Business, Consolidation and Presentation
Nature of Business
Cliffs is the largest flat-rolled steel producer in North America. Founded in 1847 as a mine operator, we are also the largest producer of iron ore pellets in North America. In 2020, we acquired two major steelmakers, AK Steel and ArcelorMittal USA, vertically integrating our legacy iron ore business. Our fully-integrated portfolio includes custom-made pellets and HBI; flat-rolled carbon steel, stainless, electrical, plate, tinplate and long steel products; as well as carbon and stainless steel tubing, hot and cold stamping and tooling. Headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio, we employ approximately 25,000 people across our mining, steel and downstream manufacturing operations in the United States and Canada.
Unless otherwise noted, discussion of our business and results of operations in this Annual Report on Form 10-K refers to our continuing operations.
Acquisition of AK Steel
On March 13, 2020, we consummated the AK Steel Merger, pursuant to which, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the AK Steel Merger Agreement, Merger Sub was merged with and into AK Steel, with AK Steel surviving the AK Steel Merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of Cleveland-Cliffs Inc. Refer to NOTE 3 - ACQUISITIONS for further information.
AK Steel is a North American producer of flat-rolled carbon, stainless and electrical steel products, primarily for the automotive, infrastructure and manufacturing markets. These operations consist primarily of seven steelmaking and finishing plants, two cokemaking operations, three tube manufacturing plants and ten tooling and stamping operations. The acquisition of AK Steel transformed us into a vertically integrated producer of value-added iron ore and steel products.
Acquisition of ArcelorMittal USA
On December 9, 2020, pursuant to the terms of the AM USA Transaction Agreement, we purchased ArcelorMittal USA from ArcelorMittal. In connection with the closing of the AM USA Transaction, as contemplated by the terms of the AM USA Transaction Agreement, ArcelorMittal’s former joint venture partner in Kote and Tek exercised its put right pursuant to the terms of the Kote and Tek joint venture agreements. As a result, we purchased all of such joint venture partner’s interests in Kote and Tek. Following the closing of the AM USA Transaction, we own 100% of the interests in Kote and Tek.
The assets of ArcelorMittal USA we acquired at the closing of the AM USA Transaction include six steelmaking facilities, eight finishing facilities, three cokemaking operations, two iron ore mining and pelletizing operations and one coal mining complex.
Refer to NOTE 3 - ACQUISITIONS for further information.
We are vertically integrated from the mining of iron ore and coal; to production of metallics and coke; through iron making, steelmaking, rolling and finishing; and to downstream tubular components, stamping and tooling. We have the unique advantage as a steel producer of being fully or partially self-sufficient with our production of raw materials for steel manufacturing, which includes iron ore pellets, HBI and coking coal.
We have updated our segment structure to coincide with our new business model and are organized into four operating segments based on differentiated products, Steelmaking, Tubular, Tooling and Stamping, and European Operations. Through the third quarter ended September 30, 2020, we had operated through two reportable segments – the Steel and Manufacturing segment and the Mining and Pelletizing segment. However, given the recent
transformation of the business, beginning with our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, we primarily operate through one reportable segment – the Steelmaking segment.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we made various operational changes to adjust to the demand for our products. Although steel and iron ore production have been considered “essential” by the states in which we operate, certain of our facilities and construction activities were temporarily idled during the second quarter of 2020. Most of these temporarily idled facilities were restarted during the second quarter, and the remaining operations were restarted during the third quarter. Dearborn Works' hot strip mill, anneal and temper operations and AK Coal remain permanently idled as part of the permanent cost reduction efforts. Our Columbus and Monessen facilities acquired through the AM USA Transaction are temporarily idled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Basis of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements consolidate our accounts and the accounts of our wholly owned subsidiaries, all subsidiaries in which we have a controlling interest and VIEs for which we are the primary beneficiary. All intercompany transactions and balances are eliminated upon consolidation.
Investments in Affiliates
We have investments in several businesses accounted for using the equity method of accounting. These investments are included within our Steelmaking segment. We review an investment for impairment when circumstances indicate that a loss in value below its carrying amount is other than temporary. Investees and equity ownership percentages are presented below:
|Investee||Equity Ownership Percentage|
|Combined Metals of Chicago, LLC||40.0%|
|Spartan Steel Coating, LLC||48.0%|
As of December 31, 2019, our 23% ownership in Hibbing was recorded as an equity method investment. As a result of the acquisition of ArcelorMittal USA, we acquired an additional 62.3% ownership interest in Hibbing. As of December 31, 2020, our ownership in the Hibbing joint venture was 85.3% and was fully consolidated within our operating results with a noncontrolling interest.
