|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Fixed maturity securities include available for sale bonds and redeemable preferred stocks. We carry these investments at estimated fair value. We record any unrealized gain or loss, net of tax and related adjustments, as a component of shareholders’ equity.
Equity securities include investments in common stock, exchange-traded funds and non-redeemable preferred stock. We carry these investments at estimated fair value. Effective January 1, 2018, changes in the fair value of equity securities are recognized in net income as further described below under the caption "Recently Issued Accounting Standards - Adopted Accounting Standards". Prior to January 1, 2018, changes in the fair value of equity securities were recorded in "Accumulated other comprehensive income".
Mortgage loans held in our investment portfolio are carried at amortized unpaid balance, net of allowance for estimated credit losses. Interest income is accrued on the principal amount of the loan based on the loan's contractual interest rate. Payment terms specified for mortgage loans may include a prepayment penalty for unscheduled payoff of the investment. Prepayment penalties are recognized as investment income when received. The allowance for estimated credit losses is measured using a loss-rate method on an individual asset basis. Inputs used include asset-specific characteristics, current economic conditions, historical loss information and reasonable and supportable forecasts about future economic conditions.
Policy loans are stated at current unpaid principal balances. Policy loans are collateralized by the cash surrender value of the life insurance policy. Interest income is recorded as earned using the contractual interest rate.
Trading securities include: (i) investments purchased with the intent of selling in the near team to generate income; (ii) investments supporting certain insurance liabilities; and (iii) certain fixed maturity securities containing embedded derivatives
for which we have elected the fair value option. The change in fair value of the income generating investments and investments supporting insurance liabilities and reinsurance agreements is recognized in income from policyholder and other special-purpose portfolios (a component of net investment income). The change in fair value of securities with embedded derivatives is recognized in realized investment gains (losses). Investment income related to investments supporting certain insurance liabilities is substantially offset by the change in insurance policy benefits related to certain products.
Other invested assets include: (i) call options purchased in an effort to offset or hedge the effects of certain policyholder benefits related to our fixed index annuity and life insurance products; (ii) Company-owned life insurance ("COLI"); (iii) investments in the common stock of the Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB"); and (iv) certain non-traditional investments. We carry the call options at estimated fair value as further described in the section of this note entitled "Accounting for Derivatives". We carry COLI at its cash surrender value which approximates its net realizable value. Non-traditional investments include investments in certain limited partnerships and hedge funds which are accounted for using the equity method. In accounting for limited partnerships and hedge funds, we consistently use the most recently available financial information provided by the general partner or manager of each of these investments, which is one to three months prior to the end of our reporting period.
Interest income on fixed maturity securities is recognized when earned using a constant effective yield method giving effect to amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts. Prepayment fees are recognized when earned. Dividends on equity securities are recognized when declared.
When we sell a security (other than trading securities), we report the difference between the sale proceeds and amortized cost (determined based on specific identification) as a realized investment gain or loss.
When an available for sale fixed maturity security's fair value is below the amortized cost, the security is considered impaired. If a portion of the decline is due to credit-related factors, we separate the credit loss component of the impairment from the amount related to all other factors. The credit loss component is recorded as an allowance and reported in net realized investment gains (losses) (limited to the difference between estimated fair value and amortized cost). The impairment related to all other factors (non-credit factors) is reported in accumulated other comprehensive income along with unrealized gains related to fixed maturity investments, available for sale, net of tax and related adjustments. The allowance is adjusted for any additional credit losses and subsequent recoveries. When recognizing an allowance associated with a credit loss, the cost basis is not adjusted. When we determine a security is uncollectable, the remaining amortized cost will be written off.
In determining the credit loss component, we discount the estimated cash flows on a security by security basis. We consider the impact of macroeconomic conditions on inputs used to measure the amount of credit loss. For most structured securities, cash flow estimates are based on bond-specific facts and circumstances that may include collateral characteristics, expectations of delinquency and default rates, loss severity, prepayment speeds and structural support, including overcollateralization, excess spread, subordination and guarantees. For corporate bonds, cash flow estimates are derived by considering asset type, rating, time to maturity, and applying an expected loss rate.
If we intend to sell an impaired fixed maturity security, available for sale, or identify an impaired fixed maturity security, available for sale, for which is it more likely than not we will be required to sell before anticipated recovery, the difference between the fair value and the amortized cost is included in net realized investment gains (losses) and the fair value becomes the new amortized cost. The new cost basis is not adjusted for any subsequent recoveries in fair value.
