|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
||Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Unless otherwise noted in this report, any description of "we," "us" or "our" includes Molson Coors Beverage Company ("MCBC," "Molson Coors" or the "Company") (formerly known as Molson Coors Brewing Company), principally a holding company, and its operating and non-operating subsidiaries included within our reporting segments. On January 1, 2020, we changed our management structure from a corporate center and four segments to two segments - North America and Europe. The previous International segment was reconstituted with the Africa and Asia Pacific businesses reporting into the Europe segment and the remaining International business reporting into the North America segment. Accordingly, effective January 1, 2020, our reporting segments include: North America (North America segment), operating in the U.S., Canada and various countries in Latin and South America; and Europe (Europe segment), operating in Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Montenegro, the Republic of Ireland, Romania, Serbia, the U.K., various other European countries, and certain countries within Africa and Asia Pacific. We have recast the historical presentation of segment information as a result of these reporting segment changes accordingly.
Unless otherwise indicated, comparisons are to comparable prior periods, and 2020, 2019 and 2018 refers to the 12 months ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019, and December 31, 2018, respectively.
Unless otherwise indicated, information in this report is presented in USD and comparisons are to comparable prior periods. Our primary operating currencies, other than USD, include the CAD, the GBP, and our Central European operating currencies such as the EUR, CZK, HRK and RSD.
Coronavirus Global Pandemic
We are actively monitoring the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, which had a material adverse effect on our operations, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations during 2020 due to on-premise closures worldwide. The effects of the pandemic remain highly uncertain especially around the severity and duration of the outbreak and actions by government authorities to contain the pandemic or address its impact, among other things.
During 2020, we recorded charges of $15.5 million within cost of goods sold related to temporary "thank you" pay for certain essential North America brewery employees. Additionally, in order to support and demonstrate our commitment to the continued viability of the many bars and restaurants which have been negatively impacted by the coronavirus pandemic, during the first quarter of 2020, we initiated temporary keg relief programs in many of our markets. As part of these voluntary programs, we committed to provide customers with reimbursements for untapped kegs that met certain established return requirements. As a result, during 2020, we recognized a reduction to net sales of $30.3 million reflecting sales returns and reimbursements through these keg relief programs, substantially all of which was recognized in the first quarter other than immaterial adjustments for changes in estimates recognized during the remainder of 2020. Further, during 2020, we recognized charges of $12.1 million, substantially all of which was recognized in the first quarter other than immaterial adjustments for changes in estimates recognized during the remainder of 2020, within cost of goods sold related to obsolete finished goods keg inventories that were not expected to be sold within our freshness specifications, as well as the costs to facilitate the above mentioned keg returns. As of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, our aggregate allowance for obsolete inventories was approximately $22 million and $11 million, respectively. The actual duration of the coronavirus pandemic, including the length of government-mandated closures or ceased sit-down service limitations at bars and restaurants coupled with the subsequent economic recovery period relative to the assumptions utilized to derive these estimates, could result in further charges due to incremental finished goods keg inventory becoming obsolete in future periods.
Additionally, we continue to monitor the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic on our customers’ liquidity and capital resources and therefore our ability to collect, or the timeliness of collection of our accounts receivable. While these receivables are not concentrated in any specific customer and our allowance on these receivables factors in expected credit loss, continued disruption and declines in the global economy could result in difficulties in our ability to collect and require increases to our allowance for doubtful accounts. As of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, our allowance for trade receivables was approximately $18 million and $12 million, respectively, and allowance activity was immaterial during the year ended December 31, 2020.
Further, in response to the coronavirus pandemic, various governmental authorities globally have announced relief programs which among other items, provide temporary deferrals of income and non-income based tax payments, which have
positively impacted our operating cash flows in the year ended December 31, 2020. These temporary deferrals of approximately $130 million as of December 31, 2020, are included within accounts payable and other current liabilities and other liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Finally, we continue to protect and support our liquidity position in response to the global economic uncertainty created by the coronavirus pandemic. In May 2020, our board of directors suspended our regular quarterly dividends on our Class A and Class B common and exchangeable shares.
