retirement costs are capitalized as part of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset and depreciated over its useful life.
Changes in (i) inflation rates and (ii) the estimated costs, timing and extent of future store closure activities each result in (a) a current adjustment to the recorded liability and related asset and (b) a change in the liability and asset amounts to be recorded prospectively. Any changes related to the assets are then recognized in accordance with our depreciation policy, which would generally result in depreciation expense being recognized prospectively over the shorter of the remaining lease term or estimated useful life.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company estimates fair values in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement. ASC 820 provides a framework for measuring fair value and requires disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received from the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. Additionally, ASC 820 defines levels within a hierarchy based upon observable and non-observable inputs. If the inputs used to measure fair value fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the category level is based on the lowest priority level input that is significant to the overall fair value measurement of the instrument.
•Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date;
•Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reporting date; and
•Level 3: Unobservable inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s own estimates about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments to maintain a portion of its long-term debt obligations at a targeted balance of fixed and variable interest rate debt to manage its risk associated with fluctuations in interest rates. We recognize derivative contracts at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The fair value is calculated utilizing Level 2 inputs. Unrealized changes in the fair value of hedged derivative instruments are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income within the stockholders’ equity section of the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The effective portion of the gain or loss on the derivatives is reported as a component of comprehensive income within the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income and reclassified into earnings in the same period in which the hedged transaction affects earnings. The effective portion of the derivative represents the change in fair value of the hedge that offsets the change in fair value of the hedged item. To the extent changes in fair values of the instruments are not highly effective, the ineffective portion of the hedge is immediately recognized in earnings.
We perform an assessment of the effectiveness of our derivative contracts designated as hedges, including assessing the possibility of counterparty default. If we determine that a derivative is no longer expected to be highly effective, we discontinue hedge accounting prospectively and recognize subsequent changes in the fair value of the hedge in earnings. We believe our derivative contracts, which continue to be designated as cash flow hedges, and which consist of interest rate cap contracts, will continue to be highly effective in offsetting changes in cash flow attributable to floating interest rate risk. See Note 8 "Derivatives and Risk Management" for additional information.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements requires management of the Company to make a number of estimates and assumptions relating to the reported amount of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of sales and expenses during the period. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include the carrying amounts of fixed assets and intangibles, asset retirement obligations, allowances for accounts receivable and inventories, reserves for workers' compensation and general liability claims incurred but not reported, and deferred income tax assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
As of the beginning of fiscal 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-9, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“Topic 606”) using the modified retrospective transition method which requires that we recognize revenue differently pre- and post-adoption (see “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” for additional information).
We recognize revenue and the related cost of sales when we satisfy the performance obligations in contracts with our customers in accordance with Topic 606. Performance obligations for our retail store sales, as well as for orders placed through our website and shipped to our customers, are satisfied at the point at which the customer obtains control of the inventory, which is typically at the point-of-sale. In some cases, merchandise is not physically ready for transfer to the customer at the point-of-sale, and revenue recognition is deferred until the customer has control of the inventory. Shipping and handling activities are accounted for as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer goods rather than as separate performance obligations as outlined within Topic 606. Payment is generally due from the customer immediately at the point-of-sale for both retail store sales and website sales. The nature of the goods offered include hard surface flooring and related accessories. We do not perform installation services, and we offer free design services in-store. The transaction price recognized in revenues represents the selling price of the products offered. Sales taxes collected are not recognized as revenue as these amounts are ultimately remitted to the appropriate taxing authorities.
Our customers have the right to return the goods sold to them within a reasonable time period, typically 90 days. The right of return is an element of variable consideration as defined within Topic 606. We reserve for future returns of previously sold goods based on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable. This reserve reduces sales and cost of sales as well as establishes a return asset and refund liability as defined with Topic 606. The return asset is included within prepaid expenses and other current assets, and the refund liability is included within accrued expenses and other current liabilities, each respectively on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Merchandise exchanges of similar product and price are not considered merchandise returns and, therefore, are excluded when calculating the sales returns reserve.
