|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of business
TrueBlue, Inc. (the “company,” “TrueBlue,” “we,” “us” and “our”) is a leading provider of specialized workforce solutions that help clients achieve business growth and improve productivity. We serve clients in a wide variety of industries through our PeopleReady segment which offers on-demand, industrial staffing, our PeopleManagement segment which offers contingent, on-site industrial staffing and commercial driver services, and our PeopleScout segment which offers recruitment process outsourcing (“RPO”) and managed service provider (“MSP”) solutions to a wide variety of industries. We are headquartered in Tacoma, Washington.
Basis of presentation
The consolidated financial statements (“financial statements”) include the accounts of TrueBlue and all of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).
Certain previously reported amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current presentation. Specifically, the company has made certain reclassifications between cost of services and selling, general and administrative expense (“SG&A”) to more accurately reflect the costs of delivering our services. Such reclassifications did not have a significant impact on the company’s gross profit or SG&A expense.
Fiscal period end
The financial statements are presented on a 52/53-week fiscal year-end basis, with the last day of the fiscal year ending on the Sunday closest to the last day of December. In fiscal years consisting of 53 weeks, the final quarter will consist of 14 weeks, while in fiscal years consisting of 52 weeks, all quarters will consist of 13 weeks. All years presented include 52 weeks.
Use of estimates
Preparing financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Estimates in our financial statements include, but are not limited to, purchase accounting, allowance for credit losses, estimates for asset and goodwill impairments, stock-based performance awards, assumptions underlying self-insurance reserves, contingent legal, regulatory and government incentive liabilities, and the potential outcome of future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the financial statements. Actual results and outcomes may differ from these estimates and assumptions.
We also considered COVID-19 related impacts to our estimates, as appropriate, within our financial statements and there may be changes to those estimates in future periods. However, we believe that the accounting estimates used are appropriate after considering the increased uncertainties surrounding the severity and duration of COVID-19. These estimates and assumptions are subject to inherent uncertainties, which may result in actual future amounts differing from reported estimated amounts.
We account for a contract when both parties to the contract have approved the contract, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance, and collectability of consideration is probable. Consolidated revenues are presented net of intercompany eliminations. Additionally, consolidated revenues are recognized net of any discounts, allowances and sales incentives, including rebates. Revenues are recognized over time using an output measure, as the control of the promised services is transferred to the client, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those services. The majority of our contracts are short-term in nature as they are filling the contingent staffing needs of our clients, or include termination clauses that allow either party to cancel within a short notice period, without cause. Revenue includes billable travel and other reimbursable costs and are reported net of sales, use or other transaction taxes collected from clients and remitted to taxing authorities. Payment terms vary by client and the services
offered, however we do not extend payment terms beyond one year. Substantially all of our contracts include payment terms of 90 days or less.
We primarily record revenue on a gross basis as a principal versus on a net basis as an agent on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. We have determined that gross reporting as a principal is the appropriate treatment based upon the following key factors:
•We maintain the direct contractual relationship with the client and are responsible for fulfilling the service promised to the client.
•We demonstrate control over the services provided to our clients by being the employer of record for the individuals performing the service.
•We establish our associate’s billing rate.
We recognize revenue for our PeopleReady and PeopleManagement contingent staffing services over time as services are performed in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to collect in exchange for our services, which is generally calculated as hours worked multiplied by the agreed-upon hourly bill rate. The client simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of the services as they are provided. We do not incur costs to obtain our contingent staffing contracts. Costs are incurred to fulfill some contingent staffing contracts, however these costs are immaterial and are expensed as incurred.
Human resource outsourcing
We primarily recognize revenue for our PeopleScout outsourced recruitment of permanent employees over time in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for our services. The client simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of the services as they are provided. We do not incur costs to obtain our outsourced recruitment of permanent employee contracts. The costs to fulfill these contracts are immaterial and are expensed as incurred.
Unsatisfied performance obligations
As a practical expedient, we do not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an expected original duration of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which we recognize revenue at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for services performed.
Cost of services
Cost of services refers to costs directly associated with the earning of revenue and primarily includes wages and related payroll taxes and workers’ compensation expenses. Cost of services also includes billable travel as well as other reimbursable and non-reimbursable expenses.
