|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Cash equivalents include demand deposits and short-term investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased.
The Company maintains its cash deposits at numerous banks located throughout the United States, Canada, India, Australia, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and China, which at times, may exceed federally insured limits. UDS, the Company’s joint venture in China, held $14.9 million and $12.7 million of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant risk on cash and cash equivalents.
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Significant Vendors
Concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade receivables are limited due to a large, diverse customer base. No individual customer represented more than 2% of net sales during 2020 and 2019.
The Company has geographic concentration risk as sales in California, as a percent of total sales, were approximately 32% and 34% for 2020 and 2019, respectively.
The Company contracts with various suppliers. Although there are a limited number of suppliers that could supply the Company’s inventory, management believes any shortfalls from existing suppliers would be absorbed from other suppliers on comparable terms. However, a change in suppliers could cause a delay in sales and adversely affect results.
Purchases from the Company’s three largest vendors during 2020 and 2019 comprised approximately 53% and 41% respectively, of the Company’s total purchases of inventory and supplies.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The Company performs periodic credit evaluations of the financial condition of its customers, monitors collections and payments from customers, and generally does not require collateral. The Company provides for the possible inability to collect accounts receivable by recording an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company writes off an account when it is considered uncollectible. The Company estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on historical experience, aging of accounts receivable, and information regarding the credit worthiness of its customers. Additionally, the Company provides an allowance for returns and discounts based on historical experience. The allowance for doubtful accounts activity was as follows:
|Year ended December 31, 2020|
|Allowance for accounts receivable||$||2,099 ||$||932 ||$||(674)||$||2,357 |
|Year ended December 31, 2019|
|Allowance for accounts receivable||$||2,016 ||$||590 ||$||(507)||$||2,099 |
(1) Deductions represent uncollectible accounts written-off net of recoveries.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost (determined on a first-in, first-out basis; or average cost) or net realizable value. Inventories primarily consist of reprographics materials for use and resale, and equipment for resale. On an ongoing basis, inventories are reviewed and adjusted for estimated obsolescence or unmarketable inventories to reflect the lower of cost or net realizable value. Charges to increase inventory reserves are recorded as an increase in cost of sales. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the reserves for inventory obsolescence was $0.8 million and $0.9 million, respectively.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect temporary differences between the amount of assets and liabilities for financial and tax reporting purposes. Such amounts are adjusted, as appropriate, to reflect changes in tax rates expected to be in effect when the temporary differences reverse. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the Company's deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Changes in tax laws or accounting standards and methods may affect recorded deferred taxes in future periods.
When establishing a valuation allowance, the Company considers future sources of taxable income such as future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards and tax planning strategies. A tax planning strategy is an action that: is prudent and feasible; an enterprise ordinarily might not take, but would take to prevent an operating loss or tax credit carryforward from expiring unused; and would result in realization of deferred tax assets. In the event the Company determines that its deferred tax assets, more likely than not, will not be realized in the future, the valuation adjustment to the deferred tax assets will be charged to earnings in the period in which the Company makes such a determination. The Company has a $2.1 million valuation allowance against certain deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2020.
In future quarters the Company will continue to evaluate its historical results for the preceding twelve quarters and its future projections to determine whether the Company will generate sufficient taxable income to utilize its deferred tax assets, and whether a valuation allowance is required.
The Company calculates its current and deferred tax provision based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from the actual results reflected in income tax returns filed in subsequent years. Adjustments based on filed returns are recorded when identified.
Income taxes have not been provided on certain undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries because such earnings are considered to be permanently reinvested.
The amount of taxable income or loss the Company reports to the various tax jurisdictions is subject to ongoing audits by federal, state and foreign tax authorities. The Company's estimate of the potential outcome of any uncertain tax issue is subject to management’s assessment of relevant risks, facts, and circumstances existing at that time. The Company uses a more-likely-than-not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The Company records a liability for the difference between the benefit recognized and measured and tax position taken or expected to be taken on its tax return. To the extent that the Company's assessment of such tax positions changes, the change in estimate is recorded in the period in which the determination is made. The Company reports tax-related interest and penalties as a component of income tax expense.
Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment are stated at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, as follows:
|Leasehold improvements|| |
10-20 years or lease term, if shorter
|Machinery and equipment|| |
|Furniture and fixtures|| |
Assets acquired under capital lease arrangements are included in machinery and equipment, are recorded at the present value of the minimum lease payments, and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the life of the asset or term of the lease, whichever is shorter. Expenses for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred, while renewals and betterments are capitalized. Gains or losses on the sale or disposal of property and equipment are reflected in operating income.
The Company accounts for software costs developed for internal use in accordance with ASC 350-40, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other, which requires companies to capitalize certain qualifying costs incurred during the application development stage of the related software development project. The primary use of this software is for internal use and, accordingly, such capitalized software development costs are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the economic lives of the related products not to exceed three years. The Company’s machinery and equipment (see Note 4, Property and Equipment, Net) includes $1.4 million and $1.3 million of capitalized software development costs as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, net of accumulated amortization of $21.6 million and $20.7 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Depreciation expense includes the amortization of capitalized software development costs which amounted to $0.9 million and $1.0 million, during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Software development costs for products intended to be sold, leased or otherwise marketed are expensed as incurred until technological feasibility has been established, at which time such costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers. Technological feasibility is established when a product design and working model have been completed and the completeness of the working model and its consistency with the product design have been confirmed by testing. To date, the establishment of technological feasibility of the Company’s products and general release of such software have substantially coincided.
Software development costs for software to be sold, leased, or otherwise marketed are expensed as incurred until the establishment of technological feasibility, at which time those costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers and amortized over the estimated life of the product. Technological feasibility is established upon the completion of a working prototype that has been certified as having no critical bugs and is a release candidate. To date, costs and time incurred between the establishment of technological feasibility and product release have not been material, and all software development costs have been charged to research and development expense in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically assesses potential impairments of its long-lived assets in accordance with the provisions of ASC 360, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-lived Assets. An impairment review is performed whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. The Company groups its assets at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of the other assets and liabilities. The Company has determined that the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are available is the regional level, which is the operating segment level.
Factors considered by the Company include, but are not limited to, significant underperformance relative to historical or projected operating results; significant changes in the manner of use of the acquired assets or the strategy for the overall business; and significant negative industry or economic trends. When the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of the above indicators of impairment, the Company estimates the future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. If the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows and eventual disposition is less than the carrying amount of the asset, the Company recognizes an impairment loss. An impairment loss is reflected as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset, based on the fair value if available, or discounted cash flows, if fair value is not available. The Company had no long-lived asset impairments in 2020 or 2019.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
In accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, the Company assesses goodwill for impairment annually as of September 30, and more frequently if events and circumstances indicate that goodwill might be impaired.
Goodwill impairment testing is performed at the reporting unit level. Goodwill is assigned to reporting units at the date the goodwill is initially recorded. Once goodwill has been assigned to reporting units, it no longer retains its association with a particular acquisition, and all of the activities within a reporting unit, whether acquired or internally generated, are available to support the value of the goodwill.
In 2017, the Company elected to early-adopt ASU 2017-04 which simplifies subsequent goodwill measurement by eliminating step two from the goodwill impairment test.
The Company determines the fair value of its reporting units using an income approach. Under the income approach, the Company determined fair value based on estimated discounted future cash flows of each reporting unit. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit is judgmental in nature and requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including revenue growth rates and EBITDA margins, discount rates and future market conditions, among others. The level of judgement and estimation is inherently higher in the current environment considering the uncertainty created by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company has evaluated numerous factors disrupting its business and made significant assumptions which include the severity and duration of the business disruption, the timing and degree of economic recovery and the combined effect of these assumptions on the Company's future operating results and cash flows.
Other intangible assets that have finite lives are amortized over their useful lives. Customer relationships are amortized using the accelerated method, based on customer attrition rates, over their estimated useful lives of 13 (weighted average) years.