The Company reports accrued investment income separately from fixed maturities, available for sale, and has elected not to measure an allowance for credit losses for accrued investment income. Accrued investment income is written off through net investment income at the time the issuer of the bond defaults or is expected to default on payments.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include commercial paper, invested cash and other investments purchased with original maturities of less than three months. We carry them at amortized cost, which approximates estimated fair value. It is the Company's policy to offset negative cash balances with positive balances in other accounts with the same counterparty when agreements are in place permitting legal right of offset.
Deferred Acquisition Costs
Deferred acquisition costs represent incremental direct costs related to the successful acquisition of new or renewal insurance contracts. For interest-sensitive life or annuity products, we amortize these costs in relation to the estimated gross profits using the interest rate credited to the underlying policies. For other products, we amortize these costs in relation to future anticipated premium revenue using the projected investment earnings rate.
When we realize a gain or loss on investments backing our interest-sensitive life or annuity products, we adjust the amortization to reflect the change in estimated gross profits from the products due to the gain or loss realized and the effect on future investment yields. We also adjust deferred acquisition costs for the change in amortization that would have been recorded if our fixed maturity securities, available for sale, had been sold at their stated aggregate fair value and the proceeds reinvested at current yields. We limit the total adjustment related to the impact of unrealized losses to the total of costs capitalized plus interest related to insurance policies issued in a particular year. We include the impact of this adjustment in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) within shareholders' equity.
We regularly evaluate the recoverability of the unamortized balance of the deferred acquisition costs. We consider estimated future gross profits or future premiums, expected mortality or morbidity, interest earned and credited rates, persistency and expenses in determining whether the balance is recoverable. If we determine a portion of the unamortized balance is not recoverable, it is charged to amortization expense. In certain cases, the unamortized balance of the deferred acquisition costs may not be deficient in the aggregate, but our estimates of future earnings indicate that profits would be recognized in early periods and losses in later periods. In this case, we increase the amortization of the deferred acquisition costs over the period of profits, by an amount necessary to offset losses that are expected to be recognized in the later years.
Present Value of Future Profits
The present value of future profits is the value assigned to the right to receive future cash flows from policyholder insurance contracts existing at September 10, 2003 (the "Effective Date", the effective date of the bankruptcy reorganization of Conseco, Inc., an Indiana corporation (our "Predecessor")). The discount rate we used to determine the present value of future profits was 12 percent. The balance of this account is amortized and evaluated for recovery in the same manner as described above for deferred acquisition costs. We also adjust the present value of future profits for the change in amortization that would have been recorded if the fixed maturity securities, available for sale, had been sold at their stated aggregate fair value and the proceeds reinvested at current yields, similar to the manner described above for deferred acquisition costs. We limit the total adjustment related to the impact of unrealized losses to the total present value of future profits plus interest.
Recognition of Insurance Policy Income and Related Benefits and Expenses on Insurance Contracts
For interest-sensitive life and annuity contracts that do not involve significant mortality or morbidity risk, the amounts collected from policyholders are considered deposits and are not included in revenue. Revenues for these contracts consist of charges for policy administration, cost of insurance charges and surrender charges assessed against policyholders' account balances. Such revenues are recognized when the service or coverage is provided, or when the policy is surrendered.
We establish liabilities for annuity and interest-sensitive life products equal to the accumulated policy account values, which include an accumulation of deposit payments plus credited interest, less withdrawals and the amounts assessed against the policyholder through the end of the period. In addition, policyholder account values for certain interest-sensitive life products are impacted by our assumptions related to changes of certain non-guaranteed elements that we are allowed to make under the terms of the policy, such as cost of insurance charges, expense loads, credited interest rates and policyholder bonuses. Sales inducements provided to the policyholders of these products are recognized as liabilities over the period that the contract must remain in force to qualify for the inducement. The options attributed to the policyholder related to our fixed index annuity products are accounted for as embedded derivatives as described in the section of this note entitled "Accounting for Derivatives".
Premiums from individual life products (other than interest-sensitive life contracts) and health products are recognized when due. When premiums are due over a significantly shorter period than the period over which benefits are provided, any gross premium in excess of the net premium (i.e., the portion of the gross premium required to provide for all expected future
benefits and expenses) is deferred and recognized into revenue in a constant relationship to insurance in force. Benefits are recorded as an expense when they are incurred.