On October 28, 2019, we initiated a revitalization plan designed to allow us to invest across our portfolio to drive long-term, sustainable success. As part of our revitalization plan, we made the determination to establish Chicago, Illinois as our North American operational headquarters, close our office in Denver, Colorado and consolidate certain administrative functions into our other existing office locations. In connection with these consolidation activities, effective January 1, 2020, we changed our management structure to two segments - North America and Europe. We began to incur charges related to these restructuring activities during the fourth quarter of 2019 and have been, and will continue to, further recognize charges through fiscal 2021.
Principles of Consolidation
Our consolidated financial statements include our accounts and our majority-owned and controlled domestic and foreign subsidiaries, as well as certain VIEs for which we are the primary beneficiary. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These accounting principles require us to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions. We believe that the estimates, judgments and assumptions used to determine certain amounts that affect the financial statements are reasonable, based on information available at the time they are made. To the extent there are differences between these estimates and actual results, our consolidated financial statements may be materially affected.
Our net sales represent the sale of beer, malt beverages and other adjacencies, net of excise tax. Sales are stated net of incentives, discounts and returns. Sales of products are for cash or otherwise agreed upon credit terms. Our payment terms vary by location and customer, however, the time period between when revenue is recognized and when payment is due is not significant. Our revenue generating activities have a single performance obligation and are recognized at the point in time when control transfers and our obligation has been fulfilled, which is when the related goods are shipped or delivered to the customer, depending upon the method of distribution and shipping terms. Where our products are sold under consignment arrangements, revenue is not recognized until control has transferred, which is when the product is sold to the end customer. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for the sale of our product. The cost of various programs, such as price promotions, rebates and coupons, are treated as a reduction of sales. In certain of our markets, we make cash payments to customers such as slotting or listing fees, or payments for other marketing or promotional activities. These cash payments are recorded as a reduction of revenue unless we receive a distinct good or service. Specifically, a good or service is considered distinct when it is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract, we receive a benefit from the good or service, and the benefit is separable from the sale of our product to the customer.
Certain payments made to customers are conditional on the achievement of volume targets, marketing commitments, or both. If paid in advance, we record such payments as prepayments and amortize them over the relevant period to which the customer commitment is made (generally up to five years). When the payment is not for a distinct good or service, or fair value cannot be reasonably estimated, the amortization of the prepayment or the cost as incurred is recorded as a reduction of revenue. Where a distinct good or service is received and fair value can be reasonably estimated, the cost is included as marketing, general and administrative expenses. The amounts deferred are reassessed regularly for recoverability over the
contract period and are impaired where there is objective evidence that the benefits will not be realized or the asset is otherwise not recoverable. Separately, as discussed below, we analyze whether these advance payments contain a significant financing component for potential adjustment to the transaction price.
Our primary revenue generating activity represents the sale of beer and other malt beverages to customers, including both domestic and exported product sales. Our customer could be a distributor, retail or on-premise outlet, depending on the market. The majority of our revenues are generated from brands that we own and brew ourselves, however, we also import or brew and sell certain non-owned partner brands under licensing and related arrangements. In addition, primarily in the U.K., as well as certain other countries in our Europe segment, we sell other beverage companies' products to on-premise customers to provide them with a full range of products for their retail outlets. We refer to this as the "factored brand business." Sales from this business are included in our net sales and cost of goods sold when ultimately sold. In the factored brand business, we normally purchase inventory, which includes excise taxes charged by the vendor, take orders from customers for such brands, negotiate with the customers on pricing and invoice customers for the product and related costs of delivery. In addition, we incur the risk of loss at times we are in possession of the inventory and for the receivables due from the customers. Revenues for owned brands, partner and imported brands, as well as factored brands are recognized at the point in time when control is transferred to the customer as discussed above.
Other Revenue Generating Activities
We contract manufacture for other brewers in some of our markets. These contractual agreements require us to brew, package and ship certain brands to these brewers, who then sell the products to their own customers in their respective markets. Revenues under contract brewing arrangements are recognized when our obligation related to the finished product is fulfilled and control of the product transfers to these other brewers.