Advertising costs consist primarily of print and other promotional activities. We expense advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. Advertising expenses included in SG&A were $5.5 million, $6.8 million and $8.1 million in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
We consider all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less at date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Investments with original maturities greater than three months are classified as marketable securities. We do not buy and hold securities principally for the purpose of selling them in the near future. Our investment policy is focused on the preservation of capital, liquidity and return. From time to time, we may sell certain securities but the objective is not to generate profits on short-term differences in price. We manage our cash equivalents and marketable securities as a single portfolio of highly liquid securities.
Accounts receivable and allowance for credit losses
Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount. We establish an estimate for the allowance for credit losses resulting from the failure of our clients to make required payments by applying an aging schedule to pools of assets with similar risk characteristics. Based on an analysis of the risk characteristics of our clients and associated receivables, we have concluded our pools are as follows:
•PeopleReady and Centerline Drivers (“Centerline”) have a large, diverse set of clients, generally with frequent, low dollar invoices due to the daily nature of the work we perform. This results in high turnover in accounts receivable and lower rates of non-payment.
•PeopleManagement On-Site has a smaller number of clients, and follows a contractual billing schedule. The invoice amounts are higher than that of PeopleReady and Centerline, with longer payment terms.
•PeopleScout has a smaller number of clients, and generally sends invoices on a consolidated basis for a client. Invoice amounts are generally higher for PeopleScout than for PeopleManagement On-Site, with similar payment terms.
When specific clients are identified as no longer sharing the same risk profile as their current pool, they are removed from the pool and evaluated separately. The credit loss rates applied to each aging category by pool are based on current collection efforts, historical collection trends, write-off experience, client credit risk, current economic data and forecasted information. The allowance for credit loss is reviewed monthly and represents our best estimate of the amount of expected credit losses. Each month, past due or delinquent balances are identified based upon a review of aged receivables performed by collections and operations. Past due balances are written off when it is probable the receivable will not be collected. Changes in the allowance for credit losses are recorded in SG&A on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). As a result of our adoption of the accounting standard for current expected credit losses (“CECL”), we recognized a cumulative-effect adjustment to our account receivable allowance of $0.5 million as of the beginning of the first quarter of 2020.
Restricted cash and investments
Cash and investments pledged as collateral and restricted for use in workers’ compensation insurance programs are included as restricted cash and investments on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our investments consist of highly-rated investment grade debt securities, which at the time of purchase, were rated A1/P1 or higher for short-term securities and A or higher for long-term securities, by nationally recognized rating organizations. We have the positive intent and ability to hold our restricted investments until maturity in accordance with our investment policy and, accordingly, all of our restricted investments are classified as held-to-maturity. In the event that an investment is downgraded, it is replaced with a highly-rated investment grade security.
We establish an allowance for credit loss for our held-to-maturity debt securities using a discounted cash flow method including a probability of default rate based on the issuer’s credit rating. We report the entire change in present value as credit loss expense (or reversal of credit loss expense) in cost of services on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). The cumulative-effect adjustment to our held-to-maturity debt securities as a result of adopting CECL as of the beginning of the first quarter of 2020 was immaterial, as was the allowance as of December 27, 2020.
We have an agreement with American International Group, Inc. and the Bank of New York Mellon Corporation creating a trust (“Trust”), which holds the majority of our collateral obligations under existing workers’ compensation insurance policies. Placing the collateral in the Trust allows us to manage the investment of the assets and provides greater protection of those assets.
Fair value of financial instruments and investments
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. For assets and liabilities recorded or disclosed at fair value on a recurring basis, we determine fair value based on the following:
•Level 1: The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents and mutual funds approximates fair value because of the short-term nature of these instruments. Inputs are valued using quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
•Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities are used. We use quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets or we estimate the fair value using a variety of valuation methodologies, which include observable inputs for comparable instruments and unobservable inputs.