Gift Cards and Merchandise Credits
We sell gift cards to our customers in our stores and through our website and issue merchandise credits in our stores. We account for the programs by recognizing a liability at the time the gift card is sold or the merchandise credit is issued. The liability is relieved and revenue is recognized upon redemption. Additionally, we recognize breakage income in proportion to the pattern of rights exercised by the customer when we expect to be entitled to breakage. Net sales related to the estimated breakage are included in net sales in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. We have an agreement with an unrelated third-party who is the issuer of the Company's gift cards and also assumes the liability for unredeemed gift cards. The Company is not subject to claims under unclaimed property statutes, as the agreement effectively transfers the ownership of such unredeemed gift cards and the related future escheatment liability, if any, to the third-party. Gift card breakage is recognized based upon historical redemption patterns and represents the balance of gift cards for which the Company believes the likelihood of redemption by the customer is remote. Accordingly, in fiscal 2020, fiscal 2019, and fiscal 2018 gift card breakage income of $1.5 million, $1.2 million, and $1.6 million was recognized in net sales in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income, respectively, for such unredeemed gift cards.
We completed the roll out of our Pro Premier loyalty program to all stores in the second half of fiscal 2019, which allows customers to earn points through purchases in our stores and our website. Loyalty points are typically awarded at one percent of the relative standalone selling price of the merchandise sold and are recognized at the time of sale as a liability with a corresponding reduction to net sales. Additionally, loyalty breakage is recognized based on the Company’s estimate of the balance of loyalty points for which the likelihood of redemption by the customer is deemed remote. This estimate is determined with assistance from the third party servicer that manages the loyalty program and is based on the Company’s historical redemption trends, market benchmarks for the pattern of redemptions for other retail loyalty programs, and other assumptions related to the likelihood of customer redemptions. We are continuously monitoring redemption patterns and will adjust this rate, as necessary, as the program matures. In fiscal years 2020, 2019, and 2018 loyalty breakage of $1.4 million, $1.1 million, and $0.4 million respectively, was recognized as net sales in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Sales Returns and Allowances
The Company accrues for estimated sales returns based on historical results. The allowance for sales returns at December 31, 2020 and December 26, 2019, was $22.3 million and $15.4 million, respectively.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales consists of merchandise costs as well as freight, duty, and other costs to transport inventory to our distribution centers and stores. Cost of sales also includes costs for shrinkage, damaged product disposals, distribution, warehousing, sourcing, compliance, and arranging and paying for freight to deliver products to customers. The Company receives cash consideration from certain vendors related to vendor allowances and volume rebates, which is recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of inventory if the inventory is on hand and a reduction to cost of sales when the inventory is sold.
Vendor Rebates and Allowances
Vendor allowances consist primarily of volume rebates that are earned as a result of attaining certain inventory purchase levels and advertising allowances or incentives for the promotion of vendors' products. These vendor allowances are accrued as earned and are estimated based on annual projections.
Vendor allowances earned are initially recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of inventory and a subsequent reduction in cost of sales when the related product is sold. Certain incentive allowances that are reimbursements of specific, incremental, and identifiable costs incurred to promote vendors’ products are recorded as an offset against these promotional expenses.
Total Operating Expenses
Total operating expenses consist primarily of store and administrative personnel wages and benefits, infrastructure expenses, supplies, fixed asset depreciation, store and corporate facility expenses, pre-opening costs, training costs, and advertising costs. Credit card fees, insurance, personal property taxes, legal expenses, and other miscellaneous operating costs are also included.
The Company expenses advertising costs as the advertising takes place. Advertising costs incurred during the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, December 26, 2019, and December 27, 2018 were $66.6 million, $65.7 million, and $55.3 million, respectively, and are included in selling and store operating expenses and pre-opening expenses in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
The Company accounts for non-capital operating expenditures incurred prior to opening a new store as "pre-opening" expenses in its Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. The Company's pre-opening expenses begin on average three months to one year in advance of a store opening or relocating due to, among other things, the amount of time it takes to prepare a store for its grand opening. Pre-opening expenses primarily include: advertising, rent, staff training, staff recruiting, utilities, personnel, and equipment rental. A store is considered to be relocated if it is closed temporarily and re-opened within the same primary trade area. Pre-opening expenses for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, December 26, 2019, and December 27, 2018, totaled $21.5 million, $24.6 million, and $26.1 million, respectively.
The Company accounts for employee stock options, restricted stock, and employee stock purchase plans in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation. The Company obtains independent third-party valuation studies to assist with determining the grant date fair value of our stock price. Stock options are granted with exercise prices equal to or greater than the fair market value on the date of grant as authorized by the board of directors or compensation committee. Options granted have vesting provisions ranging from one year to five years. Stock option grants are generally subject to forfeiture if employment terminates prior to vesting. The Company has selected the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model for estimating the grant date fair value of stock option awards granted. The Company bases the risk-free interest rate on the yield of a zero coupon U.S. Treasury security with a maturity equal to the expected life of the option from the date of the grant. The Company estimates the dividend yield to be zero as the Company does not intend to pay dividends in the future. The Company estimates the volatility of the share price of its common stock by considering the historical volatility of the stock of similar public entities. The Company considers a number of factors in determining the appropriateness of the public entities included in the volatility assumption, including the entity's life cycle stage, growth profile, size, financial leverage, and products offered. Stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period based on the number of years for which the requisite service is expected to be rendered.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the liability method in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Changes in tax laws and rates could affect recorded deferred tax assets and liabilities in the future. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax laws or rates is recognized in the period that includes the enactment date of such a change.