We also have licensing agreements with third party partners who brew and distribute our products in various markets across our segments. Under these agreements, we are compensated based on the amount of products sold by our partners in these markets at an agreed upon royalty rate or profit percentage. We apply the sales-based royalty practical expedient to these licensing arrangements and recognize revenue as product is sold by our partners at the agreed upon rate.
Disaggregation of Revenue
We have evaluated our primary revenue generating activities under the disaggregation disclosure criteria outlined within the guidance and concluded that disclosure at the geographical segment level depicts how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenues and cash flows are affected by economic factors. We have also evaluated our other revenue generating activities and concluded that these activities are immaterial for separate disclosure. See Note 3, "Segment Reporting," for disclosure of revenues by geographic segment.
Our revenue generating activities include variable consideration which is recorded as a reduction of the transaction price based upon expected amounts at the time revenue for the corresponding product sale is recognized. For example, customer promotional discount programs are entered into with certain distributors for certain periods of time. The amount ultimately reimbursed to distributors is determined based upon agreed-upon promotional discounts which are applied to distributors' sales to retailers. Other common forms of variable consideration include volume rebates for meeting established sales targets, and coupons and mail-in rebates offered to the end consumer. The determination of the reduction of the transaction price for variable consideration requires that we make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the timing and amounts of revenue and liabilities recorded. We estimate this variable consideration, including analyzing for a potential constraint on variable consideration, by taking into account factors such as the nature of the promotional activity, historical information and current trends, availability of actual results, and expectations of customer and consumer behavior.
We do not have standard terms that permit return of product; however, in certain markets where returns occur we estimate the amount of returns as variable consideration based on historical return experience and adjust our revenue accordingly. Products that do not meet our high quality standards are returned by the customer or recalled and destroyed and are recorded as a reduction of revenue. The reversal of revenue is recorded upon determination that the product will be recalled and destroyed. We estimate the costs required to facilitate product returns and record them in cost of goods sold as required.
During the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, adjustments to revenue from performance obligations satisfied in the prior period due to changes in estimates in variable consideration were immaterial.
Significant Financing Component and Costs to Obtain Contracts
In certain of our businesses where such practices are legally permitted, we make loans or advanced payments to retail outlets that sell our brands. For arrangements that do not span greater than one year, we apply the practical expedient available under ASC 606 and do not adjust the transaction price for the effects of a potential significant financing component. We further analyze arrangements that span greater than one year on an ongoing basis to determine whether a significant financing component exists. No such arrangements existed during the years ended December 31, 2020 or December 31, 2019.
Advance payments to customers, where legally permitted, are deferred and amortized as a reduction to revenue over the expected period of benefit and tested for recoverability as appropriate. All other costs to obtain and fulfill contracts are expensed as incurred based on the nature, significance and expected benefit of these costs relative to the contract.
Contract Assets and Liabilities
We continually evaluate whether our revenue generating activities and advanced payment arrangements with customers result in the recognition of contract assets or liabilities. No such assets or liabilities existed as of December 31, 2020 or December 31, 2019. Separately, trade accounts receivable, including affiliate receivables, approximates receivables from contracts with customers.
Shipping and Handling
Freight costs billed to customers for shipping and handling are recorded as revenue. Shipping and handling expense related to costs incurred to deliver product are recognized within cost of goods sold. We account for shipping and handling activities that occur after control has transferred as a fulfillment cost as opposed to a separate performance obligation, and the costs of shipping and handling are recognized concurrently with the related revenue.
Excise taxes remitted to tax authorities are government-imposed excise taxes on beer. Excise taxes are shown in a separate line item in the consolidated statements of operations as a reduction of sales. Excise taxes are recognized as a current liability within accounts payable and other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets, with the liability subsequently reduced when the taxes are remitted to the tax authority.
Cost of Goods Sold
Our cost of goods sold includes costs we incur to make and ship beer and other malt beverages. These costs include brewing materials, such as barley, hops and various grains. Packaging materials, such as glass bottles, aluminum cans, cardboard and paperboard are also included in our cost of goods sold. Additionally, our cost of goods sold include both direct and indirect labor, shipping and handling including freight costs, utilities, maintenance costs, warehousing costs, purchasing and receiving costs, depreciation, promotional packaging, other manufacturing overheads and costs to purchase factored and other non-owned brands from suppliers, as well as the estimated cost to facilitate product returns.