We establish liabilities for traditional life, accident and health insurance, and life contingent payment annuity products using mortality tables in general use in the United States, which are modified to reflect the Company's actual experience when appropriate. We establish liabilities for accident and health insurance products using morbidity tables based on the Company's actual or expected experience. These reserves are computed at amounts that, with additions from estimated future premiums received and with interest on such reserves at estimated future rates, are expected to be sufficient to meet our obligations under the terms of the policy. Liabilities for future policy benefits are computed on a net-level premium method based upon assumptions as to future claim costs, investment yields, mortality, morbidity, withdrawals, policy dividends and maintenance expenses determined when the policies were issued (or with respect to policies inforce at August 31, 2003, the Company's best estimate of such assumptions on the Effective Date). We make an additional provision to allow for potential adverse deviation for some of our assumptions. Once established, assumptions on these products are generally not changed unless a premium deficiency exists. In that case, a premium deficiency reserve is recognized and the future pattern of reserve changes is modified to reflect the relationship of premiums to benefits based on the current best estimate of future claim costs, investment yields, mortality, morbidity, withdrawals, policy dividends and maintenance expenses, determined without an additional provision for potential adverse deviation.
We establish claim reserves based on our estimate of the loss to be incurred on reported claims plus estimates of incurred but unreported claims based on our past experience.
Accounting for Long-term Care Premium Rate Increases
Many of our long-term care policies have been subject to premium rate increases. In some cases, these premium rate increases were materially consistent with the assumptions we used to value the particular block of business at the Effective Date. With respect to certain premium rate increases, some of our policyholders were provided an option to cease paying their premiums and receive a non-forfeiture option in the form of a paid-up policy with limited benefits. In addition, our policyholders could choose to reduce their coverage amounts and premiums in the same proportion, when permitted by our contracts or as required by regulators. The following describes how we account for these policyholder options:
•Premium rate increases - If premium rate increases reflect a change in our previous rate increase assumptions, the new assumptions are not reflected prospectively in our reserves. Instead, the additional premium revenue resulting from the rate increase is recognized as earned and original assumptions continue to be used to determine changes to liabilities for insurance products unless a premium deficiency exists.
•Benefit reductions - A policyholder may choose reduced coverage with a proportionate reduction in premium, when permitted by our contracts. This option does not require additional underwriting. Benefit reductions are treated as a partial lapse of coverage, and the balance of our reserves and deferred insurance acquisition costs is reduced in proportion to the reduced coverage.
•Non-forfeiture benefits offered in conjunction with a rate increase - In some cases, non-forfeiture benefits are offered to policyholders who wish to lapse their policies at the time of a significant rate increase. In these cases, exercise of this option is treated as an extinguishment of the original contract and issuance of a new contract. The balance of our reserves and deferred insurance acquisition costs are released, and a reserve for the new contract is established.
Some of our policyholders may receive a non-forfeiture benefit if they cease paying their premiums pursuant to their original contract (or pursuant to changes made to their original contract as a result of a litigation settlement made prior to the Effective Date or an order issued by the Florida Office of Insurance Regulation). In these cases, exercise of this option is treated as the exercise of a policy benefit, and the reserve for premium paying benefits is reduced, and the reserve for the non-forfeiture benefit is adjusted to reflect the election of this benefit.
Accounting for Certain Marketing Agreements
Bankers Life and Casualty Company ("Bankers Life") has entered into various distribution and marketing agreements with other insurance companies to use Bankers Life's exclusive agents to distribute prescription drug and Medicare Advantage
plans. These agreements allow Bankers Life to offer these products to current and potential future policyholders without investment in management and infrastructure. We receive fee income related to the plans sold through our distribution channels and incur distribution expenses paid to our agents who sell such products.
The recognition of fee revenue and the distribution expenses paid to our agents results from approval of an application by the third-party insurance companies, which we define as our customers. We recognize revenue and distribution fees related to these sales in accordance with the new revenue recognition guidance which was effective January 1, 2018 (see "Recently Issued Accounting Standards - Adopted Accounting Standards" below). This guidance requires us to recognize the net lifetime revenue expected to be earned on these sales, but only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. Prior to the fourth quarter of 2019, our revenue recognition was constrained due to the limited historical data available. In the fourth quarter of 2019, we had accumulated additional historical data with respect to some Medicare Advantage plan sales, and certain assumptions and constraints related to our revenue recognition were updated to reflect this change in estimate. To the extent we make changes to the assumptions we use to calculate revenue on these products, we will recognize the impact of the changes in the period in which the change is made.