We recorded a basis difference for Spartan Steel of $33 million as part of the AK Steel Merger. The basis difference relates to the excess of the fair value over the investee's carrying amount of property, plant and equipment and will be amortized over the remaining useful lives of the underlying assets.
As of December 31, 2020, our investment in affiliates of $105 million was classified in Other non-current assets. As of December 31, 2019, our investment in affiliates of $18 million was classified in Other non-current liabilities.
Significant Accounting Policies
We consider the following policies to be beneficial in understanding the judgments involved in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements and the uncertainties that could impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform with the current year presentation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Our mineral reserves; future realizable cash flow; environmental, reclamation and closure obligations; valuation of business combinations, long-lived assets, inventory, tax assets and post-employment, post-retirement and other employee benefit liabilities; reserves for contingencies and litigation require the use of various management estimates and assumptions. Actual results could differ from estimates. Management reviews its estimates on an ongoing basis. Changes in facts and circumstances may alter such estimates and affect the results of operations and financial position in future periods.
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recognized and measured based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition date, while the acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred. Any excess of the purchase consideration when compared to the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired, if any, is recorded as goodwill. We engaged independent valuation specialists to assist with the determination of the fair value of assets acquired, liabilities assumed, noncontrolling interest, and goodwill, for the Acquisitions. If the initial accounting for the business combination is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which the acquisition occurs, an estimate will be recorded. Subsequent to the acquisition date, and not later than one year from the acquisition date, we will record any material adjustments to the initial estimate based on new information obtained that would have existed as of the date of the acquisition. Any adjustment that arises from information obtained that did not exist as of the date of the acquisition will be recorded in the period the adjustment arises.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and on deposit as well as all short-term securities held for the primary purpose of general liquidity. We consider investments in highly liquid debt instruments with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition and longer maturities when funds can be withdrawn in three months or less without a significant penalty to be cash equivalents. We routinely monitor and evaluate counterparty credit risk related to the financial institutions in which our short-term investment securities are held.
Trade Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Loss
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the point control transfers and represent the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferred goods and do not bear interest. We establish provisions for expected lifetime losses on accounts receivable at the time a receivable is recorded based on historical experience, customer credit quality and forecasted economic conditions. We regularly review our accounts receivable balances and the allowance for credit loss and establish or adjust the allowance as necessary using the specific identification method in accordance with CECL. We evaluate the aggregation and risk characteristics of receivable pools and develop loss rates that reflect historical collections, current forecasts of future economic conditions over the time horizon we are exposed to credit risk, and payment terms or conditions that may materially affect future forecasts.
Inventories are generally stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value using average cost, excluding depreciation and amortization. Certain iron ore inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market using the LIFO method.
Refer to NOTE 2 - SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCIAL STATEMENT INFORMATION for further information.
Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedging Activities
We are exposed to certain risks related to the ongoing operations of our business, including those caused by changes in commodity prices and energy rates. We have established policies and procedures, including the use of certain derivative instruments, to manage such risks, if deemed necessary.
Derivative financial instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position and measured at fair value. On the date a qualifying hedging instrument is executed, we designate the hedging instrument as a hedge of the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a forecasted transaction (cash flow hedge). We formally document all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as our risk-management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. This process includes linking all derivatives that are designated as cash flow hedges to specific firm commitments or forecasted transactions. We also formally assess, both at the hedge's inception and on an ongoing basis, whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in cash flows of the related hedged items. When it is determined that a derivative is not highly effective as a hedge, we discontinue hedge accounting prospectively and record all future changes in fair value in the period of the instrument's earnings or losses.
For derivative instruments that have been designated as cash flow hedges, the changes in fair value are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss. Amounts recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss are
reclassified to earnings or losses in the period the underlying hedged transaction affects earnings or when the underlying hedged transaction is no longer reasonably possible of occurring.
For derivative instruments that have not been designated as cash flow hedges, such as provisional pricing arrangements, changes in fair value are recorded in the period of the instrument's earnings or losses.
Refer to Revenue Recognition below for discussion of derivatives recorded as a result of pricing terms in our sales contracts. Additionally, refer to NOTE 15 - DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS for further information.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Our properties are stated at the lower of cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation of plant and equipment is computed principally by the straight-line method based on estimated useful lives. Depreciation continues to be recognized when operations are idled temporarily. Depreciation and depletion are recorded over the following estimated useful lives:
|Land, land improvements and mineral rights|
|Land and mineral rights||Units of production||Life of mine|
|Land improvements||Straight line|
20 to 45 years
20 to 45 years
|Equipment||Straight line/Double declining balance|
3 to 20 years
Refer to NOTE 6 - PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT for further information.
