Disaggregation of Revenue
The following table presents our revenue disaggregated by revenue type. Sales and usage-based taxes are excluded from revenue.
Three months ended March 31,
License-based performance obligations are generally satisfied over time as the customer has access to the product or service during the term of the subscription license and the level of service is consistent during the contract period. License-based agreements typically have a term of 12 to 36 months. License-based revenue is generated from the sale of Morningstar Data, Morningstar Direct, Morningstar Advisor Workstation, PitchBook, and other similar product lines.
Asset-based performance obligations are satisfied over time as the customer receives continuous access to a service for the term. Asset-based arrangements typically have a term of 12 to 36 months. Asset-based fees represent variable consideration and the customer does not make separate purchasing decisions that result in additional performance obligations. Significant changes in the underlying fund assets and significant disruptions in the market are evaluated to determine whether estimates of earned asset-based fees need to be revised for the current quarter. The timing of client asset reporting and the structure of our contracts results in a one-quarter lag between market movements and the impact on earned revenue. An estimate of variable consideration is included in the initial transaction price only to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the revenue recognized will not occur. Estimates of asset-based fees are based on the most recently completed quarter and, as a result, it is unlikely a significant reversal of revenue would occur. Asset-based revenue is generated by Investment Management, Workplace Solutions, and Morningstar Indexes.
Transaction-based performance obligations are satisfied when the product or service is completed or delivered. Transaction-based revenue is generated by DBRS Morningstar, Internet advertising, and conferences. DBRS Morningstar revenue includes revenue from surveillance services, which is recognized over time, as the customer has access to the service during the surveillance period.
Our contract liabilities represent deferred revenue. We record contract liabilities when cash payments are received or due in advance of our performance, including amounts which are refundable. The contract liabilities balance for the three months ended March 31, 2020 had a net increase of $30.1 million, primarily driven by cash payments received or payable in advance of satisfying our performance obligations. We recognized $116.8 million of revenue in the three-month period ended March 31, 2020 that was included in the contract liabilities balance as of December 31, 2019.
We expect to recognize revenue related to our contract liabilities for the remainder of 2020 and subsequent years as follows:
As of March 31, 2020
Remainder of 2020 (from April 1 through December 31)
The aggregate amount of revenue we expect to recognize for the remainder of 2020 and subsequent years is higher than our contract liability balance of $312.4 million as of March 31, 2020. The difference represents the value of future obligations for signed contracts where we have not yet begun to satisfy the performance obligations or have not yet billed the customer.
The table above does not include variable consideration for unsatisfied performance obligations related to certain of our license-based, asset-based, and transaction-based contracts as of March 31, 2020. We are applying the optional exemption available under ASC Topic 606, as the variable consideration relates to these unsatisfied performance obligations being fulfilled as a series. The performance obligations related to these contracts are expected to be satisfied over the next 12 to 36 months as services are provided to the client. For license-based contracts, the consideration received for services performed is based on the number of future users, which is not known until the services are performed. The variable consideration for this revenue can be affected by the number of user licenses, which cannot be reasonably estimated. For asset-based contracts, the consideration received for services performed is based on future asset values, which are not known until the services are performed. The variable consideration for this revenue can be affected by changes in the underlying value of fund assets due to client redemptions, additional investments, or movements in the market. For transaction-based contracts for Internet advertising, the consideration received for services performed is based on the number of impressions, which is not known until the impressions are created. The variable consideration for this revenue can be affected by the timing and quantity of impressions in any given period and cannot be reasonably estimated.
As of March 31, 2020, the table above also does not include revenue for unsatisfied performance obligations related to certain of our license-based and transaction-based contracts with durations of one year or less since we are applying the optional exemption under ASC Topic 606. For certain license-based contracts, the remaining performance obligation is expected to be less than one year based on the corresponding subscription terms. For transaction-based contracts, such as new credit rating issuances and conferences, the related performance obligations are expected to be satisfied within the next 12 months.
Our contract assets represent accounts receivable, less allowance for credit losses and deferred commissions. We did not record any impairment losses on receivables or deferred commissions in the first three months of 2020.
The following table summarizes our contract assets balance:
As of March 31, 2020
As of December 31, 2019
Accounts receivable, less allowance for credit losses
Total contract assets