Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("U.S. GAAP"). All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Principles of Consolidation
Although the Company has a minority economic interest in Amneal, it is Amneal’s sole managing member, having the sole voting power to make all of Amneal’s business decisions and control its management. Therefore, the Company consolidates the financial statements of Amneal and its subsidiaries. The Company’s consolidated financial statements are a continuation of Amneal’s financial statements, with adjustments to equity to reflect the Combination, the PIPE Investment and non-controlling interests for the portion of Amneal’s economic interests that is not held by the Company. Prior to the closing of the Combination and PIPE Investment, the Company did not conduct any activities other than those incidental to the formation of it and Merger Sub and the matters contemplated by the BCA and had no operations and no material assets or liabilities. The current year results and balances may not be comparable to prior years as the current year includes the impact of the Combination.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the Company's management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported financial position at the date of the financial statements and the reported results of operations during the reporting period. Such estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The following are some, but not all, of such estimates: the determination of chargebacks, sales returns, rebates, bill backs, allowances for accounts receivable, accrued liabilities, stock-based compensation, valuation of inventory balances, the determination of useful lives for product rights and the assessment of expected cash flows used in evaluating goodwill and other long-lived assets for impairment. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers and associated ASUs (collectively "Topic 606"), which sets forth a new five-step revenue recognition model which replaces the prior revenue recognition guidance in its entirety and is intended to eliminate numerous industry-specific sections of revenue recognition guidance that have historically existed.
When assessing its revenue recognition, the Company performs the following five steps in accordance with Topic 606: (i) identify the contract with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies the performance obligation. The Company recognizes revenue when it transfers control of its products to customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those products. For further details on the Company’s revenue recognition policies under Topic 606, refer to Note 4. Revenue Recognition.
A rollforward of the major categories of sales-related deductions for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 is as follows (in thousands):
Contract Charge-backs and Sales Volume Allowances
Cash Discount Allowances
Accrued Returns Allowance
Accrued Medicaid and Commercial Rebates
Balance at January 1, 2016
Provision related to sales recorded in the period
Credits/payments issued during the period
Balance at December 31, 2016
Provision related to sales recorded in the period
Credits/payments issued during the period
Balance at December 31, 2017
Liabilities assumed from acquisitions
Provision related to sales recorded in the period
Credits/payments issued during the period
Balance at December 31, 2018
The Company’s stock-based compensation consists of stock options and restricted stock units ("RSUs") awarded to employees and non-employee directors. Stock options are measured at their fair value on the grant date or date of modification, as applicable. RSUs are measured at the stock price on the grant date or date of modification, as applicable. The Company recognizes compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service and/or performance period, as applicable. Forfeitures of awards are accounted for as a reduction in stock-based compensation expense in the period such awards are forfeited. The Company's policy is to issue new shares upon option exercises and RSU vestings.
The Company has operations in the U.S., Switzerland, India, the U.K., Ireland, and other international jurisdictions. The results of its non-U.S. dollar based operations are translated to U.S. Dollars at the average exchange rates during the period. Assets and liabilities are translated at the rate of exchange prevailing on the balance sheet date. Investment accounts are translated at historical exchange rates. Translation adjustments are accumulated in a separate component of stockholders’/members’ deficit in the consolidated balance sheet and are included in the determination of comprehensive income. Transaction gains and losses are included in the determination of net (loss) income in the Company consolidated statements of operations as a component of foreign exchange gains and losses. Such foreign currency transaction gains and losses include fluctuations related to long term intercompany loans that are payable in the foreseeable future.
Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. Under the acquisition method, the acquiring entity in a business combination records the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the date of acquisition at their fair values. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets and other identifiable intangible assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Acquisition-related costs, primarily professional fees, are expensed as incurred.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on deposit and highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. A portion of the Company’s cash flows are derived outside the U.S. As a result, the Company is subject to market risk associated with changes in foreign exchange rates. The Company maintains cash balances at both U.S. based and foreign based commercial banks. At various times during the year, cash balances in the U.S. may exceed amounts that are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC").
At December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, the Company had restricted cash balances of $5 million and $4 million in its bank accounts primarily related to the purchase of certain land and equipment.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and do not bear interest. The Company limits its credit risk with respect to accounts receivable by performing credit evaluations when deemed necessary. The Company does not require collateral to secure amounts owed to it by its customers.