Goodwill represents the excess purchase price paid over the fair value of the net assets during an acquisition. Goodwill is not amortized, but is assessed for impairment on an annual basis on October 1 (or more frequently if necessary).
Other Intangible Assets and Liabilities
Intangible assets and liabilities are subject to periodic amortization on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives as follows:
|Customer relationships||Straight line|
|Developed technology||Straight line|
|Trade names and trademarks||Straight line|
|Mining permits||Straight line||Life of mine|
|Above-market supply contracts||Straight line||Contract term|
Refer to NOTE 7 - GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS AND LIABILITIES for further information.
We determine if an arrangement contains a lease at inception. We recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities associated with leases based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at the commencement date. Lease terms reflect options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised. For short-term leases (leases with an initial lease term of 12 months or less), right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are not recognized in the consolidated balance sheet, and lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Refer to NOTE 13 - LEASE OBLIGATIONS for further information.
We monitor conditions that may affect the carrying value of our long-lived tangible and intangible assets when events and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the asset groups may not be recoverable. In order to determine if assets have been impaired, assets are grouped and tested at the lowest level for which identifiable, independent cash flows are available ("asset group"). The measurement of the impairment loss to be recognized is based on the difference between the fair value and the carrying value of the asset group. Fair value can be determined using a market approach, income approach or cost approach.
For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, no impairment indicators were present that would indicate the carrying value of any of our asset groups may not be recoverable; as a result, no impairment assessments were required.
Fair Value Measurements
ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for classification of fair value measurements. The valuation hierarchy is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. Inputs refer broadly to the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. Inputs may be observable or unobservable. Observable inputs are inputs that reflect the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from independent sources. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect our own views about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The three-tier hierarchy of inputs is summarized below:
•Level 1 — Valuation is based upon quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
•Level 2 — Valuation is based upon quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, or other inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
•Level 3 — Valuation is based upon other unobservable inputs that are significant to the fair value measurement.
The classification of assets and liabilities within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety.
Refer to NOTE 9 - FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS and NOTE 10 - PENSIONS AND OTHER POSTRETIREMENT BENEFITS for further information.
Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits
We offer defined benefit pension plans, defined contribution pension plans and OPEB plans, primarily consisting of retiree healthcare benefits as part of our total compensation and benefits programs.
We recognize the funded or unfunded status of our pension and OPEB obligations on our December 31, 2020 and 2019 Statements of Consolidated Financial Position based on the difference between the market value of plan assets and the actuarial present value of our retirement obligations on that date, on a plan-by-plan basis. If the plan assets exceed the pension and OPEB obligations, the amount of the surplus is recorded as an asset; if the pension and OPEB obligations exceed the plan assets, the amount of the underfunded obligations is recorded as a liability. Year-end balance sheet adjustments to pension and OPEB assets and obligations are recorded as Accumulated other comprehensive loss in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position.
The actuarial estimates of the PBO and APBO incorporate various assumptions including the discount rates, the rates of increases in compensation, healthcare cost trend rates, mortality, retirement timing and employee turnover. The discount rate is determined based on the prevailing year-end rates for high-grade corporate bonds with a duration matching the expected cash flow timing of the benefit payments from the various plans. The remaining assumptions are based on our estimates of future events by incorporating historical trends and future expectations. The amount of net periodic cost that is recorded in the Statements of Consolidated Operations consists of several components including service cost, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, and amortization of previously unrecognized amounts. Service cost represents the value of the benefits earned in the current year by the participants. Interest cost represents the cost associated with the passage of time. Certain items, such as plan amendments, gains and/or losses resulting from differences between actual and assumed results for demographic
and economic factors affecting the obligations and assets of the plans, and changes in other assumptions are subject to deferred recognition for income and expense purposes. The expected return on plan assets is determined utilizing the weighted average of expected returns for plan asset investments in various asset categories based on historical performance, adjusted for current trends. Service costs are classified within Cost of goods sold, Selling, general and administrative expenses and Miscellaneous – net while the interest cost, expected return on assets, amortization of prior service costs/credits, net actuarial gain/loss, and other costs are classified within Other non-operating income.
Refer to NOTE 10 - PENSIONS AND OTHER POSTRETIREMENT BENEFITS for further information.