In the normal course of business, we seek to limit our loss exposure on any single insured or to certain groups of policies by ceding reinsurance to other insurance enterprises. We currently retain no more than $0.8 million of mortality risk on any one policy. We diversify the risk of reinsurance loss by using a number of reinsurers that have strong claims-paying ratings. In each case, the ceding CNO subsidiary is directly liable for claims reinsured in the event the assuming company is unable to pay.
The cost of reinsurance ceded totaled $262.5 million, $260.6 million and $144.5 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We deduct this cost from insurance policy income. Reinsurance recoveries netted against insurance policy benefits totaled $403.8 million, $439.8 million and $173.5 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The cost of reinsurance and reinsurance recovered amounts include the impacts of the reinsurance transaction with Wilton Reassurance Company ("Wilton Re") described below.
From time to time, we assume insurance from other companies. Any costs associated with the assumption of insurance are amortized consistent with the method used to amortize deferred acquisition costs. Reinsurance premiums assumed totaled $23.0 million, $25.1 million and $28.0 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Insurance policy benefits related to reinsurance assumed totaled $31.4 million, $36.4 million and $36.4 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
On September 27, 2018, the Company completed a long-term care reinsurance transaction pursuant to which its wholly-owned subsidiary, Bankers Life, entered into an agreement with Wilton Re to cede all of its legacy (prior to 2003) comprehensive and nursing home long-term care policies (with statutory reserves of $2.7 billion) through 100% indemnity coinsurance. Bankers Life paid a ceding commission of $825 million to reinsure the block, funded through excess capital in the insurance subsidiaries and at the holding company. Bankers Life transferred to Wilton Re assets equal to the statutory liabilities supporting the block plus the ceding commission (subject to a customary post-closing adjustment). CNO recognized a charge related to the transaction of $661.1 million, net of taxes and gains recognized on the assets transferred to Wilton Re. The charge is primarily attributable to loss recognition on the block due to the ceding commission.
In addition to the reinsurance agreement, Bankers Life and another CNO subsidiary entered into certain other agreements with Wilton Re, including a trust agreement, an administrative services agreement and a transition services agreement.
Wilton Re established a trust account for the benefit of Bankers Life to secure its obligations under the coinsurance agreement. The trust account is required to hold qualified assets with book values equal to the statutory liabilities of the block plus an additional amount, initially $500 million, which declines over time.
Our income tax expense includes deferred income taxes arising from temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and net operating loss carryforwards ("NOLs"). Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply in the years in which temporary differences are expected to be
recovered or paid. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in earnings in the period when the changes are enacted.
A reduction of the net carrying amount of deferred tax assets by establishing a valuation allowance is required if, based on the available evidence, it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, all available evidence, both positive and negative, shall be considered to determine whether, based on the weight of that evidence, a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets is needed. This assessment requires significant judgment and considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of current and cumulative losses, forecasts of future profitability, the duration of carryforward periods, our experience with operating loss and tax credit carryforwards expiring unused, and tax planning strategies. We evaluate the need to establish a valuation allowance for our deferred income tax assets on an ongoing basis. The realization of our deferred tax assets depends upon generating sufficient future taxable income of the appropriate type during the periods in which our temporary differences become deductible and before our NOLs expire.
Investments in Variable Interest Entities
We have concluded that we are the primary beneficiary with respect to certain variable interest entities ("VIEs"), which are consolidated in our financial statements. All of the VIEs are collateralized loan trusts that were established to issue securities to finance the purchase of corporate loans and other permitted investments. The assets held by the trusts are legally isolated and not available to the Company. The liabilities of the VIEs are expected to be satisfied from the cash flows generated by the underlying loans held by the trusts, not from the assets of the Company. The Company has no financial obligation to the VIEs beyond its investment in each VIE.
The investment portfolios held by the VIEs are primarily comprised of commercial bank loans to corporate obligors which are almost entirely rated below-investment grade. Refer to the note to the consolidated financial statements entitled "Investments in Variable Interest Entities" for additional information about VIEs.