The allowance for doubtful accounts is management’s best estimate of the amount of probable collection losses in the Company’s existing accounts receivable. Management determines the allowance based on historical experience along with the present knowledge of potentially uncollectible accounts. Account balances are charged off against the allowance when management believes it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The Company does not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to customers.
Inventories consist of finished goods held for sale, raw materials, and work in process. Inventories are stated at net realizable value, with cost determined using the first-in, first-out method. Adjustments for excess and obsolete inventories are established based upon historical experience and management’s assessment of current product demand. These assessments include inventory obsolescence based on its expiration date, damaged or rejected product, and slow-moving products.
Property, Plant, and Equipment
Property, plant, and equipment are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation expense is computed primarily using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which are as follows:
Estimated Useful Life
Furniture and fixtures
Shorter of asset's useful life or remaining life of lease
Machinery and equipment
Upon retirement or disposal, the cost of the asset disposed and the accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any gain or loss is reflected as part of operating income (loss) in the period of disposal. Expenditures that significantly increase value or extend useful lives of property, plant, and equipment are capitalized, whereas those for normal maintenance and repairs are expensed. The Company capitalizes interest on borrowings during the construction period of major capital projects as part of the related asset and amortizes the capitalized interest into earnings over the related asset’s remaining useful life.
In-Process Research and Development
The fair value of in-process research and development ("IPR&D") acquired in a business combination is determined based on the present value of each research project’s projected cash flows using an income approach. Revenues are estimated based on relevant market size and growth factors, expected industry trends, individual project life cycles and the life of each research project’s underlying marketability. In determining the fair value of each research project, expected cash flows are adjusted for certain risks of completion, including technical and regulatory risk.
The value attributable to IPR&D projects at the time of acquisition is capitalized as an indefinite-lived intangible asset and tested for impairment until the project is completed or abandoned. Upon completion of the project, the indefinite-lived intangible asset is then accounted for as a finite-lived intangible asset and amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. If the project is abandoned, the indefinite-lived intangible asset is charged to expense.
Intangible assets with indefinite lives, including IPR&D, are tested for impairment if impairment indicators arise and, at a minimum, annually. However, an entity is permitted to first assess qualitative factors to determine if a quantitative impairment test is necessary. Further testing is only required if the entity determines, based on the qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that an indefinite-lived intangible asset’s fair value is less than its carrying amount. Otherwise, no further impairment testing is required. The indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test consists of a one-step analysis that compares the fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of an intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The Company considers many factors in evaluating whether the value of its intangible assets with indefinite lives may not be recoverable, including, but not limited to, expected growth rates, the cost of equity and debt capital, general economic conditions, the Company's outlook and market performance of the Company's industry and recent and forecasted financial performance.
Goodwill, which represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired, is carried at cost. Goodwill is not amortized; rather, it is subject to a periodic assessment for impairment by applying a fair value based test. The Company reviews goodwill for possible impairment annually during the fourth quarter, or whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.
The impairment model prescribes a two-step method for determining goodwill impairment. However, an entity is permitted to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the two-step goodwill impairment test is necessary. The qualitative factors considered by the Company may include, but are not limited to, general economic conditions, the Company’s outlook, market performance of the Company’s industry and recent and forecasted financial performance. Further testing is only required if the entity determines, based on the qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying amount. Otherwise, no further impairment testing is required. In the first step, the Company determines the fair value of its reporting unit using a discounted cash flow analysis. If the net book value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the Company then performs the second step of the impairment test, which requires allocation of the reporting unit’s fair value to all of its assets and liabilities using the acquisition method prescribed under authoritative guidance for business combinations with any residual fair value being allocated to goodwill. An impairment charge is recognized when the implied fair value of the Company’s reporting unit’s goodwill is less than its carrying amount.
Assumptions and estimates used in the evaluation of impairment may affect the carrying value of long-lived assets, which could result in impairment charges in future periods. Such assumptions include projections of future cash flows and the current fair value of the asset.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets (Including Intangible Assets with Finite Lives)
The Company reviews its long-lived assets, including intangible assets with finite lives, for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. The Company evaluates assets for potential impairment by comparing estimated future undiscounted net cash flows to the carrying amount of the asset. If the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the estimated future undiscounted cash flows, impairment is measured based on the difference between the carrying amount of the assets and fair value which is generally an expected present value cash flow technique. Management’s policy in determining whether an impairment indicator exists comprises measurable operating performance criteria as well as other qualitative measures.