The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which the associated temporary differences became deductible. On a quarterly basis, the Company evaluates whether it is more likely than not that its deferred tax assets will be realized in the future and concludes whether a valuation allowance must be established.
The Company includes any estimated interest and penalties on tax-related matters in income taxes payable and income tax expense. The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with ASC 740. ASC 740-10 clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise's financial statements using a two-step process for evaluating tax positions taken, or expected to be taken, on a tax return. The Company may only recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. In addition, the Company recognizes a loss contingency for uncertain tax positions when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Amounts recognized for uncertain tax positions require that management make estimates and judgments based on provisions of the tax law, which may be subject to change or varying interpretations. The Company includes estimated interest and penalties related to uncertain tax position accruals within accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and within income tax expense in the condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
The Company operates as a specialty retailer of hard surface flooring and related accessories through retail stores located in the United States and through its website. Operating segments are defined as components of an entity for which discrete financial information is available and that is regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources to an individual segment and in assessing performance. The Company’s CODM is its Chief Executive Officer. The Company has determined that it has one operating segment and one reportable segment as the CODM reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. In addition, the Company concluded that economic and operating characteristics are similar across its retail operations, including the net sales, gross profit and gross margin, and operating income of its retail stores as well as the product offerings, marketing initiatives, operating procedures, store layouts, employee incentive programs, customers, methods of distribution, competitive and operating risks, and the level of shared resources across the business.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Credit Losses. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which modifies the measurement approach for credit losses on financial assets measured on an amortized cost basis from an 'incurred loss' method to an 'expected loss' method. The amended guidance requires the measurement of expected credit losses to be based on relevant information, including historical experience, current conditions, and a reasonable and supportable forecast that affects the collectability of the related financial asset. The adoption of ASU No. 2016-13 in the first quarter of fiscal 2020 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Implementation Costs Incurred in Cloud Computing Arrangements. In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that is a Service Contract.” ASU No. 2018-15 aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. In the first quarter of fiscal 2020, the Company adopted ASU No. 2018-15 on a prospective basis for implementation costs for new or existing arrangements incurred on or after the adoption date. The adoption of ASU No. 2018-15 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Leases. In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-2, “Leases (Topic 842).” ASU No. 2016-2 requires that lessees recognize lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet with an option to exclude short-term leases (leases with terms of 12 months or less). The guidance also requires disclosures about the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. We adopted ASU No. 2016-2 in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 using the modified retrospective approach. The cumulative effect adjustment upon adoption resulted in a $0.2 million opening balance sheet reduction to retained earnings. The adoption of ASU No. 2016-2 had a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets but did not have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income or Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. See Note 9, “Commitments and Contingencies,” for additional information related to the Company’s leases.
Revenue from Contracts with Customers. In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-9, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606).” ASU No. 2014-9 provides new guidance related to the core principle that an entity recognizes revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those goods or services provided. We adopted this standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 using the modified retrospective approach, effective December 29, 2017. The cumulative adjustment upon adoption primarily resulted in a reduction of deferred revenue and related inventories and an increase to retained earnings of $7.8 million, net of tax. The adoption of ASU No. 2014-9 did not have a material impact to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Reference Rate Reform. In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848),” which provides optional guidance to ease the potential accounting and financial reporting burden of reference rate reform, including the expected market transition from the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and other interbank offered rates to alternative reference rates. The new guidance provides temporary optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. These transactions include contract modifications, hedging relationships, and the sale or transfer of debt securities classified as held-to-maturity. Entities may apply the provisions of the new standard as of the beginning of the reporting period when the election is made. Unlike other topics, the provisions of this update are only available until December 31, 2022, by which time the reference rate replacement activity is expected to be completed. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures and has yet to elect an adoption date.
Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes.” The ASU simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740. The ASU also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application among reporting entities. The guidance will be effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU No. 2019-12 is not expected to have a material impact to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.