•Level 3: For assets and liabilities with unobservable inputs, we typically rely on management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
The carrying value of our cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash approximates fair value because of the short-term maturity of those instruments. We hold mutual funds and money market funds to support our deferred compensation liability, which are carried at fair value based on quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets. There are inherent limitations when estimating the fair value of financial instruments, and the fair values reported are not necessarily indicative of the amounts that would be realized in current market transactions.
The carrying value of our accounts receivable, accounts payable and other accrued expenses, and accrued wages and benefits approximates fair value due to their short-term nature. In addition to mutual funds and money market funds, we also have company owned life insurance policies that fund our deferred compensation liability. Company owned life insurance policies are carried at cash surrender value, which approximates fair value. We also hold certain restricted investments which collateralize workers’ compensation programs and are classified as held-to-maturity and carried at amortized cost on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Certain items such as goodwill and other intangible assets are recognized or disclosed at fair value on a non-recurring basis. We determine the fair value of these items using level 3 inputs.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. We compute depreciation using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
3 - 8
|Computers, furniture and equipment|
3 - 10
Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the related non-cancelable lease term or their estimated useful lives.
Non-capital expenditures associated with opening new locations are expensed as incurred.
When property is retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss, net of proceeds, is reflected on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Repairs and maintenance costs are charged directly to expense as incurred. Major renewals or replacements that substantially extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized and depreciated.
Costs associated with the acquisition or development of software for internal use are capitalized and amortized over the expected useful life of the software, from to eight years. A subsequent addition, modification or upgrade to internal-use software is capitalized to the extent that it enhances the software’s functionality or extends its useful life. Software maintenance and training costs are expensed in the period incurred.
We conduct our branch operations from leased locations. We also lease office spaces for our centralized support functions, office equipment, and machinery for use at client sites. Many leases require variable payments of property taxes, insurance, and common area maintenance, in addition to base rent. The variable portion of these lease payments is not included in our right-of-use assets or lease liabilities. Rather, variable payments, other than those dependent upon an index or rate, are expensed when the obligation for those payments is incurred and are included in SG&A expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. We determine if an arrangement meets the definition of a lease at inception, at which time we also perform an analysis to determine whether the lease qualifies as operating or financing. The terms of our lease agreements generally range from to five years, with some as high as 15 years and many containing options to renew. Under the majority of our leases, we have the right to terminate the lease with 90 days’ notice.
Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use assets, net and current and long-term operating lease liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and is included in SG&A expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Financing leases are included in property and equipment, net, other current liabilities, and other long-term liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Lease expense for financing leases is recognized as depreciation of the right-of-use asset and interest expense. Financing leases are immaterial to our financial statements.
Lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are measured using the present value of future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. The right-of-use asset also includes any lease payments made on or before the commencement date of the lease, less any lease incentives received. As the rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable in our leases, we use our incremental borrowing rates based on the information available at the lease commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The incremental borrowing rates used are estimated based on what we would be required to pay for a collateralized loan over a similar term. We have lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, which are accounted for as a single lease component.
For leases with an initial non-cancelable lease term of less than one year and no option to purchase, we have elected not to recognize the lease on our Consolidated Balance Sheets and instead recognize rent payments on a straight-line basis over the lease term within SG&A expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. In addition, for those leases where the right to cancel the lease is available to both TrueBlue (as the lessee) and the lessor, the lease term is the initial non-cancelable period plus the notice period, which is typically 90 days, and not greater than one year.
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets
We evaluate goodwill for impairment on an annual basis as of the first day of our fiscal second quarter, and whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. These events or circumstances could include a significant change in the business climate, operating performance indicators, competition, client engagement, legal factors, or sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit. We monitor the existence of potential impairment indicators throughout the fiscal year. We test for goodwill impairment at the reporting unit level. We consider our operating segments to be our reporting units for goodwill impairment testing. Our operating segments are PeopleReady, PeopleManagement Centerline, PeopleManagement On-Site, PeopleScout RPO, and PeopleScout MSP. The impairment test involves comparing the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. Fair value reflects the price a market participant would be willing to pay in a potential sale of the reporting unit. If the fair value exceeds the carrying value, we conclude that no goodwill impairment has occurred. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, we recognize an impairment charge in an amount equal to the excess, not to exceed the carrying value of the goodwill.