At December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 25,000 people, of which approximately 18,500 were represented by labor unions under various agreements. We have agreements that will expire at five locations in 2021 and sixteen locations in 2022. Workers at some of our North American facilities are covered by agreements with the USW or other unions that have various expiration dates.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Asset retirement obligations are recognized when incurred and recorded as liabilities at fair value. The fair value of the liability is determined as the discounted value of the expected future cash flows. The asset retirement obligation is accreted over time through periodic charges to earnings. In addition, the asset retirement cost is capitalized and amortized over the life of the related asset. Reclamation costs are adjusted periodically to reflect changes in the estimated present value resulting from the passage of time and revisions to the estimates of either the timing or amount of the reclamation costs. We review, on an annual basis, unless otherwise deemed necessary, the asset retirement obligation for each applicable operation in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 410, Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations. We perform an in-depth evaluation of the liability every three years in addition to our routine annual assessments.
Future reclamation costs for inactive operations are accrued based on management’s best estimate at the end of each period of the costs expected to be incurred at a site. Such cost estimates include, where applicable, ongoing maintenance and monitoring costs. Changes in estimates at inactive operations are reflected in earnings in the period an estimate is revised.
Refer to NOTE 14 - ASSET RETIREMENT OBLIGATIONS for further information.
Environmental Remediation Costs
We have a formal policy for environmental protection and restoration. Certain of our operating activities are subject to various laws and regulations governing protection of the environment. We conduct our operations to protect the public health and environment and believe our operations are in compliance with applicable laws and regulations in all material respects. Our environmental liabilities, including obligations for known environmental remediation exposures, have been recognized based on the estimated cost of investigation and remediation at each site. If the cost can only be estimated as a range of possible amounts with no point in the range being more likely, the minimum of the range is accrued. Future expenditures are discounted unless the amount and timing of the cash disbursements cannot be reasonably estimated. It is possible that additional environmental obligations could be incurred, the extent of which cannot be assessed. Potential insurance recoveries have not been reflected in the determination of the liabilities.
Refer to NOTE 21 - COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES for further information.
Sales are recognized when our performance obligations are satisfied. Generally, our performance obligations are satisfied, control of our products is transferred and revenue is recognized at a single point in time, when title transfers to our customer for product shipped according to shipping terms. Shipping and other transportation costs charged to customers are treated as fulfillment activities and are recorded in both revenue and cost of sales at the time control is transferred to the customer. Refer to NOTE 4 - REVENUES for further information.
Repairs and Maintenance
Repairs, maintenance and replacement of components are expensed as incurred. The cost of major equipment overhauls is capitalized and depreciated over the estimated useful life, which is the period until the next scheduled overhauls. All other planned and unplanned repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred.
The fair value of each performance share grant is estimated on the date of grant using a Monte Carlo simulation to forecast relative TSR performance. A correlation matrix of historical and projected stock prices was developed for both the Company and its predetermined peer group of mining and metals companies. The fair value assumes that the performance objective will be achieved. The expected term of the grant represents the time from the grant date to the end of the service period. We estimate the volatility of our common shares and that of the peer group of mining and metals companies using daily price intervals for all companies. The risk-free interest rate is the rate at the grant date on zero-coupon government bonds, with a term commensurate with the remaining performance period.
The fair value of the restricted stock units is determined based on the closing price of our common shares on the grant date.
Upon vesting of share-based compensation awards, we issue shares from treasury shares before issuing new shares. Forfeitures are recognized when they occur.
The fair value of stock options is estimated on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes model using the grant date price of our common shares and option exercise price, and assumptions regarding the option’s expected term, the volatility of our common shares, the risk-free interest rate, and the dividend yield over the option’s expected term.
Refer to NOTE 11 - STOCK COMPENSATION PLANS for additional information.
Income taxes are based on income for financial reporting purposes, calculated using tax rates by jurisdiction, and reflect a current tax liability or asset for the estimated taxes payable or recoverable on the current year tax return and expected annual changes in deferred taxes. Any interest or penalties on income tax are recognized as a component of Income tax benefit (expense).
We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized within Net income (loss) in the period that includes the enactment date.
We record net deferred tax assets to the extent we believe these assets will more likely than not be realized. In making such determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and recent financial results of operations.
Accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the financial statements requires that a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position be recognized when it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on technical merits.
See NOTE 12 - INCOME TAXES for further information.
During 2018, we committed to a course of action leading to the permanent closure of the Asia Pacific Iron Ore mining operations and sold all of the assets of our Asia Pacific Iron Ore business through a series of sales to third parties. As a result of our exit, management determined that our Asia Pacific Iron Ore mining operations met the criteria to be classified as held for sale and a discontinued operation under ASC Topic 205, Presentation of Financial
Statements. As such, all current and historical Asia Pacific Iron Ore operating results are classified within discontinued operations.