Deferred Financing Costs
Direct costs incurred in connection with debt agreements are recorded as incurred and amortized based on the effective interest method for the Company's borrowings under its credit agreement ("Credit Agreement"). At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had less than $0.1 million in unamortized deferred financing costs. The Company extinguished its term loan in December of 2019. See Note 5, Long-Term Debt, for additional information.
Fair Values of Financial Instruments
The following methods and assumptions were used by the Company in estimating the fair value of its financial instruments for disclosure purposes:
Cash equivalents: Cash equivalents are time deposits with maturity of three months or less when purchased, which are highly liquid and readily convertible to cash. Cash equivalents reported in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet were $13.2 million and $9.3 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and are carried at cost and approximate fair value due to the relatively short period to maturity of these instruments.
Short- and long-term debt and finance leases: The carrying amount of the Company’s finance leases reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets approximates fair value based on the Company’s current incremental borrowing rate for similar types of borrowing arrangements. The carrying amount reported in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2020 for borrowings under its Credit Agreement is $55.0 million. The Company has determined that borrowings under its Credit Agreement of $55.0 million as of December 31, 2020 approximates its fair value.
The Company maintains a high deductible insurance policy for a significant portion of its risks and associated liabilities with respect to workers’ compensation. The Company’s deductible is $250 thousand per individual. The accrued liabilities associated with this program are based on the Company’s estimate of the ultimate costs to settle known claims, as well as claims incurred but not yet reported to the Company, as of the balance sheet date. The Company’s estimated liability is not discounted and is based upon an actuarial report obtained from a third party. The actuarial report uses information provided by the Company’s insurance brokers and insurers, combined with the Company’s judgments regarding a number of assumptions and factors, including the frequency and severity of claims, claims development history, case jurisdiction, applicable legislation, and the Company’s claims settlement practices.
The Company is self-insured for healthcare benefits provided to certain employees in the United States, with a stop-loss at $250 thousand per individual. Liabilities associated with the risks that are retained by the Company are estimated, in part, by considering historical claims experience, demographic factors, severity factors and other actuarial assumptions. The Company’s results could be materially affected by claims and other expenses related to such plans if future occurrences and claims differ from these assumptions and historical trends. Other employees are covered by other offered healthcare benefits.
Commitments and Contingencies
In the normal course of business, the Company estimates potential future loss accruals related to legal, workers’ compensation, healthcare, tax and other contingencies. These accruals require management’s judgment on the outcome of various events based on the best available information. However, due to changes in facts and circumstances, the ultimate outcomes could differ from management’s estimates.
Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to the Company's customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration that the Company is expected to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The Company applied practical expedients related to unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which the Company recognizes revenue at the amount to which it has the right to invoice for services performed.
Net sales of the Company’s principal services and products were as follows:
| ||Year Ended December 31,|
|CDIM||$||175,532 ||$||205,536 |
|MPS||79,321 ||123,279 |
|AIM||12,306 ||14,097 |
|Total services sales||267,159 ||342,912 |
|Equipment and Supplies Sales||22,308 ||39,503 |
|Total net sales||$||289,467 ||$||382,415 |
CDIM consists of professional services and software services to (i) re-produce and distribute large-format and small-format documents in either black & white or color (“Ordered Prints”) and (ii) specialized graphic color printing. Substantially, all of the Company’s revenue from CDIM comes from professional services to re-produce Ordered Prints. Sales of Ordered Prints are initiated through a customer order or quote and are governed by established terms and conditions agreed upon at the onset of the customer relationship. Revenue is recognized when the performance obligation under the terms of a contract with a customer are satisfied; generally, this occurs with the transfer of control of the re-produced Ordered Prints. Transfer of control occurs at a specific point-in-time, when the Ordered Prints are delivered to the customer’s site or handed to the customer for walk in orders. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. Taxes collected concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue.
