|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
LCNB Corp. (the "Company" or “LCNB”), an Ohio corporation formed in December 1998, is a financial holding company whose principal activity is the ownership of LCNB National Bank (the "Bank"). The Bank was founded in 1877 and provides full banking services, including Wealth Management and Investment services, to customers primarily in Southwestern Ohio and Franklin County Ohio and contiguous areas.
BASIS OF PRESENTATION
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. Significant intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation. The accounting and reporting policies of the Company conform with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and with general practices in the banking industry.
Certain prior period data presented in the consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform with the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on net income.
USE OF ESTIMATES
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
For purposes of reporting cash flows, cash and cash equivalents include cash, balances due from banks, federal funds sold, and interest-bearing demand deposits with original maturities of twelve months or less. Deposits with other banks routinely have balances greater than FDIC insured limits. Management considers the risk of loss to be very low with respect to such deposits.
Certain municipal debt securities that management has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as “held-to-maturity” and recorded at amortized cost. Debt securities not classified as held-to-maturity are classified as “available-for-sale” and recorded at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses excluded from earnings and reported in other comprehensive income, a separate component of shareholders’ equity. Amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts are recognized as adjustments to interest income using the level-yield method. Realized gains or losses from the sale of securities are recorded on the trade date and are computed using the specific identification method.
Declines in the fair value of debt securities below their cost that are deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired, and for which the Company does not intend to sell the securities and it is not more likely than not that the securities will be sold before the anticipated recovery of the impairment, are separated into losses related to credit factors and losses related to other factors. The losses related to credit factors are recognized in earnings and losses related to other factors are recognized in other comprehensive income. In estimating other than temporary impairment losses, management considers the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, and the intent and ability of the Company to retain its investment in the issuer for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value. Management determined that no such impairment adjustment was required to be made in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Income as of December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018.
Equity securities are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income.
Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB") stock is an equity interest in the Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati. It can be sold only at its par value of $100 per share and only to the FHLB or to another member institution. In addition, the equity ownership rights are more limited than would be the case for a public company because of the oversight role exercised by the Federal Housing Finance Agency in the process of budgeting and approving dividends. Federal Reserve Bank stock is similarly restricted in marketability and value. Both investments are carried at cost, which is their par value.
FHLB and Federal Reserve Bank stock are both subject to minimum ownership requirements by member banks. The required investments in common stock are based on predetermined formulas.
The Company’s loan portfolio includes most types of commercial and industrial loans, commercial loans secured by real estate, residential real estate loans, consumer loans, agricultural loans and other types of loans. Most of the properties collateralizing the loan portfolio are located within the Company’s market area.
Loans are stated at the principal amount outstanding, net of unearned income, deferred origination fees and costs, and the allowance for loan losses. Interest income is accrued on the unpaid principal balance. The delinquency status of a loan is based on contractual terms and not on how recently payments have been received. Generally, a loan is placed on non-accrual status when it is classified as impaired or there is an indication that the borrower’s cash flow may not be sufficient to make payments as they come due, unless the loan is well secured and in the process of collection. Subsequent cash receipts on non-accrual loans are recorded as a reduction of principal and interest income is recorded once principal recovery is reasonably assured. The current year's accrued interest on loans placed on non-accrual status is charged against earnings. Previous years' accrued interest is charged against the allowance for loan losses. Non-accrual loans are returned to accrual status when, in the opinion of management, the financial position of the borrower indicates there is no longer a reasonable doubt as to the timely collection of interest or principal.
Loan origination fees and certain direct loan origination costs are deferred and the net amount amortized as an adjustment of loan yields. These amounts are being amortized over the lives of the related loans.
In the ordinary course of business, the Company enters into off-balance sheet financial instruments consisting of commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit. Such financial instruments are recorded in the consolidated financial statements when they are funded. The credit risk associated with these commitments is evaluated in a manner similar to the allowance for loan losses.