Marketing, General and Administrative Expenses
Our marketing, general and administrative expenses include media advertising (television, radio, digital, print), tactical advertising (signs, banners, point-of-sale materials) and promotion costs on both local and national levels within our operating segments. The creative portion of our advertising activities is expensed as incurred. Production costs of advertising and promotional materials are expensed when the advertising is first run. Marketing, general and administrative expenses also include integration costs of $25.0 million and $38.8 million for 2019 and 2018, respectively. There were no integration costs recorded in 2020 as the activity related to the acquisition of the remaining portion of MillerCoors LLC ("MillerCoors"), which occurred on October 11, 2016 (the "Acquisition"), was completed by the end of 2019.
This classification also includes general and administrative costs for functions such as finance, legal, human resources and information technology, along with integration costs as noted above. These costs primarily consist of labor and outside services, as well as bad debt expense related to our allowance for doubtful accounts. Unless capitalization is allowed or required by U.S. GAAP, legal costs are expensed when incurred. These costs also include our marketing and sales organizations, including labor and other overheads. This line item additionally includes amortization costs associated with intangible assets, as well as certain depreciation costs related to non-production equipment and share-based compensation.
Share-based compensation is recognized using a straight-line method over the vesting period of the awards. We include estimated forfeitures expected to occur when calculating share-based compensation expense. Our share-based compensation plan and the awards within it contain provisions that accelerate vesting of awards upon change in control, retirement, disability or death of eligible employees and directors. Our share-based awards are considered vested when the employee's retention of
the award is no longer contingent on providing service, which for certain awards can result in immediate recognition for awards granted to retirement-eligible individuals or accelerated recognition for awards granted to individuals that will become retirement eligible within the stated vesting period. Also, if less than the stated vesting period, we recognize these costs over the period from the grant date to the date retirement eligibility is achieved.
Our special items represent charges incurred or benefits realized that either we do not believe to be indicative of our core operations, or we believe are significant to our current operating results warranting separate classification; specifically, such items are considered to be one of the following:
•infrequent or unusual items,
•impairment or asset abandonment-related losses,
•restructuring charges and other atypical employee-related costs, or
•fees on termination of significant operating agreements and gains (losses) on disposal of investments.
The items classified as special items are not necessarily non-recurring, however, they are deemed to be incremental to income earned or costs incurred by the company in conducting normal operations, and therefore are presented separately from other components of operating income.
Interest Expense, net
Our interest costs are associated with borrowings to finance our operations and acquisitions. Interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents across our business is recorded as interest income.
We capitalize interest cost as a part of the original cost of acquiring certain fixed assets if the cost of the capital expenditure and the expected time to complete the project are considered significant.
Other Income (Expense)
Our other income (expense) classification primarily includes gains and losses associated with activities not directly related to our operations. For instance, aggregate unrealized and realized foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the remeasurement and settlement of foreign-denominated monetary assets and liabilities, as well as certain gains or losses on sales of non-operating assets and the mark-to-market activity associated with warrants are classified in this line item. These gains and losses are reported in the operating segment in which they occur; however, foreign exchange gains and losses on intercompany balances related to financing and other treasury-related activities remain unallocated. The initial recording of foreign-denominated transactions are classified based on the nature of the transaction, with the unrealized or realized foreign exchange gains or losses resulting from the subsequent remeasurement of the monetary asset or liability, and its ultimate settlement, classified in other income (expense).
Deferred income taxes are provided for the temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of our assets, liabilities, and certain unrecognized gains and losses recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). We apply the intraperiod tax allocation rules to allocate our provision for income taxes between continuing operations and other categories of earnings, such as other comprehensive income (loss), when we meet the criteria prescribed by U.S. GAAP.
When working capital funds are available after satisfying all other business obligations, we may distribute cash from a foreign subsidiary to its U.S. parent and record the tax impacts associated with these transactions. However, to the extent current earnings are not otherwise distributed or planned to be distributed, in the current year, they are considered permanently reinvested in our foreign operations. We currently would not expect the aggregate of these permanently reinvested earnings, which are largely in deficit positions for U.S. tax purposes, to result in any material U.S. taxes, if distributed.