Determining the fair value of a reporting unit involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions to evaluate the impact of operational and macroeconomic changes on each reporting unit. The fair value of each reporting unit is a weighted average of the income and market valuation approaches. The income approach applies a fair value methodology based on discounted cash flows. This analysis requires significant estimates and judgments, including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, estimation of the long-term rate of growth for our business, estimation of the useful life over which cash flows will occur, and determination of our weighted average cost of capital, which is risk-adjusted to reflect the specific risk profile of the reporting unit being tested. We also apply a market approach, which identifies similar publicly traded companies and develops a correlation, referred to as a multiple, to apply to the operating results of the reporting units. The primary market multiples to which we compare are revenue and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization. The income and market approaches were equally weighted in our most recent annual impairment test. We base fair value estimates on assumptions we believe to be reasonable but that are unpredictable and inherently uncertain. Actual future results may differ from those estimates. We consider a reporting unit’s fair value to be substantially in excess of its carrying value at a 20% premium or greater.
During the first quarter of 2020, certain events made it more likely than not that an impairment had occurred and accordingly, we performed an interim impairment test as of the last day of our fiscal first quarter. As a result, we recorded an impairment charge of $140.5 million with respect to our PeopleScout RPO, PeopleScout MSP and PeopleManagement On-Site reporting units. Refer to Note 6: Goodwill and Intangible Assets for further details.
There were no goodwill impairment charges recorded during fiscal 2019 nor 2018.
We have indefinite-lived intangible assets related to our Staff Management | SMX and PeopleScout trade names. We test our trade names annually for impairment, and when indications of potential impairment exist.
We performed our annual indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test for 2020, 2019 and 2018, and determined that the estimated fair values exceeded the carrying amounts for our indefinite-lived trade names. Accordingly, no impairment charge was recognized for the years ended December 27, 2020, December 29, 2019 or December 30, 2018.
Other long-lived assets
Other long-lived assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. Other long-lived assets include property and equipment, lease right-of-use assets, finite-lived intangible assets and capitalized implementation costs for cloud computing arrangements that are service contracts.
We have finite-lived intangible assets related to acquired company customers, trade names/trademarks, and technology, as well as purchased trade names/trademarks. During fiscal 2020, we recorded a non-cash impairment charge for our PeopleScout RPO and PeopleManagement On-Site client relationship intangible assets of $34.7 million, which was included in goodwill and intangible asset impairment charge on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the year ended December 27, 2020. Refer to Note 6: Goodwill and Intangible Assets for further details. There were no long-lived asset impairment charges recorded during fiscal 2019 nor 2018.
We capitalize implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract. Capitalized implementation costs are recorded as a prepaid asset in other assets, net on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, with the related amortization recorded in SG&A expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income on a straight-line basis over the fixed, non-cancelable term of the associated arrangement plus any reasonably certain renewal periods. Software license fees incurred during the development period are expensed as incurred.
We account for our business acquisitions using the acquisition method of accounting. The fair value of the net assets acquired and the results of the acquired business are included in the financial statements from the acquisition date forward. We are required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and results of operations during the reporting period. Estimates are used in accounting for, among other things, the fair value of acquired net operating assets, property and equipment, intangible assets, useful lives of property and equipment, and amortizable lives for acquired intangible assets. Any excess of the purchase consideration over the identified fair value of the assets and liabilities acquired is recognized as goodwill. Goodwill acquired in business combinations is assigned to the reporting unit(s) expected to benefit from the combination as of the acquisition date. We estimate the fair value of acquired assets and liabilities as of the date of the acquisition based on information available at that time. The initial valuation of these tangible and identifiable intangible assets and liabilities is subject to further management review and may change between the preliminary allocation and the final allocation.
All acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred and recorded in SG&A expense on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. Additionally, we recognize liabilities for anticipated restructuring costs that will be necessary due to the elimination of excess capacity, redundant assets or unnecessary functions, and record them as SG&A expense on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Workers’ compensation claims reserves
We maintain reserves for workers’ compensation claims using actuarial estimates of the future cost of claims and related expenses. These estimates include claims that have been reported but not settled and claims that have been incurred but not reported. These reserves, which reflect potential liabilities to be paid in future periods based on estimated payment patterns, are discounted to estimated net present value using discount rates based on average returns of “risk-free” United States (“U.S.”) Treasury instruments available during the year in which the liability was incurred, which are evaluated on a quarterly basis. We evaluate the reserves regularly throughout the year and make adjustments accordingly. If the actual cost of such claims and related expenses exceeds the amounts estimated, additional reserves may be required. Changes in reserve estimates are reflected in cost of services on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income in the period when the changes are made.
Our workers’ compensation reserves include estimated expenses related to claims above our self-insured limits (“excess claims”) and a corresponding receivable for the insurance coverage on excess claims based on the contractual policy agreements we have with insurance companies. We discount the liability and its corresponding receivable to its estimated net present value using the “risk-free” rates available during the year in which the liability was incurred, and associated with the actuarial determined weighted average lives of our excess claims. When appropriate, based on our best estimate, we record a valuation allowance against the insurance receivable to reflect amounts that may not be realized.
We also establish an allowance for credit loss for our insurance receivables using a probability of default and losses expected upon default method, with the probability of default rate based on the third-party insurance carrier’s credit rating. Changes in the allowance for credit losses are recorded in cost of services on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). The cumulative-effect adjustment to our workers’ compensation insurance receivables as a result of adopting CECL as of the beginning of the first quarter of 2020 was immaterial, as was the allowance as of December 27, 2020.
Legal contingency reserves and regulatory liabilities
From time to time we are subject to compliance audits by federal, state and local authorities relating to a variety of regulations including wage and hour laws, taxes, workers’ compensation, immigration, and safety. In addition, we are subject to legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our operations. We establish accruals for contingent legal and regulatory liabilities when management determines that it is probable that a legal claim will result in an adverse outcome and the amount of liability can be reasonably estimated. We evaluate our reserve regularly throughout the year and make adjustments as needed. If the actual outcome of these matters is different than expected, an adjustment is charged or credited to expense in the period the outcome occurs or the period in which the estimate changes.
Income taxes and related valuation allowance
We account for income taxes by recording taxes payable or receivable for the current year and deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. These expected future tax consequences are measured based on provisions of tax law as currently enacted; the effects of future changes in tax laws are not anticipated. Future tax law changes, such as changes to the federal and state corporate tax rates and the mix of states and their taxable income, could have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. When appropriate, we record a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets to offset future tax benefits that may not be realized. In determining whether a valuation allowance is appropriate, we consider whether it is more likely than not that all or some portion of our deferred tax assets will not be realized, based in part upon management’s judgments regarding future events and past operating results. Based on that analysis, we have determined that a valuation allowance is appropriate for certain net operating losses (“NOLs”) and tax credits that we expect will not be utilized within the permitted carryforward periods as of December 27, 2020 and December 29, 2019.
A significant driver of fluctuations in our effective income tax rate is the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (“WOTC”). WOTC is designed to encourage hiring of workers from certain disadvantaged targeted categories and is generally calculated as a percentage of wages over a twelve month period up to worker maximum by targeted category. Based on historical results and business trends, we estimate the amount of WOTC we expect to earn related to wages of the current year. However, the estimate is subject to variation because 1) a small percentage of our associates qualify for one or more of the many targeted categories; 2) the targeted categories are subject to different incentive credit rates and limitations; 3) credits fluctuate depending on economic conditions and qualified worker retention periods; and 4) state and federal offices can delay their credit certification processing and have inconsistent certification rates. We recognize additional prior year hiring credits if credits in excess of original estimates have been certified by government offices.
Deferred compensation plan
We offer a non-qualified defined contribution plan (the “Plan”) to eligible employees. Participating employees may elect to defer and contribute a portion of their eligible compensation. The Plan allows participants to direct their account based on the investment options determined by TrueBlue and offers discretionary matching contributions.
