|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and our wholly owned subsidiaries and have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Change in Fiscal Year End
In September 2019, we adopted a 52/53 week fiscal year consisting of four 13-week quarters ending on the first Sunday after January 30 which for fiscal 2020 was February 2, 2020 and for fiscal 2021 was January 31, 2021. The updated calendar will occasionally include a 14-week fourth quarter, which will first occur in fiscal 2022, starting on November 1, 2021 and ending on February 6, 2022. Unless otherwise stated, all dates refer to our fiscal years.
The functional currency of our foreign subsidiaries is the U.S. dollar. Transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency are remeasured to the functional currency at the average exchange rate in effect during the period. At the end of each reporting period, monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured using exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured at historical exchange rates. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from these estimates and assumptions due to risks and uncertainties, including uncertainty in the current economic environment from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Such estimates include, but are not limited to, the determination of standalone selling price for revenue arrangements with multiple performance obligations, useful lives of intangible assets and property and equipment, the period of benefit for deferred contract costs for commissions, stock-based compensation, provision for income taxes including related reserves, fair value of equity assumed, intangible and tangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed for business combinations. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions which management believes to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities.
Financial instruments that are exposed to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, and accounts receivable. At the end of fiscal 2020 and 2021, the majority of our cash and cash equivalents have been invested with three financial institutions and such deposits exceed federally insured limits. Management believes that the financial institutions that hold our investments are financially sound and, accordingly, are subject to minimal credit risk. We define a customer as an entity that purchases our products and services from one of our channel partners or from us directly. The majority of our revenue and accounts receivable are derived from the United States across a multitude of industries. We perform ongoing evaluations to determine customer credit. At the end of fiscal 2020 and 2021, no channel partner represented 10% or more of total accounts receivable, net. At the end of fiscal 2020 and 2021, we had one customer that represented 12% and 10% of accounts receivable, net. One channel partner represented 11% of revenue for fiscal 2019. No channel partner represented more than 10% of revenue for fiscal 2020 and 2021. No customer represented 10% or more of revenue for fiscal 2019, 2020 or 2021. We rely on a limited number of contract manufacturers and suppliers of components for our products. In instances where contract manufacturers and suppliers fail to perform their obligations, we may be unable to find alternative contract manufacturers and suppliers or satisfactorily deliver our products to our customers on time.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash in banks and highly liquid investments, primarily money market accounts, purchased with an original maturity of three months or less.
We classify our marketable securities as available-for-sale (AFS) at the time of purchase and reevaluate such classification at each balance sheet date. We may sell these securities at any time for use in current operations even if they have not yet reached maturity. As a result, we classify our securities, including those with maturities beyond twelve months, as current assets in the consolidated balance sheets. We carry these securities at estimated fair value and record unrealized gains and losses in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), which is reflected as a component of stockholders' equity. We evaluate our AFS debt securities with an unamortized cost basis in excess of estimated fair value to determine what amount of that difference, if any, is caused by expected credit losses. Credit-related impairment losses, not to exceed the amount that fair value is less than the amortized cost basis, are recognized through an allowance for credit losses with changes in the allowance for credit losses recognized as a charge to other income (expense), net, in the consolidated statements of operations. Any remaining impairment is included in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) as a component of stockholders' equity. Realized gains and losses from the sale of marketable securities are determined based on the specific identification method. Realized gains and losses are reported in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying value of our financial instruments, including cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, approximates fair value.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance
Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, and stated at realizable value, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. Credit is extended to customers based on an evaluation of their financial condition and other factors. We generally do not require collateral or other security to support accounts receivable. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts.
We assess the collectability of the accounts by taking into consideration the aging of our trade receivables, historical experience, and management judgment. We write off trade receivables against the allowance when management determines a balance is uncollectible and no longer actively pursues collection of the receivable.