Our financial statements are prepared with the U.S. dollar as the reporting currency and the functional currency of all subsidiaries is the U.S. dollar, except for our European Operations for which the functional currency is the Euro. In August 2018, management determined that there were significant changes in economic factors related to our Australian subsidiaries. The change in economic factors was a result of the sale and conveyance of substantially all assets and liabilities of our Australian subsidiaries to third parties, representing a significant change in operations. As such, the functional currency for the Australian subsidiaries changed from the Australian dollar to the U.S. dollar and all remaining Australian denominated monetary balances will be remeasured prospectively through the Statements of Consolidated Operations.
As a result of the liquidation of the Australian subsidiaries' assets, the historical impact of foreign currency translation recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position of $228 million was reclassified and recognized as a gain in Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax in the Statements of Consolidated Operations for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Earnings Per Share
We present both basic and diluted EPS amounts for continuing operations and discontinued operations. Total basic EPS amounts are calculated by dividing Net income (loss) attributable to Cliffs shareholders, less the earnings allocated to our Series B Participating Redeemable Preferred Stock, by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period presented.
Total diluted EPS amounts are calculated by dividing Net income (loss) attributable to Cliffs shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares, common share equivalents under stock plans using the treasury-stock method, common share equivalents of the Series B Participating Redeemable Preferred Stock using the if-converted method and the calculated common share equivalents in excess of the conversion rate related to our 1.50% 2025 Convertible Senior Notes using the treasury-stock method. Common share equivalents are excluded from EPS computations in the periods in which they have an anti-dilutive effect.
See NOTE 8 - DEBT AND CREDIT FACILITIES and NOTE 20 - EARNINGS PER SHARE for further information.
Variable Interest Entities
We assess whether we have a variable interest in legal entities in which we have a financial relationship and, if so, whether or not those entities are VIEs. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or in which equity investors lack the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. If an entity is determined to be a VIE, we evaluate whether we are the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary analysis is a qualitative analysis based on power and economics. We conclude that we are the primary beneficiary and consolidate the VIE if we have both (i) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly influence the VIE's economic performance and (ii) the obligation to absorb losses of, or the right to receive benefits from, the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Refer to NOTE 19 - VARIABLE INTEREST ENTITIES for additional information.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Issued and Adopted
On March 2, 2020, the SEC issued a final rule that amended the disclosure requirements related to certain registered securities under SEC Regulation S-X, Rule 3-10, which required separate financial statements for subsidiary issuers and guarantors of registered debt securities unless certain exceptions are met. The final rule replaces the previous requirement under Rule 3-10 to provide condensed consolidating financial information in the registrant’s financial statements with a requirement to provide alternative financial disclosures (which include summarized financial information of the parent and any issuers and guarantors, as well as other qualitative disclosures) in either the registrant’s Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations or its financial statements, in addition to other simplifications. The final rule is effective for filings on or after January 4, 2021, and early adoption is permitted. We elected to early adopt this disclosure update for the period ended March 31, 2020. As a result, we have excluded the footnote disclosures required under the previous Rule 3-10, and applied the final rule by including the summarized financial information and qualitative disclosures in Part II -
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Exhibit 22, filed herewith.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The new standard requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases except for short-term leases. For lessees, leases are classified as either operating or finance leases. We adopted this standard on its effective date of January 1, 2019 using the optional alternative approach, which requires application of the new guidance at the beginning of the standard's effective date. Adoption of the updated standard did not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), which introduces a new accounting model, CECL. CECL requires earlier recognition of credit losses, while also providing additional transparency about credit risk. CECL utilizes a lifetime expected credit loss measurement objective for the recognition of credit losses at the time the financial asset is originated or acquired. The expected credit losses are adjusted each period for changes in expected lifetime credit losses. We elected to early adopt this standard on December 31, 2019. Upon adoption, the updated standard did not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
Issued and Not Effective
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40). This update requires certain convertible instruments to be accounted for as a single liability measured at its amortized cost. Additionally, the update requires the use of the "if-converted" method, removing the treasury stock method, when calculating diluted shares. The two methods of adoption are the full and modified retrospective approaches. We expect to utilize the modified retrospective approach. Using this approach, the guidance shall be applied to transactions outstanding as of the beginning of the fiscal year in which the amendment is adopted. The final rule is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We are continuing to evaluate the impact of this update to our consolidated financial statements and would expect to adopt at the required adoption date of January 1, 2022.