In addition, the Company, in the normal course of business, makes passive investments in structured securities issued by VIEs for which the Company is not the investment manager. These structured securities include asset-backed securities, agency residential mortgage-backed securities, non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities, collateralized loan obligations and commercial mortgage-backed securities. Our maximum exposure to loss on these securities is limited to our cost basis in the investment. We have determined that we are not the primary beneficiary of these structured securities due to the relative size of our investment in comparison to the total principal amount of the individual structured securities and the level of credit subordination which reduces our obligation to absorb gains or losses.
At December 31, 2020, we held investments in various limited partnerships and hedge funds, in which we are not the primary beneficiary, totaling $562.7 million (classified as other invested assets). At December 31, 2020, we had unfunded commitments to these partnerships totaling $91.9 million. Our maximum exposure to loss on these investments is limited to the amount of our investment.
Three of the Company's insurance subsidiaries (Bankers Life, Washington National Insurance Company ("Washington National") and Colonial Penn Life Insurance Company) are members of the FHLB. As members of the FHLB, our insurance subsidiaries have the ability to borrow on a collateralized basis from the FHLB. We are required to hold certain minimum amounts of FHLB common stock as a condition of membership in the FHLB, and additional amounts based on the amount of the borrowings. New guidance effective January 1, 2018, requiring equity investments to be measured at fair value (as described in the section of this note entitled "Recently Issued Accounting Standards - Adopted Accounting Standards") does not apply to FHLB common stock and prohibits such investments from being classified as equity securities subject to the new guidance. Accordingly, our investment in the FHLB common stock is classified as other invested assets. At December 31, 2020, the carrying value of the FHLB common stock was $71.0 million. As of December 31, 2020, collateralized borrowings from the FHLB totaled $1.6 billion and the proceeds were used to purchase fixed maturity securities. The borrowings are classified as investment borrowings in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet. The borrowings are collateralized by investments with an estimated fair value of $2.0 billion at December 31, 2020, which are maintained in a custodial account for the benefit of the FHLB. Substantially all of such investments are classified as fixed maturities, available for sale, in our consolidated balance sheet.
The following summarizes the terms of the borrowings from the FHLB by our insurance subsidiaries (dollars in millions):
|Amount||Maturity||Interest rate at|
|borrowed||date||December 31, 2020|
|$||27.4 ||August 2021|
Fixed rate – 2.550%
|22.0 ||May 2022|
Variable rate – .574%
|100.0 ||May 2022|
Variable rate – .575%
|10.0 ||June 2022|
Variable rate – .844%
|50.0 ||July 2022|
Variable rate – .591%
|50.0 ||July 2022|
Variable rate – .595%
|50.0 ||July 2022|
Variable rate – .602%
|50.0 ||August 2022|
Variable rate – .603%
|50.0 ||December 2022|
Variable rate – .525%
|50.0 ||December 2022|
Variable rate – .525%
|22.4 ||March 2023|
Fixed rate – 2.160%
|50.0 ||July 2023|
Variable rate – .543%
|100.0 ||July 2023|
Variable rate – .543%
|50.0 ||February 2024|
Variable rate – .541%
|50.0 ||May 2024|
Variable rate – .634%
|21.8 ||May 2024|
Variable rate – .632%
|100.0 ||May 2024|
Variable rate – .633%
|50.0 ||May 2024|
Variable rate – .678%
|75.0 ||June 2024|
Variable rate – .561%
|100.0 ||July 2024|
Variable rate – .544%
|15.5 ||July 2024|
Fixed rate – 1.990%
|34.5 ||July 2024|
Variable rate – .763%
|15.0 ||July 2024|
Variable rate – .663%
|25.0 ||September 2024|
Variable rate – .786%
|21.7 ||May 2025|
Variable rate – .484%
|19.5 ||June 2025|
Fixed rate – 2.940%
|125.0 ||September 2025|
Variable rate – .440%
|100.0 ||October 2025|
Variable rate – .630%
|100.0 ||October 2025|
Variable rate – .635%
|57.7 ||October 2025|
Variable rate – .610%
|50.0 ||November 2025|
Variable rate – .603%
|$||1,642.5 || || |
The variable rate borrowings are pre-payable on each interest reset date without penalty. The fixed rate borrowings are pre-payable subject to payment of a yield maintenance fee based on prevailing market interest rates. At December 31, 2020, the aggregate yield maintenance fee to prepay all fixed rate borrowings was $5.8 million.
Interest expense of $21.2 million, $46.2 million and $41.9 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, was recognized related to total borrowings from the FHLB.