The following table presents the changes in the allowance for doubtful accounts:
| ||Fiscal Year Ended|
| ||(in thousands) |
|Allowance for doubtful accounts, beginning balance||$||1,062 ||$||660 ||$||542 |
|Provision, net of cash received||(79)||(80)||496 |
|Allowance for doubtful accounts, ending balance||$||660 ||$||542 ||$||1,033 |
Restricted cash is comprised of cash collateral for letters of credit related to our leases and for a vendor credit card program. At the end of fiscal 2020 and 2021, we had restricted cash of $15.3 million and $10.5 million.
Inventory consists of finished goods and component parts, which are purchased from contract manufacturers. Product demonstration units, which we regularly sell, are the primary component of our inventories. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using the specific identification method for finished goods and weighted-average method for component parts. We account for excess and obsolete inventory by reducing the carrying value to the estimated net realizable value of the inventory based upon management’s assumptions about future demand and market conditions. In addition, we record a liability for firm, non-cancelable and unconditional purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers for quantities in excess of future demand forecasts consistent with excess and obsolete inventory valuations. At the end of fiscal 2021, we did not record any liability related to the above. Inventory write-offs were insignificant for fiscal 2019, 2020 and 2021.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets (test equipment—4 years, computer equipment and software—4 years, furniture and fixtures—7 years). Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the remaining lease term. Depreciation commences once the asset is placed in service.
In accordance with our accounting practices, we review the estimated useful lives of our property and equipment on an ongoing basis. In the first quarter of fiscal 2021, management determined that the estimated useful lives of its test equipment and certain computer equipment and software required revision. The estimated useful lives of test equipment and certain computer equipment and software were revised to 4 years. Previously, the estimated useful lives of these assets ranged from 2 to 3 years. The change in estimated useful lives was accounted for as a change in estimate and recognized on a prospective basis effective February 3, 2020. The effect of this change in estimate resulted in a reduction to depreciation expense of $23.6 million during fiscal 2021.
We allocate the purchase price to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the purchase price over the fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recorded as goodwill. During the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, we may record adjustments to the estimated fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. The results of operations of an acquired business is included in our consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition. Acquisition-related expenses are expensed as incurred.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price consideration over the estimated fair value of the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Goodwill is evaluated for impairment annually in the fourth quarter of our fiscal year as a single reporting unit, and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. We may elect to qualitatively assess whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If we opt not to qualitatively assess, a quantitative goodwill impairment test is performed. The quantitative test compares our reporting unit's carrying amount, including goodwill, to its fair value calculated based on our enterprise value. If the carrying amount exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized for the excess. We did not recognize any impairment of goodwill in any of the periods presented in the consolidated financial statements.
Purchased Intangible Assets
Purchased intangible assets with finite lives are stated at cost, net of accumulated amortization. We amortize our intangible assets on a straight-line basis over an estimated useful life of to seven years.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We review our long-lived assets, including property and equipment and finite-lived intangible assets, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. We measure the recoverability of these assets by comparing the carrying amounts to the future undiscounted cash flows the assets are expected to generate. If the total of the future undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of an asset, we record an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair market value.
Convertible Senior Notes
In accounting for the issuance of our convertible senior notes (the Notes), we separated the Notes into liability and equity components. The carrying amount of the liability component was determined by measuring the fair value of a similar liability that does not have an associated convertible feature. The carrying amount of the equity component representing the conversion option was calculated by deducting the fair value of the liability component from the principal amount of the Notes as a whole. The difference between the principal amount of the Notes and the liability component (the debt discount) is amortized to interest expense in the consolidated statements of operations using the effective interest method over the term of the Notes. The equity component of the Notes is included in additional paid-in capital in the consolidated balance sheets and is not remeasured as long as it continues to meet the conditions for equity classification. In accounting for the transaction costs related to the issuance of the Notes, we allocated the total amount incurred to the liability and equity components using the same proportions as the initial carrying value of the Notes. Transaction costs attributable to the liability component were netted with the principal amount of the Notes in the consolidated balance sheets and are being amortized to interest expense in the consolidated statements of operations using the effective interest method over the term of the Notes. Transaction costs attributable to the equity component were netted with the equity component of the Notes in additional paid-in capital in the consolidated balance sheets.