The tax benefit from an uncertain tax position is recognized only if it is determined that the tax position will more likely be sustained based on its technical merits. We measure and record the tax benefits from such a position based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Interest, penalties and offsetting positions related to unrecognized tax benefits are recognized as a component of income tax expense. We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
OCI represents income and losses for the reporting period, including the related tax impacts, which are excluded from net income (loss) and recognized directly within AOCI as a component of equity. OCI also includes amounts reclassified to income during the reporting period that were previously recognized within AOCI. Amounts remaining within AOCI are expected to be reclassified out of AOCI in the future, at which point they will be recognized within the consolidated statement of operations as a component of net income (loss). We recognize OCI related to the translation of assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries which are denominated in currencies other than USD, unrealized gains and losses on the effective portion of our derivatives designated in cash flow hedging relationships and derivative and non-derivative instruments designated in net investment hedging relationships, actuarial gains and losses and prior service costs related to our pension and other post-retirement benefit plans, as well as our proportionate share of our equity method investments' OCI. Additionally, when we do not have the expectation or intent to cash settle certain of our intercompany note receivable and note payable positions in the foreseeable future, the remeasurement of these instruments is recorded as a component of foreign currency translation adjustments within OCI. We release stranded tax effects from AOCI using either a specific identification approach or portfolio approach based on the nature of the underlying item.
Earnings Per Share
Basic EPS was computed using the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS includes the additional dilutive effect of our potentially dilutive securities, which include RSUs, DSUs, PSUs, and stock options. The dilutive effects of our potentially dilutive securities are calculated using the treasury stock method. Our calculation of weighted-average shares includes Class A common stock and Class B common stock, and Class A exchangeable shares and Class B exchangeable shares. All classes of stock have in effect the same dividend rights and share equitably in undistributed earnings. Holders of Class A common stock receive dividends only to the extent dividends are declared and paid to holders of Class B common stock. See Note 8, "Stockholders' Equity" for further discussion of the Class A common stock and Class B common stock and Class A exchangeable shares and Class B exchangeable shares. We have no unvested outstanding equity share awards that contain non-forfeitable rights to dividends.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash consists of cash on hand and bank deposits. Cash equivalents represent highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. Our cash deposits are maintained with multiple, reputable financial institutions.
Non-cash activity includes non-cash issuances of share-based awards, as well as non-cash investing activities related to movements in our guarantee of indebtedness of certain equity method investments. We also had other non-cash activities primarily related to capital expenditures incurred but not yet paid of $171.9 million, $214.9 million and $221.0 million during 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Additionally, the initial recognition of the warrants discussed in Note 16, “Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” represents a non-cash financing activity in 2018.
Accounts Receivable and Notes Receivable
We record accounts and notes receivable at net realizable value. This carrying value includes an appropriate allowance for estimated uncollectible amounts to reflect any loss anticipated on the accounts and notes receivable balances. We calculate this allowance based on our country-specific history of write-offs, level of past-due accounts based on the contractual terms of the receivables and our relationships with and the economic status of our customers, which may be impacted by current macroeconomic and regulatory factors specific to the country of origin. This methodology takes into consideration historical loss experience and current and forecasted changes in cash flows based on internal and external information.
In the U.K., loans are extended to a portion of the retail outlets that sell our brands. We establish an allowance through a provision for loan losses charged against earnings and recorded in marketing, general and administrative expenses. Loan balances that are written off are recorded against the allowance as a write-off. Activity within the allowance for credit losses was immaterial for fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined by the first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method. We regularly assess the shelf-life of our inventories and reserve for those inventories when it becomes apparent the product will not be sold within our freshness specifications.
Other current assets
Other current assets include prepaid assets, maintenance and operating supplies, promotion materials and derivative assets that are expected to be recognized or realized within the next 12 months. Maintenance and operating supplies include our inventories of spare parts, which are kept on hand for repairs and maintenance of machinery and equipment. The majority of spare parts within our business include motors, fillers and other components that are required to maintain a normal level of production in the event that expected maintenance and/or repairs are required. These parts are inventoried within current assets as they are reasonably expected to be used during the normal operating cycle of the business and are reserved for excess and obsolescence, as appropriate. The allowance for obsolete supplies was $16.4 million and $11.4 million as of December 31, 2020, and December 31, 2019, respectively.