Accounting for Derivatives
Our fixed index annuity products provide a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a higher potential return that is based on a percentage (the "participation rate") of the amount of increase in the value of a particular index, such as the Standard & Poor's 500 Index, over a specified period. Typically, on each policy anniversary date, a new index period begins. We are generally able to change the participation rate at the beginning of each index period during a policy year, subject to contractual minimums. The Company accounts for the options attributed to the policyholder for the estimated life of the contract as embedded derivatives. We are required to record the embedded derivatives related to our fixed index annuity products at estimated fair value.
The value of the embedded derivative is based on the estimated cost to fulfill our commitment to fixed indexed annuity policyholders to purchase a series of annual forward options over the duration of the policy that back the potential return based on a percentage of the amount of increase in the value of the appropriate index. In valuing these options, we are required to make assumptions regarding: (i) future index values to determine both the future notional amounts at each anniversary date and the future prices of the forward starting options; (ii) future annual participation rates; and (iii) non-economic factors related to policy persistency. These assumptions are used to estimate the future cost to purchase the options.
The value of the embedded derivatives is determined based on the present value of estimated future option costs discounted using a risk-free rate adjusted for our non-performance risk and risk margins for non-capital market inputs. The non-performance risk adjustment is determined by taking into consideration publicly available information related to spreads in the secondary market for debt with credit ratings similar to ours. These observable spreads are then adjusted to reflect the priority of these liabilities and the claim paying ability of the issuing insurance subsidiaries.
Risk margins are established to capture non-capital market risks which represent the additional compensation a market participant would require to assume the risks related to the uncertainties regarding the embedded derivatives, including future policyholder behavior related to persistency. The determination of the risk margin is highly judgmental given the lack of a market to assume the risks solely related to the embedded derivatives of our fixed index annuity products.
The determination of the appropriate risk-free rate and non-performance risk is sensitive to the economic and interest rate environment. Accordingly, the value of the derivative is volatile due to external market sensitivities, which may materially affect net income. Additionally, changes in the judgmental assumptions regarding the appropriate risk margin can significantly impact the value of the derivative.
We typically buy call options (including call spreads) referenced to the applicable indices in an effort to offset or hedge potential increases to policyholder benefits resulting from increases in the particular index to which the policy's return is linked.
We purchase certain fixed maturity securities that contain embedded derivatives that are required to be held at fair value on the consolidated balance sheet. We have elected the fair value option to carry the entire security at fair value with changes in fair value reported in net income.
Certain of our annuity products offer sales inducements to contract holders in the form of enhanced crediting rates or bonus payments in the initial period of the contract. Certain of our life insurance products offer persistency bonuses credited to the contract holder's balance after the policy has been outstanding for a specified period of time. These enhanced rates and persistency bonuses are considered sales inducements in accordance with GAAP. Such amounts are deferred and amortized in the same manner as deferred acquisition costs. Sales inducements deferred totaled $14.1 million, $24.9 million and $11.6 million during 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Amounts amortized totaled $15.4 million, $7.7 million and $10.6 million during 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The unamortized balance of deferred sales inducements was $59.4 million and $60.7 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
In 2018, we recorded the net effect of out-of-period adjustments related to the calculation of certain insurance liabilities which increased insurance policy benefits by $2.5 million (of which, $1.4 million related to long-term care reserves and $1.1 million related to a closed block of payout annuities), decreased tax expense by $0.5 million and increased our net loss by $2.0 million (or 1 cent per diluted share). We evaluated these adjustments taking into account both qualitative and quantitative factors and considered the impact of these adjustments in relation to each period, as well as the periods in which they originated. The impact of recognizing these adjustments in prior years was not significant to any individual period. Management believes these adjustments are immaterial to the consolidated financial statements and all previously issued financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Pending Accounting Standards
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the "FASB") issued authoritative guidance that makes targeted improvements to the accounting for long-duration contracts. The new guidance: (i) improves the timeliness of recognizing changes in the liability for future benefits and modifies the rate used to discount future cash flows; (ii) simplifies and improves the accounting for certain market-based options or guarantees associated with deposit (or account balance) contracts; (iii) simplifies the amortization of deferred acquisition costs; and (iv) requires enhanced disclosures, including disaggregated rollforwards of the liability for future policy benefits, policyholder account liabilities, market risk benefits and deferred acquisition costs. Additionally, qualitative and quantitative information about expected cash flows, estimates and assumptions will be required. The new measurement guidance for traditional and limited-payment contract liabilities and the new guidance for the amortization of deferred acquisition costs are required to be adopted on a modified