MPS consists of placement, management, and optimization of print and imaging equipment in the customers' offices, job sites, and other facilities. MPS relieves the Company’s customers of the burden of purchasing print equipment and related supplies and maintaining print devices and print networks, and shifts their costs to a “per-use” basis. MPS is supported by the Company's hosted proprietary technology, Abacus®, which allows customers to capture, control, manage, print, and account for
their documents. Under its MPS contracts, the Company is paid a fixed rate per unit for each print produced (per-use), often referred to as a “click charge”. MPS sales are driven by the ongoing print needs of the Company’s customers at their facilities. Upon the issuance of ASC 842, Leases, the Company concluded that certain of its MPS arrangements, which had previously been accounted for as service revenue under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, are accounted for as operating leases under ASC 842. The pattern of revenue recognition for the Company's MPS revenue has remained substantially unchanged following the adoption of ASC 842. See Note 7, Leasing, for additional information.
AIM, combines software and professional services to facilitate the capture, management, access and retrieval of documents and information that have been produced in the past. AIM includes the Company's hosted SKYSITE ® software to organize, search and retrieve documents, as well as the provision of services that include the capture and conversion of hardcopy and electronic documents into digital files (“Scanned Documents”), and their cloud-based storage and maintenance. Sales of AIM professional services, which represent substantially all revenue for AIM, are initiated through a customer order or proposal and are governed by established terms and conditions agreed upon at the onset of the customer relationship. Revenue is recognized when the performance obligation under the terms of a contract with a customer are satisfied; generally, this occurs with the transfer of control of the digital files. Transfer of control occurs at a specific point-in-time, when the Scanned Documents are delivered to the customer either through SKYSITE or through electronic media. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. Taxes collected concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue.
Equipment and Supplies sales consist of reselling printing, imaging, and related equipment (“Goods”) to customers primarily in architectural, engineering and construction firms. Sales of Equipment and Supplies are initiated through a customer order and are governed by established terms and conditions agreed upon at the onset of the customer relationship. Revenue is recognized when the performance obligations under the terms of a contract with a customer are satisfied; generally, this occurs with the transfer of control of the Goods. Transfer of control occurs at a specific point-in-time, when the Goods are delivered to the customer’s site. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. Taxes collected concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue. The Company has experienced minimal customer returns or refunds and does not offer a warranty on equipment that it is reselling.
The Company has established contractual pricing for certain large national customer accounts (“Global Solutions”). These contracts generally establish uniform pricing at all operating segments for Global Solutions. Revenues earned from the Company’s Global Solutions are recognized in the same manner as non-Global Solutions revenues.
Included in revenues are fees charged to customers for shipping, handling, and delivery services. Such revenues amounted to $9.9 million and $11.1 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Revenues from hosted software licensing activities are recognized ratably over the term of the license. Revenues from software licensing activities comprise less than 2% of the Company’s consolidated revenues during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Management provides for returns, discounts and allowances based on historic experience and adjusts such allowances as considered necessary.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The Company’s comprehensive income (loss) includes foreign currency translation adjustments, net of taxes.
Asset and liability accounts of international operations are translated into the Company’s functional currency, U.S. dollars, at current rates. Revenues and expenses are translated at the average currency rate for the fiscal year.
Segment and Geographic Reporting
The provisions of ASC 280, Segment Reporting, require public companies to report financial and descriptive information about their reportable operating segments. The Company identifies operating segments based on the various business activities that earn revenue and incur expense and whose operating results are reviewed by the Company's Chief Executive Officer, who is the Company's chief operating decision maker. Because its operating segments have similar products and services, classes of customers, production processes, distribution methods and economic characteristics, the Company operates as a single reportable segment.
The Company recognizes revenues in geographic areas based on the location to which the product was shipped or services have been rendered. See table below for revenues and property and equipment, net, attributable to the Company’s U.S. operations and foreign operations.
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Revenues from external customers||$||253,179 ||$||36,288 ||$||289,467 ||$||329,372 ||$||53,043 ||$||382,415 |
|Property and equipment, net||$||51,058 ||$||6,772 ||$||57,830 ||$||63,458 ||$||6,876 ||$||70,334 |
Advertising and Shipping and Handling Costs
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and approximated $0.7 million and $1.8 million during 2020 and 2019, respectively. Shipping and handling costs incurred by the Company are included in cost of sales.