Loans acquired from mergers are recorded at fair value with no carryover of the acquired entity's previously established allowance for loan losses. The excess of expected cash flows over the estimated fair value of acquired loans is recognized as interest income over the remaining contractual lives of the loans using the level yield method. Subsequent decreases in expected cash flows will require additions to the allowance for loan losses. Subsequent improvements in expected cash flows result in the recognition of additional interest income over the then-remaining contractual lives of the loans. Management estimates the cash flows expected to be collected at acquisition using a third-party risk model, which incorporates the estimate of key assumptions, such as default rates, severity, and prepayment speeds.
Impaired loans acquired are accounted for under Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") No. 310-30. Factors considered in evaluating whether an acquired loan was impaired include delinquency status and history, updated borrower credit status, collateral information, and current loan-to-value information. The difference between contractually required payments at the time of acquisition and the cash flows expected to be collected is referred to as the nonaccretable difference. The interest component of the cash flows expected to be collected is referred to as the accretable yield and is recognized as interest income over the remaining contractual life of the loan using the level yield method. Subsequent decreases in expected cash flows will require additions to the allowance for loan losses. Subsequent improvements in expected cash flows will result in a reclassification from the nonaccretable difference to the accretable yield.
ALLOWANCE FOR LOAN LOSSES
The allowance for loan losses is established through a provision for loan losses charged to expense. Loans are charged against the allowance for loan losses when management believes that the collectability of the principal is unlikely. Consumer loans are charged off when they reach 120 days past due. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance.
The provision for loan losses is determined by management based upon its evaluation of the amount needed to maintain the allowance for loan losses at a level considered appropriate in relation to the estimated risk of losses inherent in the portfolio. Current methodology used by management to estimate the allowance takes into consideration such factors as changes in the nature and volume of the loan portfolio, overall portfolio quality, review of specific problem loans, historic categorical trends, current delinquency levels as related to historical levels, portfolio growth rates, changes in composition of the portfolio, the current economic environment, as well as current allowance adequacy in relation to the portfolio. Management is cognizant that reliance on historical information coupled with the cyclical nature of the economy, including credit cycles, affects the allowance. Management considers all of these factors prior to making any adjustments to the allowance due to the subjectivity and imprecision involved in allocation methodology. This evaluation is inherently subjective as it requires estimates that are susceptible to significant revision as more information becomes available.
The allowance consists of specific and general components. The specific component relates to loans that are specifically reviewed for impairment. For such loans, an allowance is established when the discounted cash flows (or collateral value or observable market price) of the impaired loan is lower than the carrying value of that loan. The general component covers loans not specifically reviewed for impairment and homogeneous loan pools, such as residential real estate and consumer loans. The general component is measured for each loan category separately based on each category’s average of historical loss experience over a trailing sixty month period, adjusted for qualitative factors. Such qualitative factors may include current economic conditions if different from the five-year historical loss period, trends in underperforming loans, trends in volume and terms of loan categories, concentrations of credit, and trends in loan quality.
A loan is considered impaired when management believes, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Bank will be unable to collect all amounts due, including principal and interest, according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. An impaired loan is measured by the present value of expected future cash flows using the loan's effective interest rate. An impaired collateral-dependent loan may be measured based on collateral value. Smaller-balance homogeneous loans, including residential mortgage and consumer installment loans, which are not evaluated individually are collectively evaluated for impairment.
PREMISES AND EQUIPMENT
Premises and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Land is stated at cost. Depreciation is computed on both the straight-line and accelerated methods over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally 15 to 40 years for premises and 3 to 10 years for equipment. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the terms of the respective leases or the estimated useful lives of the improvements, whichever is shorter. Costs incurred for maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Premises and equipment are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of a particular asset may not be recoverable.
FASB Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)," was adopted by LCNB as of January 1, 2019. It requires a lessee to recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments ("the lease liability") and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term, initially measured at the present value of the lease payments. When measuring assets and liabilities arising from a lease, the lessee should include payments to be made in optional periods only if the lessee is reasonably certain, as defined, to exercise an option to the lease or not to exercise an option to terminate the lease. Optional payments to purchase the underlying asset should be included if the lessee is reasonably certain it will exercise the purchase option. Most variable lease payments should be excluded except for those that depend on an index or a rate or are in substance fixed payments.
