Disaggregation of Revenue
The following table presents our revenue disaggregated by revenue type. Sales and usage-based taxes are excluded from revenue.
|Three months ended March 31,|
|License-based ||$||266.1 ||$||216.0 |
|Asset-based||61.4 ||57.2 |
|Transaction-based||65.3 ||50.8 |
|Consolidated revenue||$||392.8 ||$||324.0 |
License-based performance obligations are generally satisfied over time as the customer has access to the product or service during the term of the subscription license and the level of service is consistent during the contract period. License-based agreements typically have a term of 1 to 3 years, and are accounted for as subscription services available to customers and not as a license under the accounting guidance. License-based revenue is generated from the sale of PitchBook, Morningstar Data, Morningstar Direct, Morningstar Advisor Workstation, Sustainalytics, and other similar product licenses.
Asset-based performance obligations are satisfied over time as the customer receives continuous access to a service for the term of the agreement. Asset-based arrangements typically have a term of 1 to 3 years. Asset-based fees represent variable consideration and the customer does not make separate purchasing decisions that result in additional performance obligations. Significant changes in the underlying fund assets and significant disruptions in the market are evaluated to determine whether estimates of earned asset-based fees need to be revised for the current quarter. The timing of client asset reporting and the structure of certain contracts can result in a one-quarter lag between market movements and the impact on earned revenue. An estimate of variable consideration is included in the initial transaction price only to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the revenue recognized will not occur. Estimates of asset-based fees are based on the most recently completed quarter and, as a result, it is unlikely a significant reversal of revenue would occur. Asset-based revenue is generated by Investment Management, Workplace Solutions, and Morningstar Indexes.
Transaction-based performance obligations are satisfied when the product or service is completed or delivered. Transaction-based revenue is generated by DBRS Morningstar, Internet advertising, and Morningstar-sponsored conferences. DBRS Morningstar revenue includes revenue from surveillance services, which is recognized over time, as the customer has access to the service during the surveillance period.
Our contract liabilities represent deferred revenue. We record contract liabilities when cash payments are received or due in advance of our performance, including amounts which may be refundable. The contract liabilities balance as of March 31, 2021 had a net increase of $58.6 million, primarily driven by cash payments received or payable in advance of satisfying our performance obligations. We recognized $152.9 million of revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2021 that was included in the contract liabilities balance as of December 31, 2020.
We expect to recognize revenue related to our contract liabilities for the remainder of 2021 and subsequent years as follows:
|(in millions)||As of March 31, 2021|
|Remainder of 2021 (from April 1 through December 31)||$||530.4 |
The aggregate amount of revenue we expect to recognize for the remainder of 2021 and subsequent years is higher than our contract liability balance of $398.9 million as of March 31, 2021. The difference represents the value of future obligations for signed contracts where we have not yet begun to satisfy the performance obligations or have partially satisfied performance obligations.
The table above does not include variable consideration for unsatisfied performance obligations related to certain of our license-based, asset-based, and transaction-based contracts as of March 31, 2021. We are applying the optional exemption available under ASC Topic 606, as the variable consideration relates to these unsatisfied performance obligations being fulfilled as a series. The performance obligations related to these contracts are expected to be satisfied over the next 1 to 3 years as services are provided to the client. For license-based contracts, the consideration received for services performed is based on the number of future users, which is not known until the services are performed. The variable consideration for this revenue can be affected by the number of user licenses, which cannot be reasonably estimated. For asset-based contracts, the consideration received for services performed is based on future asset values, which are not known until the services are performed. The variable consideration for this revenue can be affected by changes in the underlying value of fund assets due to client redemptions, additional investments, or movements in the market. For transaction-based contracts for Internet advertising, the consideration received for services performed is based on the number of impressions, which is not known until the impressions are created. The variable consideration for this revenue can be affected by the timing and quantity of impressions in any given period and cannot be reasonably estimated.
As of March 31, 2021, the table above also does not include revenue for unsatisfied performance obligations related to certain of our license-based and transaction-based contracts with durations of one year or less since we are applying the optional exemption under ASC Topic 606. For certain license-based contracts, the remaining performance obligation is expected to be less than one year based on the corresponding subscription terms or the existence of cancellation terms that may be exercised causing the contract term to be less than one year from March 31, 2021. For transaction-based contracts, such as new credit rating issuances and Morningstar-sponsored conferences, the related performance obligations are expected to be satisfied within the next 12 months.
Our contract assets represent accounts receivable, less allowance for credit losses, and deferred commissions.
The following table summarizes our contract assets balance:
|(in millions)||As of March 31, 2021||As of December 31, 2020|
|Accounts receivable, less allowance for credit losses||$||229.1 ||$||205.1 |
|Deferred commissions||42.4 ||39.6 |
|Total contract assets||$||271.5 ||$||244.7 |