Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), Regulation S-X. In the opinion of management, the information herein reflects all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments except as otherwise noted, considered necessary for a fair statement of results of operations, financial position and cash flows. The condensed consolidated financial statements include the results of Castlight and its wholly owned U.S. subsidiary. The results for the interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for any future period.
The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2016 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. The following information should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. There have been no changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K that have had a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the Company to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates include, but are not limited to, the determination of the relative selling prices for the Company’s products and services, certain assumptions used in the valuation of the Company’s equity awards, annual bonus attainment and the capitalization and estimated useful life of internal-use software development costs. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could be material to the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “Compensation-Stock Compensation: Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment.” The guidance will change how companies account for certain aspects of share-based payments to employees. The standard is intended to simplify several areas of accounting for share-based compensation arrangements, including the income tax impact, classification on the statement of cash flows and forfeitures. The Company adopted this guidance on January 1, 2017 and accordingly recorded a cumulative-effect adjustment charge of approximately $0.4 million to the beginning accumulated deficit for the impact of electing to account for forfeiture as it occurs. The adoption of this standard did not have any impact to the Statement of Operations or the Statement of Cash Flows. The Company is subject to full valuation allowance and thus has not utilized any excess tax benefits or realized any cash tax benefit related to stock compensation expense.
In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2017-4, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other.” The standard eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test, under which an entity had to perform procedures to determine the fair value at the impairment testing date of its assets and liabilities, instead requiring an entity to perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. The standard will become effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2020, and early adoption is permitted. At this point in time, the Company does not intend to adopt the standard early. Based on the Company’s evaluation, the standard will not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2017-1, “Business Combinations.” The standard clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The standard will become effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018, and early adoption is permitted. At this point in time, the Company does not intend to adopt the standard early. Based on the Company’s evaluation, the standard will not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In October 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-17, “Consolidation.” The standard addresses how companies evaluate whether a reporting entity is the primary beneficiary of a VIE by changing how the reporting entity that is a single decision maker of a VIE treats indirect interests in the entity held through related parties that are under common control with the reporting entity. The standard became effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2017. Based on the Company’s evaluation, the standard did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases.” The guidance will require lessees to put all leases on their balance sheets, whether operating or financing, while continuing to recognize the expenses on their income statements in a manner similar to current practice. The guidance states that a lessee would recognize a lease liability for the obligation to make lease payments and a right-to-use asset for the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. The guidance will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019 and early adoption is permitted. At this point in time, the Company does not intend to adopt the standard early. The Company is evaluating the accounting, transition and disclosure requirements of the standard and cannot currently estimate the financial statement impact of adoption.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-1, “Financial Instruments.” The guidance provides a new measurement alternative for equity investments that don’t have readily determinable fair values and don’t qualify for the net asset value practical expedient. Under this alternative, these investments can be measured at cost, less any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment if the same issuer. This guidance will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and earlier adoption is not permitted. The Company is evaluating the accounting, transition and disclosure requirements of the standard and cannot currently estimate the financial statement impact of adoption at this point in time.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and has since updated the ASU. This ASU replaces existing revenue recognition standards with a comprehensive revenue measurement and recognition standard and expanded disclosure requirements. The new standard will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 with early adoption permitted beginning January 1, 2017. The Company has elected not to early adopt the new standard.
The new standard permits two methods of adoption: retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented (full retrospective method), or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying the guidance recognized at the date of initial application (modified retrospective method). The Company currently plans to adopt under the full retrospective method. However, a final decision regarding the adoption method has not been finalized at this time.
The Company is currently assessing the impact of the new standard on its accounting policies, processes, and controls, including system requirements and has assigned internal resources and has also engaged a third party service provider to assist in its assessment.
Based on its assessment to date, the Company currently believes a significant impact from the adoption of the new standard will be related to the Company’s costs to fulfill as well as its costs to obtain contracts with customers. For fulfillment costs, the new standard states that an entity shall recognize an asset from the costs incurred to fulfill a contract if certain criteria are met. The Company believes these criteria will be met and these costs will be recognized as an asset under the new standard. The costs to fulfill a contract that are recognized as an asset are then amortized on a systematic basis that is consistent with the transfer to the customer of the goods or services to which the asset relates. The Company currently expenses costs to fulfill a contract when they are incurred. Similar to fulfillment costs, for costs to obtain a contract (which are primarily sales commissions), the standard states that costs to obtain a contract shall be amortized on a systematic basis that is consistent with the transfer to the customer of the goods or services to which the asset relates. The Company currently capitalizes certain sales commissions and amortizes those costs over the non-cancelable portion of its subscription contracts. Under the new standard, the amortization period for the Company’s costs to obtain a contract could be longer. Lastly, based on its assessment, the Company currently believes areas of impact related to the Company’s revenue recognition will be related to the estimation of variable consideration, the accounting for contract modifications, and the allocation of the transaction price to the Company’s multiple performance obligations.
While the Company continues to assess the potential impacts of the new standard, including the areas described above, and anticipates the standard could have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements, the Company does not know or cannot reasonably estimate quantitative information related to the impact of the new standard on the Company’s financial statements at this time.