Intangible assets, other than indefinite-lived intangible assets, are amortized over the estimated useful life of the asset based on the pattern in which the economic benefits are expected to be consumed or otherwise used up or, if that pattern is not readily determinable, on a straight-line basis. The useful life is the period over which the assets are expected to contribute directly or indirectly to future cash flows. Intangible assets are not written-off in the period of acquisition unless they become impaired during that period.
The Company regularly evaluates the remaining useful life of each intangible asset that is being amortized to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization. If the estimate of the intangible asset’s remaining useful life is changed, the remaining carrying amount of the intangible asset is amortized prospectively over that revised remaining useful life.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes ("ASC 740"), which requires the recognition of tax benefits or expenses on temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of its assets and liabilities by applying the enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Such net tax effects on temporary differences are reflected on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets as deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when the Company believes that it is more-likely-than-not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
ASC 740-10 prescribes a two-step approach for the recognition and measurement of tax benefits associated with the positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return that affect amounts reported in the financial statements. The Company has reviewed and will continue to review the conclusions reached regarding uncertain tax positions, which may be subject to review and adjustment at a later date based on ongoing analyses of tax laws, regulations and interpretations thereof. To the extent that the Company’s assessment of the conclusions reached regarding uncertain tax positions changes as a result of the evaluation of new information, such change in estimate will be recorded in the period in which such determination is made. The Company reports income tax-related interest and penalties relating to uncertain tax positions, if applicable, as a component of income tax expense.
Comprehensive loss includes net loss and all changes in equity for cumulative translation adjustments resulting from the consolidation of foreign subsidiaries’ financial statements.
Research and Development
Research and development ("R&D") activities are expensed as incurred. Primarily R&D costs consist of direct and allocated expenses incurred with the process of formulation, clinical research, and validation associated with new product development. Upfront and milestone payments made to third parties in connection with R&D collaborations are expensed as incurred up to the point of regulatory approval or when there is no alternative future use.
Intellectual Property Legal Development Expenses
The Company expenses external intellectual property legal development expenses as incurred. These costs relate to legal challenges of innovator’s patents for invalidity or non-infringement, which are customary in the generic pharmaceutical industry, and are incurred predominately during development of a product and prior to regulatory approval. Associated costs include, but are not limited to, formulation assessments, patent challenge opinions and strategy, and litigation expenses to defend the intellectual property supporting the Company's regulatory filings.
The Company records the costs of shipping product to its customers as a component of selling, general, and administrative expenses as incurred. Shipping costs were $21 million, $15 million and $13 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Certain prior period balances have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation, including combining depreciation and amortization expense into the respective cost of goods sold, selling, general and administrative and R&D expense presentation on the consolidated statements of operations, as well as combining accounts payable and accrued expenses and combining long-term debt and revolving credit facility in the balance sheet presentation.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a stock-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. The guidance will be effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The amendments in this ASU should be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. The Company adopted ASU 2017-09 on January 1, 2018 and it did not have an effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force), to clarify how entities should present restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows. The guidance requires entities to show the changes in the total of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows.
As a result, entities will no longer present transfers between cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows. The guidance should be applied retrospectively and is effective for the annual period beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company early adopted ASU 2016-18 on January 1, 2018. This guidance was applied retrospectively and, accordingly, prior period amounts have been revised.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory, that will require companies to account for the income tax effects of intercompany transfers of assets other than inventory (e.g., intangible assets) when the transfer occurs. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted as of the beginning of an annual period (i.e., early adoption is permitted only in the first interim period). The Company early adopted ASU 2016-16 on January 1, 2018 and it did not have an effect on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force), to clarify how entities should classify certain cash receipts and cash payments on the statement of cash flows. The new guidance also clarifies how the predominance principle should be applied when cash receipts and cash payments have aspects of more than one class of cash flows. The guidance will be applied retrospectively and is effective for the Company for the annual period beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company early adopted ASU 2016-15 on January 1, 2018 and it did not have an effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. Subsequent to the issuance of Topic 606, the FASB clarified the guidance through several Accounting Standard Updates. This guidance represents a comprehensive new revenue recognition model that requires a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which that company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those goods or services. This update sets forth a new five-step revenue recognition model which replaces the prior revenue recognition guidance in its entirety and is intended to eliminate numerous industry-specific pieces of revenue recognition guidance that have historically existed.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 2014-09 and associated ASU's (collectively "Topic 606"), using the modified retrospective method, applied to all contracts not completed as of the date of adoption. This method requires the cumulative effect of the adoption to be recognized as an adjustment to opening retained earnings in the period of adoption.