retrospective transition approach, with an option to elect a full retrospective transition if certain criteria are met. The transition approach for deferred acquisition costs is required to be consistent with the transition applied to the liability for future policyholder benefits. Under the modified retrospective approach, for contracts in-force at the transition date, an entity would continue to use the existing locked-in investment yield interest rate assumption to calculate the net premium ratio, rather than the upper-medium grade fixed-income corporate instrument yield. However, for balance sheet remeasurement purposes, the current upper-medium grade fixed-income corporate instrument yield would be used at transition through accumulated other comprehensive income and subsequently through other comprehensive income. For market risk benefits, retrospective application is required, with the ability to use hindsight to measure fair value components to the extent assumptions in a prior period are unobservable or otherwise unavailable. In November 2020, the FASB issued authoritative guidance which delayed the effective date of this guidance for the Company by one year (until January 1, 2023). The Company has not yet determined the expected impact of adoption of this guidance on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Adopted Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to accounting for leases, requiring lessees to report most leases on their balance sheets, regardless of whether the lease is classified as a finance lease or an operating lease. For lessees, the initial lease liability is equal to the present value of future lease payments, and a corresponding asset, adjusted for certain items, is also recorded. Expense recognition for lessees will remain similar to current accounting requirements for capital and operating leases. The accounting applied by a lessor is largely unchanged from that applied under previous GAAP. In transition, lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. Based on lease contracts in effect at January 1, 2019, the impact of implementation of the new leasing guidance was the recognition of a "right to use" asset (included in other assets) and a "lease liability" (included in other liabilities) of $72.0 million and there was no cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of January 1, 2019. The Company elected to apply practical expedients related to the adoption of the new guidance including: not reassessing whether a contract includes an embedded lease at adoption; not reassessing the previously determined classification of a lease as operating or capital; not reassessing our previously recorded initial direct costs; election of an accounting policy that permits inclusion of both the lease and non-lease components as a single component and account for it as a lease; and election of an accounting policy to exclude lease accounting requirements for leases that have terms of less than twelve months. Refer to the note to the consolidated financial statements entitled "Litigation and Other Legal Proceedings - Leases and Certain Other Long-Term Commitments" for additional disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to the measurement of credit losses on financial instruments. The new guidance replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to form credit loss estimates. The guidance requires financial assets measured at amortized cost basis to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The allowance for credit losses is a valuation account that is deducted from the amortized cost basis of the financial asset to present the net carrying value at the amount expected to be collected on the financial asset. Credit losses on available for sale debt securities are measured in a manner similar to current GAAP. However, the guidance requires that credit losses be presented as an allowance rather than as a writedown. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2020. The impact of adoption, using the modified retrospective approach, was as follows (dollars in millions):
|January 1, 2020|
|Amounts prior to effect of adoption of authoritative guidance||Effect of adoption of authoritative guidance||As adjusted|
|Fixed maturities, available for sale||$||21,295.2 ||$||(2.1)||$||21,293.1 |
|Mortgage loans||1,566.1 ||(6.7)||1,559.4 |
|Investments held by variable interest entities||1,188.6 ||(9.9)||1,178.7 |
|Income tax assets, net||432.6 ||4.9 ||437.5 |
|Reinsurance receivables||4,785.7 ||(4.0)||4,781.7 |
|Total assets||33,630.9 ||(17.8)||33,613.1 |
|Retained earnings||535.7 ||(17.8)||517.9 |
|Total shareholders' equity||4,677.0 ||(17.8)||4,659.2 |
In March 2017, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to the premium amortization on purchased callable debt securities. The guidance shortens the amortization period for certain callable debt securities held at a premium. Specifically, the new guidance requires the premium to be amortized to the earliest call date. The guidance does not require an accounting change for securities held at a discount; the discount continues to be amortized to maturity. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. The guidance was applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of January 1, 2019. The impact of adoption was as follows (dollars in millions):
|January 1, 2019|
|Amounts prior to effect of adoption of authoritative guidance||Effect of adoption of authoritative guidance||As adjusted|
|Fixed maturities, available for sale||$||18,447.7 ||$||(4.0)||$||18,443.7 |
|Income tax assets, net||630.0 ||.9 ||630.9 |
|Total assets||31,439.8 ||(3.1)||31,436.7 |
|Retained earnings||196.6 ||(3.1)||193.5 |
|Total shareholders' equity||3,370.9 ||(3.1)||3,367.8 |