A lessee shall classify a lease as a finance lease if it meets any of five designated criteria. If the lease does not meet any of the five criteria, the lessee shall classify it as an operating lease. All leases entered into by LCNB through December 31, 2020 are classified as operating leases. Lessees shall recognize a single lease cost on a straight-line basis over the lease term for operating leases. LCNB has adopted an accounting policy election to not recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for leases with a term of 12 months or less. Lease expense for such leases will generally be recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
OTHER REAL ESTATE OWNED
Other real estate owned includes properties acquired through foreclosure. Such property is held for sale and is initially recorded at fair value, less costs to sell, establishing a new cost basis. Fair value is primarily based on a property appraisal obtained at the time of transfer and any periodic updates that may be obtained thereafter. The allowance for loan losses is charged for any write down of the loan’s carrying value to fair value at the date of transfer. Any subsequent reductions in fair value and expenses incurred from holding other real estate owned are charged to other non-interest expense. Costs, excluding interest, relating to the improvement of other real estate owned are capitalized. Gains and losses from the sale of other real estate owned are included in other non-interest expense.
GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired in a business combination. Goodwill is not amortized, but is instead subject to an annual review for impairment. A review for impairment may be conducted more frequently than annually if circumstances indicate a possible impairment. Impairment indicators that may be considered include the condition of the economy and banking industry; estimated future cash flows; government intervention and regulatory updates; the impact of recent events to financial performance and cost factors of the reporting unit; performance of LCNB’s stock, and other relevant events. These and other factors could lead to a conclusion that goodwill is impaired, which would require LCNB to write off the difference between the estimated fair value of the company and the carrying value.
Mortgage servicing rights on originated mortgage loans that have been sold are initially recorded at their estimated fair values. Mortgage servicing rights are amortized to loan servicing income in proportion to and over the period of estimated servicing income. Such assets are periodically evaluated as to the recoverability of their carrying value.
The Company’s other intangible assets relate to core deposits acquired from business combinations. These intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Management evaluates whether events or circumstances have occurred that indicate the remaining useful life or carrying value of the amortizing intangible should be revised.
BANK OWNED LIFE INSURANCE
The Company has purchased life insurance policies on certain officers of the Company. The Company is the beneficiary of these policies and has recorded the estimated cash surrender value in other assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Income on the policies, based on the increase in cash surrender value and any incremental death benefits, is included in non-interest income in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
AFFORDABLE HOUSING TAX CREDIT LIMITED PARTNERSHIP
LCNB has elected to account for its investment in an affordable housing tax credit limited partnership using the proportional amortization method described in "ASU 2014-01, "Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323): Accounting for Investments in Qualified Affordable Housing Projects (A Consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force)." Under the proportional amortization method, an investor amortizes the initial cost of the investment to income tax expense in proportion to the tax credits and other tax benefits received and recognizes the net investment performance in the income statement as a component of income tax expense. The investment in the limited partnership is included in other assets and the unfunded amount is included in accrued interest and other liabilities in LCNB's Consolidated Balance Sheets.
FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
Accounting guidance establishes a fair value hierarchy to prioritize the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. A financial instrument’s level within the hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The three broad input levels are:
•Level 1 – quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the reporting date;
•Level 2 – inputs other than quoted prices included within level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability either directly or indirectly; and
•Level 3 - inputs that are unobservable for the asset or liability.
Accounting guidance permits, but does not require, companies to measure many financial instruments and certain other items, including loans and debt securities, at fair value. The decision to elect the fair value option is made individually for each instrument and is irrevocable once made. Changes in fair value for the selected instruments are recorded in earnings. The Company did not select any financial instruments for the fair value election in 2020 or 2019.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are recorded as a marketing expense, a component of non-interest expense.
Eligible employees of the Company hired before 2009 participate in a multiple-employer qualified noncontributory defined benefit retirement plan. This plan is accounted for as a multi-employer plan because assets contributed by an employer are not segregated in a separate account or restricted to provide benefits only to employees of that employer.
Citizens National had a qualified noncontributory, defined benefit pension plan, which has been assumed by the Company, that covers eligible employees hired before May 1, 2005. This is a single employer plan.