The current portion of the deferred compensation liability is included in accrued wages and benefits on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The total deferred compensation liability is largely offset by deferred compensation mutual funds, money market funds and company owned life insurance policies recorded in restricted cash and investments on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The mutual funds and money market funds are measured at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses recognized in SG&A expense, while realized gains and losses are recorded in other income on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. The carrying value of company owned life insurance policies is based on the cash surrender value of the policies and, accordingly, approximates fair value. Changes in the cash surrender value of the insurance policies are recorded in SG&A expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Under various plans, officers, employees and non-employee directors have received or may receive grants of stock, restricted stock awards, or performance share units to purchase common stock. We also have an employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”).
Compensation expense for restricted stock awards and performance share units is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on our stock’s fair market value on the grant date. For performance share unit grants issued with performance conditions, compensation expense is recognized over each vesting period based on assessment of the likelihood of meeting these conditions. We recognize compensation expense for only the portion of restricted stock and performance share units that is expected to vest, rather than record forfeitures when they occur. If the actual number of forfeitures differs from those estimated by management, additional adjustments to compensation expense may be required in the future periods.
Our financial statements are reported in U.S. dollars. Assets and liabilities of international subsidiaries with non-U.S. dollar functional currencies are translated to U.S. dollars at the exchange rates in effect on the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses for each subsidiary are translated to U.S. dollars using a weighted average rate for the relevant reporting period. Translation adjustments resulting from this process are included, net of tax, in other comprehensive income, when applicable.
Purchases and retirement of our common stock
We purchase our common stock under a program authorized by our Board of Directors (the “Board”). Under applicable Washington State law, shares purchased are not displayed separately as treasury stock on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and are treated as authorized but unissued shares. It is our accounting policy to first record these purchases as a reduction to our common stock account. Once the common stock account has been reduced to a nominal balance, remaining purchases are recorded as a reduction to our retained earnings. Furthermore, activity in our common stock account related to stock-based compensation is also recorded to retained earnings until such time as the reduction to retained earnings due to stock repurchases has been recovered.
Net income per share
Basic net income per share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares and potential common shares outstanding during the period. Potential common shares include the dilutive effects of vested and non-vested restricted stock, performance share units and shares issued under the ESPP, except where their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
Anti-dilutive shares primarily include non-vested restricted stock and performance share units for which the sum of the assumed proceeds, including unrecognized compensation expense, exceeds the average stock price during the periods presented.
Our operating segments are based on the organizational structure for which financial results are regularly reviewed by our chief operating decision-maker, our Chief Executive Officer, to determine resource allocation and assess performance. We evaluate performance based on segment revenue and segment profit. Segment revenue is net of intercompany eliminations. Segment profit includes revenue, related cost of services, and ongoing operating expenses directly attributable to the reportable segment. Segment profit excludes goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges, depreciation and amortization expense, unallocated corporate general and administrative expense, interest expense, other income and expense, income taxes, and other adjustments not considered to be ongoing.
On March 27, 2020, the U.S. government enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act ("CARES Act"), which among other things, provides employer payroll tax credits for wages paid to employees who are unable to work during the COVID-19 outbreak. Also, the Canadian government enacted the Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy and the Australian government enacted the JobKeeper subsidy to help employers offset a portion of their employee wages for a limited period.
We elected to treat qualified government incentives from the U.S., Canada and Australian governments as offsets to the related operating expenses. During fiscal 2020, the qualified payroll tax credits and government subsidies reduced our operating expenses by $9.9 million on our Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
Recently adopted accounting standards
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued guidance on accounting for credit losses on financial instruments. This guidance sets forth a current expected credit loss model, which requires the measurement of credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net income. The guidance requires the application of a current expected credit loss model, which is a new impairment model based on expected losses. Under this model, an entity recognizes an allowance for expected credit losses based on historical experience, current conditions, and forecasted information rather than the previous methodology of delaying recognition of credit losses until it is probable a loss has been incurred. This guidance was adopted at the beginning of the first quarter of 2020. We were required to apply the new standard by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to opening retained earnings as of the beginning of the first quarter of 2020. The total impact upon adoption to opening retained earnings was immaterial to both the individual financial assets affected as well as in the aggregate.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
There are no new accounting pronouncements, issued or effective during the fiscal year, that are expected to have a significant impact on our financial statements and related disclosures.