In January 2017, the FASB issued authoritative guidance that removes Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test under current guidance, which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation. The new guidance requires an impairment charge to be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reported unit's fair value. Upon adoption, the guidance is to be applied prospectively. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2020. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In August 2017, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to derivatives and hedging. The new guidance expands and refines hedge accounting for both nonfinancial and financial risk components and aligns the recognition and presentation of the effects of the hedging instruments and the hedged item in the financial statements. The new guidance also includes certain targeted improvements to ease the application of current guidance related to the assessment of hedge effectiveness. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. Based on the Company's current use of derivatives and hedging activities, the adoption of this guidance had no impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In August 2018, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to changes to the disclosure requirements for fair value measurement. The new guidance removes, modifies and adds certain disclosure requirements. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2020. The adoption of such guidance impacted certain fair value disclosures, but did not impact our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In May 2014, the FASB issued authoritative guidance for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers. Certain contracts with customers are specifically excluded from this guidance, including insurance contracts. The core principle of the new guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance also requires additional disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2018. The adoption of this new guidance impacted the timing of certain revenues and expenses between quarters of a calendar year for various distribution and marketing agreements with other insurance companies pursuant to which Bankers Life's exclusive agents distribute third party products including prescription drug and Medicare Advantage plans. See "Accounting for Certain Marketing Agreements" above, for a description of our accounting under this standard. Furthermore, we recognized distribution expenses in the same period that the associated fee revenue was earned.
In January 2016, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to the recognition and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities which made targeted improvements to GAAP as follows:
(i) Require equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. However, an entity may choose to measure equity investments that do not have readily determinable fair values at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer.
(ii) Simplify the impairment assessment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values by requiring a qualitative assessment to identify impairment. When a qualitative assessment indicates that impairment exists, an entity is required to measure the investment at fair value.
(iii) Eliminate the requirement for public business entities to disclose the method(s) and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value that is required to be disclosed for financial instruments measured at amortized cost on the balance sheet.
(iv) Require public business entities to use the exit price notion when measuring the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes.
(v) Require an entity to present separately in other comprehensive income the portion of the total change in the fair value of a liability resulting from a change in the instrument-specific credit risk when the entity has elected to measure the liability at fair value in accordance with the fair value option for financial instruments.
(vi) Require separate presentation of financial assets and financial liabilities by measurement category and form of financial asset (that is, securities or loans and receivables) on the balance sheet or the accompanying notes to the financial statements.
(vii) Clarify that an entity should evaluate the need for a valuation allowance on a deferred tax asset related to available for sale securities in combination with the entity's other deferred tax assets.
The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2018. Accordingly, the Company recorded a cumulative effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of January 1, 2018, related to certain equity investments that are measured at fair value. The impact of adoption was as follows (dollars in millions):
|January 1, 2018|
|Amounts prior to effect of adoption of authoritative guidance||Effect of adoption of authoritative guidance||As adjusted|
|Accumulated other comprehensive income||$||1,212.1 ||$||(16.3)||$||1,195.8 |
|Retained earnings||560.4 ||16.3 ||576.7 |
|Total shareholders' equity||4,847.5 ||— ||4,847.5 |
In August 2016, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The guidance addresses eight specific cash flow issues including debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs, proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies, distributions received from equity method investees, and others. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2018. The adoption of this guidance resulted in reclassifications to certain cash receipts and payments within our consolidated statement of cash flows, but had no impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In November 2016, the FASB issued authoritative guidance to address the diversity in practice that currently exists regarding the classification and presentation of changes in restricted cash on the statement of cash flows. The new guidance requires that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. Entities are also required to disclose information about the nature of their restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents. Additionally, if cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents are presented in more than one line item in the statement of financial position, entities will be required to present a reconciliation, either on the face of the statement of cash flows or disclosed in the notes, of the totals in the statement of cash flows to the related line item captions in the statement of financial position. The guidance was effective for the Company on January 1, 2018. The adoption of this guidance impacted the presentation of our consolidated statement of cash flows and related cash flow disclosures, but did not have an impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In May 2017, the FASB issued authoritative guidance related to which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based award require an entity to apply modification accounting. The guidance was effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. The guidance is to be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact to the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.