Common shares repurchased are recorded at cost. Cost of shares retired or reissued is determined using the weighted average method.
STOCK OPTIONS AND RESTRICTED STOCK AWARD PLANS
The cost of employee services received in exchange for stock option grants is the grant-date fair value of the award estimated using an option-pricing model. The compensation cost for restricted stock awards is based on the market price of the Company's common stock at the date of grant multiplied by the number of shares granted that are expected to vest. The estimated cost is recognized on a straight-line basis over the period the employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period. The Company uses a Black-Scholes pricing model and related assumptions for estimating the fair value of stock option grants and a five-year vesting period for stock options and restricted stock.
FASB ASC No. 606, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" ("ASC No. 606") provides that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance enumerates five steps that entities should follow in achieving this core principle. Revenue generated from financial instruments, including loans and investment securities, are not included in the scope of ASC No. 606. The adoption of ASC No. 606 did not result in a change to the accounting for any of LCNB's revenue streams that are within the scope of the amendments. Revenue-generating activities that are within the scope of ASC 606 and that are presented as non-interest income in LCNB's Consolidated Statements of Income include:
•Fiduciary income - this includes periodic fees due from Wealth Management and Investment Services customers for managing the customers' financial assets. Fees are generally charged on a quarterly or annual basis and are recognized ratably throughout the period, as the services are provided on an ongoing basis.
•Service charges and fees on deposit accounts - these include general service fees charged for deposit account maintenance and activity and transaction-based fees charged for certain services, such as debit card, wire transfer, or overdraft activities. Revenue is recognized when the performance obligation is completed, which is generally after a transaction is completed or monthly for account maintenance services.
Deferred income taxes are determined using the asset and liability method of accounting. Under this method, the net deferred tax asset or liability is determined based on the tax effects of temporary differences between the book and tax basis of the various balance sheet assets and liabilities and gives current recognition to changes in tax rates and laws.
Management analyzes material tax positions taken in any income tax return for any tax jurisdiction and determines the likelihood of the positions being sustained in a tax examination. A tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded.
EARNINGS PER SHARE
Basic earnings per share allocated to common shareholders is calculated using the two-class method and is computed by dividing net income allocated to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is adjusted for the dilutive effects of stock based compensation and is calculated using the two-class method or the treasury stock method. The diluted average number of common shares outstanding has been increased for the assumed exercise of stock based compensation with the proceeds used to purchase treasury shares at the average market price for the period.
ADOPTION OF NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
ASU No. 2017-04, "Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment"
ASU No. 2017-04 was issued in January 2017 and was adopted by LCNB as of January 1, 2020. It applies to public and other entities that have goodwill reported in their financial statements. To simplify the subsequent measurement of goodwill, this ASU eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. In computing the implied fair value of goodwill under Step 2, an entity had to perform procedures to determine the fair value at the impairment testing date of its assets and liabilities, including unrecognized assets and liabilities, following the procedure that would be required in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Instead, under the amendments in this update, an entity should perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Adoption of ASU No. 2017-04 did not have a material impact on LCNB's results of consolidated operations or financial position.
ASU No. 2018-13, "Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement"
ASU No. 2018-13 was issued in August 2018 and was adopted by LCNB as of January 1, 2020. It applies to all entities that are required to make disclosures about recurring or nonrecurring fair value measurements. The amendments in this update modify fair value disclosure requirements, including the deletion, modification, and addition of certain targeted disclosures. Adoption of ASU No. 2018-13 did not have a material impact on LCNB's results of consolidated operations or financial position.
ASU No. 2018-15, "Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract"
ASU No. 2018-15 was issued in August 2018 and was adopted by LCNB on January 1, 2020. It applies to entities that are a customer in a hosting arrangement, as defined, that is accounted for as a service contract. The amendments in this update require an entity (customer) in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract to follow the guidance in Subtopic 350-40 to determine which implementation costs to capitalize as an asset related to the service contract and which costs to expense. Capitalized implementation costs are to be expensed over the term of the hosting arrangement. Adoption of ASU No. 2018-15 did not have a material impact on LCNB's results of consolidated operations or financial position.