The Company applies the Black-Scholes valuation model in determining the fair value of share-based payments to employees, which is then amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period.
Total stock-based compensation for 2020 and 2019, was $1.6 million and $2.5 million, respectively, and was recorded in selling, general, and administrative expenses, consistent with the classification of the underlying salaries. In accordance with ASC 718, Income Taxes, any excess tax benefit resulting from stock-based compensation, in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, are classified along with other income tax cash flows as an operating activity.
The weighted average fair value at the grant date for options issued in 2020 and 2019, was $0.60 and $1.30, respectively. The fair value of each option grant was estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model using the following weighted average assumptions for 2020 and 2019:
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Weighted average assumptions used:|
|Risk free interest rate||1.5 ||%||2.5 ||%|
|Expected volatility||52.2 ||%||54.8 ||%|
|Expected dividend yield||1.2 ||%||— ||%|
Using historical exercise data as a basis, the Company determined that the expected term for stock options issued in 2020 and 2019, was 6.7 years.
For fiscal years 2020 and 2019, expected stock price volatility is based on the Company’s historical volatility for a period equal to the expected term. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant with an equivalent remaining term. Since inception the Company had never paid out dividends and did not plan to issue dividends until the fourth quarter of 2019. The Company accounts for forfeitures of share-based awards when they occur.
As of December 31, 2020, total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to nonvested stock-based compensation was approximately $1.2 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately 1.3 years.
For additional information, see Note 9, Employee Stock Purchase Plan and Stock Plan.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development activities relate to costs associated with the design and testing of new technology or enhancements and maintenance to existing technology. Such costs are expensed as incurred are primarily recorded to cost of sales. In total, research and development amounted to $7.0 million and $9.3 million, during 2020 and 2019, respectively.
The Company accounted for its investment in UNIS Document Solutions Co. Ltd., (“UDS”) under the purchase method of accounting, in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations. UDS has been consolidated in the Company’s financial
statements from the date of acquisition. Noncontrolling interest, which represents the 35 percent non-controlling interest in UDS, is reflected on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company bills sales taxes, as applicable, to its customers. The Company acts as an agent and bills, collects, and remits the sales tax to the proper government jurisdiction. The sales taxes are accounted for on a net basis, and therefore are not included as part of the Company’s revenue.
Earnings Per Share
The Company accounts for earnings per share in accordance with ASC 260, Earnings Per Share. Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to ARC by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per common share is computed similarly to basic earnings per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if common shares subject to outstanding options and acquisition rights had been issued and if the additional common shares were dilutive. Common share equivalents are excluded from the computation if their effect is anti-dilutive. There were 5.2 million and 4.8 million common shares excluded from the calculation of diluted net income attributable to ARC per common share as their effect would have been anti-dilutive for 2020 and 2019, respectively. The Company’s common share equivalents consist of stock options issued under the Company’s Stock Plan.
Basic and diluted weighted average common shares outstanding were calculated as follows for 2020 and 2019:
| ||Year Ended December 31,|
|Weighted average common shares outstanding during the period — basic||42,925 ||44,997 |
|Effect of dilutive stock awards||96 ||86 |
|Weighted average common shares outstanding during the period — diluted||43,021 ||45,083 |
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. ASU 2019-12 will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company elected to early adopt ASU 2019-12 on January 1, 2020. The adoption of ASU 2019-12 did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Loss (Topic 326) (“ASU 2016-13”), which updates the guidance on recognition and measurement of credit losses for financial assets. The new requirements, known as the current expected credit loss model ("CECL") will require entities to adopt an impairment model based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. ASU 2016-13 must be adopted on a modified-retrospective approach. This update was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020 including interim periods within those fiscal years. In October 2019, the FASB approved an extension for all non-SEC filers, including small reporting companies, to extend the effective date to fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Therefore, the effective date for this update will be January 1, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of the new standard on its consolidated statements of financial condition and results of operations.