Deferred commissions consist of incremental costs paid to our sales force to obtain customer contracts. Deferred commissions related to product revenue are recognized upon transfer of control to customers and deferred commissions related to subscription services revenue are amortized over an expected useful life of six years. We determine the expected useful life based on an estimated benefit period by evaluating our technology development life cycle, expected customer relationship period and other factors. We classify deferred commissions as current and non-current on our consolidated balance sheets based on the timing of when we expect to recognize the expense. Amortization of deferred commissions is included in sales and marketing expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
We determine if an arrangement contains a lease at inception. Lease liabilities are recognized at the present value of the future lease payments at commencement date. The interest rate implicit in our operating leases is not readily determinable, and therefore an incremental borrowing rate is estimated to determine the present value of future payments. The estimated incremental borrowing rate factors in a hypothetical interest rate on a collateralized basis with similar terms, payments, and economic environments. The operating lease right-of-use (ROU) asset is determined based on the lease liability initially established and reduced for any prepaid lease payments and any lease incentives. We account for the lease and non-lease components of operating lease contract consideration as a single lease component.
Certain of the operating lease agreements contain rent concession, rent escalation, and option to renew provisions. Rent concession and rent escalation provisions are considered in determining the lease cost. Lease cost is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term commencing on the date we have the right to use the leased property. We generally use the base, non-cancelable, lease term when recognizing the lease assets and liabilities, unless it is reasonably certain that an extension or termination option will be exercised.
In addition, certain of our operating lease agreements contain tenant improvement allowances from our landlords. These allowances are accounted for as lease incentives and reduce our ROU asset and lease cost over the lease term.
For short-term leases with lease term no longer than twelve months, and do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that we are reasonably certain to exercise, we recognize rent expense in our consolidated statements of operations on a straight-line basis over the lease term and record variable lease payments as incurred.
Deferred revenue primarily consists of amounts that have been invoiced but have not yet been recognized as revenue and performance obligations pertaining to subscription services. The current portion of deferred revenue represents the amounts that are expected to be recognized as revenue within one year of the consolidated balance sheet dates.
We generate revenue from two sources: (1) product revenue which includes hardware and embedded software and (2) subscription services revenue which includes Evergreen Storage subscriptions, and our unified subscription that includes Pure as-a-Service and Cloud Block Store.
Our product revenue is derived from the sale of integrated storage hardware and operating system software. We typically recognize product revenue upon transfer of control to our customers. Products are typically shipped directly by us to customers.
Our subscription services revenue is derived from the services we perform in connection with the sale of Evergreen Storage and Pure as-a-Service subscriptions and is recognized ratably over the contractual term, which generally ranges from to six years. The majority of our product solutions are sold with an Evergreen Storage subscription service agreement, which typically commences upon transfer of control of the corresponding products to our customers. Costs for subscription services are expensed when incurred. In addition, our Evergreen Storage subscription provides our customers with a new controller based upon certain contractual terms. The controller refresh represents a separate performance obligation that is included within the Evergreen Storage subscription service agreement and the allocated revenue is recognized upon shipment of the controller.
Our Evergreen Storage subscription services also include the right to receive unspecified software updates and upgrades on a when-and-if-available basis, software bug fixes, replacement parts and other services related to the underlying infrastructure, as well as access to our cloud-based management and support platform. We also sell professional services such as installation and implementation consulting services and the related revenue is recognized as services are performed.
We recognize revenue upon the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This is achieved through applying the following five-step approach:
•Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer
•Identification of the performance obligations in the contract
•Determination of the transaction price
•Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
•Recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation
When applying this five-step approach, we apply judgment in determining the customer's ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer's historical payment experience and/or published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer. To the extent a customer contract includes multiple promised goods or services, we determine whether promised goods or services should be accounted for as a separate performance obligation. The transaction price is determined based on the consideration which we will be entitled to in exchange for transferring goods or services to the customer. For contracts that contain multiple performance obligations, we allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation based on a relative standalone selling price. The standalone selling price is determined based on the price at which the performance obligation is sold separately, or if not observable through past transactions, is estimated taking into account available information such as market conditions and internally approved pricing guidelines related to performance obligations.