The Company recorded a $5 million reduction to accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2018 due to the cumulative impact of adoption Topic 606. There is an acceleration of revenue for certain product sale arrangements which are designed to include profit share payments upon the customer’s sell-through of certain products purchased from the Company. Previously under Topic 605, the Company deferred revenue until its customers sold the product through to their end customers, at which point the Company considered the profit share payments to be earned and collection reasonably assured. Under Topic 606, an estimate of the profit share payments is included in the transaction price as variable consideration and is recognized at the time the Company transfers control of the product to its customer. This change resulted in a cumulative-effect adjustment upon adoption of the ASU as of January 1, 2018 which was not material to the financial statements. In the second quarter of 2018, the Company made a correction to the cumulative impact adjustment as of January 1, 2018 by reducing accumulated deficit by $2 million. The Company does not believe that this adjustment is material to its financial statements and it had no impact on any prior periods. Refer to Note 4. Revenue Recognition for additional disclosures required by Topic 606.
Under the modified retrospective method of adoption of Topic 606, the Company is also required to disclose the impact to revenues had the Company continued to follow its accounting policies under the previous revenue recognition guidance. For the year ended December 31, 2018 the impact of adopting ASC 606 was not material to reported revenue, therefore comparison of revenue and operating income between periods are not materially affected by the adoption of Topic 606. Refer to Note 4. Revenue Recognition for additional disclosures required by Topic 606.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 82): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurement. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those annual periods, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment that eliminates the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill (i.e., Step 2 of today’s goodwill impairment test) to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, entities will record an impairment charge based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value (i.e., measure the charge based on today’s Step 1). The standard will be applied prospectively and is effective for the Company’s annual and interim impairment tests performed in periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for annual and interim goodwill impairment testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company is evaluating the impact of this new guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, guidance that changes the impairment model for most financial assets including trade receivables and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net income. The standard will replace today’s "incurred loss" approach with an "expected loss" model for instruments measured at amortized cost and require entities to record allowances for available-for-sale debt securities rather than reduce the carrying amount, as they do today under the other-than-temporary impairment model. It also simplifies the accounting model for purchased credit-impaired debt securities and loans. Entities will apply the standard’s provisions as a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. The guidance is effective for the Company for the annual period beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is evaluating the impact of this new guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) to improve financial reporting of leasing transactions. Topic 842 requires lessees to recognize most leases on their balance sheet, makes selected changes to lessor accounting and requires disclose of additional key information about leases. In July 2018, the FASB issued clarifying guidance to the topic in ASU No. 2018-11 and No. 2018-10, “Leases (Topic 842),” which defined several practical expedients for adoption and clarified new accounting methodologies. The standard is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company will adopt Topic 842 on a modified retrospective basis, applying the transition requirements as of January 1, 2019 with certain practical expedients available.
As part of the Company's impact assessment, it has performed a scoping exercise and determined its lease population. A framework for the lease identification process has been developed and the Company is in the process of assessing any potential impacts on its internal controls and processes related to both the implementation and ongoing compliance of the new guidance.
While the Company is still finalizing the potential impacts of the standard, it currently expects the most significant impact will be the recognition of right of use assets and lease liabilities for operating leases. The Company estimates adoption of the standard will result in an increase of less than 5% of total assets and liabilities in its consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019. The Company does not expect the adoption will have a material impact on its consolidated statements of operations.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments—Overall (Subtopic 825-10), Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, which addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. The guidance is effective for annual periods and interim periods within those annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and early adoption is not permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.