Properties are stated at original cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is recorded using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which are reviewed periodically and have the following ranges: buildings and improvements: 20-40 years; machinery and equipment: 3-25 years; furniture and fixtures: 3-10 years; returnable containers: 2-15 years; and software: 3-5 years. Land is not depreciated, and construction in progress is not depreciated until ready for service. Costs of enhancements or modifications that substantially extend the capacity or useful life of an asset are capitalized and depreciated accordingly. Ordinary repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. When property is sold or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from our consolidated balance sheets and the resulting gain or loss, if any, is reflected in our consolidated statements of operations. Long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of an asset (or asset group) may not be recoverable.
Returnable containers are recorded at acquisition cost and consist of returnable bottles, kegs, pallets and crates that are both in our direct control within our breweries, warehouses and distribution facilities and those that we indirectly control in the market through our agreements with our customers and other brewers and for which a deposit is received. The deposits received on our returnable containers in the market are recorded as deposit liabilities, included as current liabilities within accounts payable and other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. We estimate that the loss, breakage and deterioration of our returnable containers is comparable to the depreciation calculated on an estimated useful life of up to 4 years for bottles, 5 years for pallets, 7 years for crates, and 15 years for returnable kegs. We also own and maintain other equipment in the market related to delivery of our products to end consumers, for example on-premise dispense equipment and refrigeration units. This equipment is recorded at acquisition cost and depreciated over lives of up to 7 years, depending on the market, reflecting the use of the equipment, as well as the loss and deterioration of the asset.
The costs of acquiring or developing internal-use computer software, including directly-related payroll costs for internal resources, are capitalized and classified within properties. Software maintenance and training costs are expensed in the period incurred. Implementation costs incurred in hosting arrangements that are service contracts are capitalized within other assets and are immaterial. See Note 2, "New Accounting Pronouncements" for further discussion of the changes to the accounting for implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that became effective January 1, 2020.
Properties held under finance lease are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life or the lease term, whichever is shorter, and the related depreciation is included in depreciation expense. Finance lease assets for which ownership is transferred at the end of the lease, or there is a purchase option that we are reasonably certain to exercise, are amortized over the useful life that would be assigned if the asset were owned.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill is allocated to the reporting unit in which the business that created the goodwill resides. A reporting unit is an operating segment, or a business unit one level below that operating segment, for which discrete financial information is prepared and regularly reviewed by segment management. Effective January 1, 2020, we have two reporting units, North America and Europe. See further discussion in Note 10, "Goodwill and Intangibles."
As required, we evaluate the carrying value of our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment at the reporting unit level at least annually or when an interim triggering event occurs that would indicate that impairment may have taken place. Our annual test is performed as of the first day of our fiscal fourth quarter. We continuously monitor the performance of our other definite-lived intangible assets and evaluate for impairment when evidence exists that certain events
or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. Significant judgments and assumptions are required in such impairment evaluations. Definite-lived intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortization. Amortization is recorded using the straight-line method over the estimated lives of the assets as this approximates the pattern in which the assets economic benefits are consumed.
Equity Method Investments
We apply the equity method of accounting to 20% to 50% owned investments where we exercise significant influence or VIEs for which we are not the primary beneficiary. We use the cumulative earnings approach for determining cash flow presentation of cash distributions received from equity method investees. Distributions received are included in our consolidated statements of cash flows as operating activities, unless the cumulative distributions exceed our portion of the cumulative equity in the net earnings of the equity method investment, in which case the excess distributions are deemed to be returns of the investment and are classified as investing activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows. See Note 4, "Investments" for further information regarding our equity method investments.
There are no related parties that own interests in our equity method investments as of December 31, 2020.