We generally provide a three-year warranty on hardware and a 90-day warranty on our software embedded in the hardware. Our hardware warranty provides for parts replacement for defective components and our software warranty provides for bug fixes. Our Evergreen Storage subscription agreement provides for the same parts replacement that customers are entitled to under our warranty program, except that replacement parts are delivered according to targeted response times to minimize disruption to our customers’ critical business applications. Substantially all customers purchase Evergreen Storage subscription agreements. As such, the warranty reserve at the end of fiscal 2021 was not material.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs consist primarily of employee compensation and related expenses, prototype expenses, to the extent there is no alternative use for that equipment, depreciation of equipment used in research and development, third-party engineering and contractor support costs, as well as allocated overhead costs.
Capitalized Internal-Use Software Costs
We expense costs to develop software that is externally marketed before technological feasibility is reached. We have determined that technological feasibility is reached shortly before the release of our products and as a result, the development costs incurred after the establishment of technological feasibility and before the release of those products have not been significant and accordingly, all related software development costs have been expensed as incurred.
We capitalize (i) costs incurred to develop or modify software solely for our internal use, including hosted applications used to deliver our support services, and (ii) certain implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract when the preliminary project stage is complete, management with the relevant authority authorizes and commits to the funding of the software project, and it is probable the project will be completed and used to perform the intended function. Costs related to preliminary project activities and post implementation activities are expensed as incurred. Software development costs are capitalized to property, plant and equipment and amortized using the straight-line method over an estimated useful life of four years. Software implementation costs are capitalized to either prepaid and other current assets or other assets, non-current on our consolidated balance sheet and amortized over the terms of the associated hosting arrangements. No amount of software development and implementation costs were capitalized during fiscal 2019 and 2020 and the amount of software development and implementation costs capitalized and the related amortization expense were not material during fiscal 2021.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expenses were $10.7 million, $13.3 million and $8.1 million for fiscal 2019, 2020 and 2021.
Stock-based compensation includes expenses related to restricted stock units (RSUs), restricted stock, stock options and purchase rights issued to employees under our employee stock purchase plan (ESPP). RSUs and restricted stock are measured at the fair market value of the underlying stock at the grant date. We determine the fair value of purchase rights issued to employees under our ESPP and our stock options under our equity plans on the date of grant utilizing the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which is impacted by the fair value of our common stock, as well as changes in assumptions regarding a number of subjective variables. These variables include the expected common stock price volatility over the term of the awards, the expected term of the awards, risk-free interest rates and expected dividend yield.
We recognize stock-based compensation expense for stock-based awards on a straight-line basis over the period during which an employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award (generally the vesting period of the award). We account for forfeitures as they occur. For stock-based awards granted to employees with a performance condition, we recognize stock-based compensation expense for these awards under the accelerated attribution method over the requisite service period when management determines it is probable that the performance condition will be satisfied.
We account for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred income taxes are recognized by applying enacted statutory tax rates applicable to future years to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced, if necessary, by a valuation allowance to amounts that are more likely than not to be realized.
We recognize tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if we believe that it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement.
New Accounting Pronouncements Adopted in Fiscal 2021
We adopted the following Accounting Standards Updates (ASUs) effective February 3, 2020, none of which had a material impact on our financial position or results of operation:
|ASU 2016-13||Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments|
|ASU 2017-04||Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment|
|ASU 2018-13||Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement|
|ASU 2018-15||Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract|
|ASU 2019-12||Income Taxes - Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (Topic 740)|
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In March 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2020-04, Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions affected by the reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The amendments apply only to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. The amendments are effective for all entities as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. We are currently evaluating the impact of this standard on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity's Own Equity, which simplifies the accounting for certain convertible instruments, amends guidance on derivative scope exceptions for contracts in an entity's own equity, and modifies the guidance on diluted earnings per share (EPS) calculations as a result of these changes. The standard will be effective for us beginning February 7, 2022 and can be applied on either a fully retrospective or modified retrospective basis. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. We are currently evaluating the impact of this standard on our consolidated financial statements.