ASU No. 2020-04, "Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting"
ASU No. 2020-04 was issued in March 2020 and provides optional guidance for a limited period of time to ease the potential burden in accounting for or recognizing the effects of reference rate reform on financial reporting. The amendments provide optional expedients and exceptions for applying generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. The amendments in this update are effective for all entities as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. LCNB does not expect the guidance in ASU No. 2020-04 will have a material impact on its results of consolidated operations or financial position.
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS NOT YET EFFECTIVE
From time to time the FASB issues an ASU to communicate changes to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The following information provides brief summaries of newly issued but not yet effective ASUs that could have an effect on LCNB’s financial position or results of consolidated operations:
ASU No. 2016-13, "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments"
ASU No. 2016-13 was issued in June 2016 and, once effective, will significantly change current guidance for recognizing impairment of financial instruments. Current guidance requires an "incurred loss" methodology for recognizing credit losses that delays recognition until it is probable a loss has been incurred. ASU No. 2016-13 replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology with a new current expected credit loss ("CECL") methodology that reflects expected credit losses over the lives of the loans and requires consideration of a broader range of information to inform credit loss estimates. The ASU requires an organization to estimate all expected credit losses for financial assets measured at amortized cost, including loans and held-to-maturity debt securities, based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Additional disclosures are required.
ASU No. 2016-13 also amends the accounting for credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities and purchased financial assets with credit deterioration. Under the new guidance, entities will determine whether all or a portion of the unrealized loss on an available-for-sale debt security is a credit loss. Any credit loss will be recognized as an allowance for credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities rather than as a direct reduction of the amortized cost basis of the investment, as is currently required. As a result, entities will recognize improvements to estimated credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities immediately in earnings rather than as interest income over time, as currently required.
ASU No. 2016-13 eliminates the current accounting model for purchased credit impaired loans and debt securities. Instead, purchased financial assets with credit deterioration will be recorded gross of estimated credit losses as of the date of acquisition and the estimated credit losses amounts will be added to the allowance for credit losses. Thereafter, entities will account for additional impairment of such purchased assets using the models listed above.
Originally, ASU No. 2016-13 would have taken effect for SEC filers for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. At their meeting on October 16, 2019, FASB approved a final ASU delaying the effective date for several major standards, including ASU No. 2016-13, if certain qualifications are met. The new effective date for SEC filers eligible to be smaller reporting companies ("SRC"), as defined, will be fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. As an SRC, LCNB intends to adopt ASU No. 2016-13 for the fiscal year, and interim periods within the fiscal year, beginning after December 15, 2022.
LCNB has created a cross-functional CECL Committee, which reports to the Audit Committee, composed of members from the lending, Wealth Management, and finance departments. During 2017, the CECL Committee selected a vendor to assist in implementation of and ongoing compliance with the new requirements. It has completed analyzing its data collection efforts, selected a calculation model, analyzed its pool segmentation and reporting mechanisms, and has recently finished back testing in preparation for adoption of the new methodology. While the committee and management expect that the implementation of ASU No. 2016-13 will increase the balance of the allowance for loan losses, they are continuing to evaluate the potential impact on LCNB's results of operations and financial position. The financial statement impact of this new standard cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.
ASU No. 2018-14, "Compensation - Retirement Benefits - Defined Benefit Plans - General (Subtopic 715-20): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans"
ASU No. 2018-14 was issued in August 2018. The amendments in this update modify disclosure requirements for employers that sponsor defined benefit pension or other postretirement plans, including the deletion, modification, and addition of certain targeted disclosures. The amendments are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments are to be applied on a retrospective basis to all periods presented upon adoption. Adoption of ASU No. 2018-14 will not have a material impact on LCNB's results of consolidated operations or financial position.
ASU No. 2019-12, "Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes"ASU No. 2019-12 was issued in December 2019 and simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and clarifies and amends certain other guidance. The amendments in this update are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. Adoption of ASU No. 2019-12 is not expected to have a material impact on LCNB's results of consolidated operations or financial position.