Derivative Hedging Instruments
We use derivatives as part of our normal business operations to manage our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates, foreign currency exchange, commodity prices, production and packaging material costs and for other strategic purposes related to our core business. We enter into derivatives for risk management purposes only, including derivatives designated in hedge accounting relationships as well as those derivatives utilized as economic hedges. We do not enter into derivatives for trading or speculative purposes. We recognize our derivatives on the consolidated balance sheets as assets or liabilities at fair value and are classified in either current or non-current assets or liabilities based on each contract's respective unrealized gain or loss position and each contract's respective maturity. Our policy is to present all derivative balances on a gross basis, without regard to counterparty master netting agreements or similar arrangements. Further, our current derivative agreements do not allow us to net positions with the same counterparty and therefore, we present our derivative positions gross in our consolidated balance sheets.
Changes in fair values of outstanding cash flow and net investment hedges are recorded in OCI, until earnings are affected by the variability of cash flows of the underlying hedged item or the sale of the underlying net investment, respectively. Effective cash flow hedges offset the gains or losses recognized on the underlying exposure in the consolidated statements of operations, or for net investment hedges, the foreign exchange translation gain or loss recognized in AOCI. Changes in fair value of outstanding fair value hedges and the offsetting changes in fair value of the hedged item are recognized in earnings. Changes in fair value of the derivative attributable to components allowed to be excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness are deferred in AOCI and recognized in earnings over the life of the hedge.
We record realized gains and losses from derivative instruments in the same financial statement line item as the hedged item/forecasted transaction. Changes in unrealized gains and losses for derivatives not designated in a hedge accounting relationship are recorded directly in earnings each period and are also recorded in the same financial statement line item as the hedged item/forecasted transaction. Cash flows from the settlement of derivatives, including both economic hedges and those designated in hedge accounting relationships, appear in the consolidated statements of cash flows in the same categories as the cash flows of the hedged item.
In accordance with authoritative accounting guidance, we do not record the fair value of derivatives for which we have elected the Normal Purchase Normal Sale ("NPNS") exemption. We account for these contracts on an accrual basis, recording realized settlements related to these contracts in the same financial statement line items as the corresponding transaction.
We account for leases in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 842, Leases, which we adopted on January 1, 2019, electing not to adjust comparative periods presented and applying a modified retrospective transition approach as of the effective date of adoption.
We enter into contractual arrangements for the utilization of certain non-owned assets, primarily real estate and equipment, which are evaluated as finance or operating leases upon commencement, and are accounted for accordingly. Specifically, under ASC 842, a contract is or contains a lease when, (1) the contract contains an explicitly or implicitly identified asset and (2) the customer obtains substantially all of the economic benefits from the use of that underlying asset and directs how and for what purpose the asset is used during the term of the contract in exchange for consideration. We assess whether an arrangement is or contains a lease at inception of the contract. For all contractual arrangements deemed to be leases (other than short-term leases), as of the lease commencement date, we recognize on the consolidated balance sheet a liability for
our obligation related to the lease and a corresponding asset representing our right to use the underlying asset over the period of use.
For leases that qualify as short-term leases, we have elected, for all classes of underlying assets, to not apply the balance sheet recognition requirements of ASC 842, and instead, we recognize the lease payments in the consolidated statements of operations on a straight-line basis over the lease term. We have also made the election, for our existing real estate and equipment classes of underlying assets, to account for lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.
Our leases have remaining lease terms of up to approximately 18 years. Certain of our lease agreements contain options to extend or early terminate the agreement. The lease term used to calculate the right-of-use asset and lease liability at commencement includes the impacts of options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. When determining whether it is reasonably certain that we will exercise an option at commencement, we consider various existing economic factors, including real estate strategies, the nature, length, and terms of the agreement, as well as the uncertainty of the condition of leased equipment at the end of the lease term. Based on these determinations, we generally conclude that the exercise of renewal options would not be reasonably certain in determining the lease term at commencement. Assumptions made at the commencement date are re-evaluated upon occurrence of certain events requiring a lease modification. Additionally, for certain equipment leases involving groups of similar leased assets with similar lease terms, we apply a portfolio approach to effectively account for the operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities.
The discount rate used to calculate the present value of the future minimum lease payments is the rate implicit in the lease, when readily determinable. As the rate implicit in the lease is rarely readily determinable, we use our incremental borrowing rate relative to the leased asset.
Certain of our leases include variable lease payments, primarily for items such as property taxes, insurance, maintenance, and other operating expenses associated with leased assets. These variable payments are excluded from the measurement of our lease assets and liabilities, and are recognized in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred. Our lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants.
Lease-related expense is recorded within either cost of goods sold or marketing, general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statements of operations, depending on the function of the underlying leased asset, with the exception of interest on finance lease liabilities, which is recorded within interest expense on the consolidated statements of operations.
Pension and Postretirement Benefits
We maintain retirement plans for the majority of our employees. We offer different types of plans within each segment, including defined benefit plans, defined contribution plans and OPEB plans. Each plan is managed locally and in accordance with respective local laws and regulations. Our equity investments, Brewers' Retail Inc. ("BRI") and Brewers' Distributor Ltd. ("BDL"), maintain defined benefit, defined contribution and postretirement benefit plans as well.
We recognize the underfunded or overfunded status of a defined benefit postretirement plan as an asset or liability in the consolidated balance sheets. The funded status of a plan, measured as the difference between the fair value of plan assets and the projected benefit obligation, and the related net periodic pension cost are calculated using a number of significant actuarial assumptions. Changes in net periodic pension cost and funding status may occur in the future due to changes in these assumptions.
We use the fair value approach to calculate the market-related value of pension plan assets used to determine net periodic pension cost, which includes measuring the market-related value of plan assets at fair value for purposes of determining the expected return on plan assets and amount of gain or loss subject to amortization.
Projected benefit obligation is the actuarial present value as of the measurement date of all benefits attributed by the plan benefit formula to employee service rendered before the measurement date using assumptions as to future compensation levels and years of service if the plan benefit formula is based on those future compensation levels and years of service. Accumulated benefit obligation is the actuarial present value of benefits (whether vested or unvested) attributed by the plan benefit formula to employee service rendered before the measurement date and based on employee service and compensation, if applicable, prior to that date. Accumulated benefit obligation differs from projected benefit obligation in that it includes no assumption about future compensation levels and years of service.
We employ the corridor approach for determining each plan's potential amortization from AOCI of deferred gains and losses, which occur when actual experience differs from estimates, into our net periodic pension and postretirement benefit cost. This approach defines the "corridor" as the greater of 10% of the projected benefit obligation or 10% of the market-related value of plan assets and requires amortization of the excess net gain or loss that exceeds the corridor over the average remaining
service periods of active plan participants. For plans closed to new entrants and the future accrual of benefits, the average remaining life expectancy of all plan participants (including retirees) is used.
Fair Value Measurements
The carrying amounts of our cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and other current liabilities approximate fair value as recorded due to the short-term nature of these instruments. In addition, the carrying amounts of our trade loan receivables, net of allowances, approximate fair value. The fair value of derivatives is estimated by discounting the estimated future cash flows utilizing observable market interest, foreign exchange and commodity rates adjusted for non-performance credit risk associated with our counterparties (assets) or with MCBC (liabilities), as appropriate. Additionally, the fair value of warrants is estimated using the Black-Scholes valuation model. See Note 16, "Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities" for additional information. Based on current market rates for similar instruments, the fair value of long-term debt is presented in Note 11, "Debt."
U.S. GAAP guidance for fair value includes a hierarchy that prioritizes fair value measurements based on the types of inputs used for the various valuation techniques (market approach, income approach and cost approach). Our financial assets and liabilities are measured using inputs from the three levels of the fair value hierarchy.
The three levels of the hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1—Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that we have the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2—Inputs include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are less active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability (i.e., interest rates, yield curves, etc.), and inputs that are derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data by correlation or other means (market corroborated inputs).
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that reflect the assumptions that we believe market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. We develop these inputs based on the best information available, including our own data.
Assets and liabilities recorded in foreign currencies that are the functional currencies for the respective operations are translated at the prevailing exchange rate at the balance sheet date. Translation adjustments resulting from this process are reported as a separate component of OCI. Gains and losses from foreign currency transactions are included in earnings for the period. Revenue and expenses are translated at the average exchange rates during the respective period throughout the year.