Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Operations
Hamilton Beach Brands Holding Company is an operating holding company and operates through its two wholly-owned subsidiaries Hamilton Beach Brands, Inc. (“HBB”) and The Kitchen Collection, LLC (“KC”) (collectively “Hamilton Beach Holding” or the “Company”). On October 10, 2019, the Company’s board of directors (the “Board”) approved the wind down of KC and its retail operations. By December 31, 2019, all KC stores were closed and the reportable segment qualifies to be reported as discontinued operations. On January 21, 2020, the Board approved the dissolution of the KC legal entity and a Certificate of Dissolution of Ohio Limited Liability Company was filed with the Ohio Secretary of State. See Note 3 for further information on discontinued operations.
The only material assets held by Hamilton Beach Brands Holding Company are its investments in its consolidated subsidiaries. Substantially all of its cash flows are provided by dividends paid or distributions made by its subsidiaries. Hamilton Beach Brands Holding Company has not guaranteed any obligations of its subsidiaries.
HBB is a leading designer, marketer, and distributor of branded, small electric household and specialty housewares appliances, as well as commercial products for restaurants, bars, and hotels. HBB operates in the consumer, commercial and specialty small appliance markets.
On September 29, 2017, NACCO Industries, Inc. ("NACCO"), Hamilton Beach Holding's former parent company, spun-off the Company to NACCO stockholders. In the spin-off, NACCO stockholders, in addition to retaining their shares of NACCO common stock, received one share of Hamilton Beach Brands Holding Company Class A common stock ("Class A Common") and one share of Hamilton Beach Brands Holding Company Class B common stock ("Class B Common") for each share of NACCO Class A or Class B common stock. In accordance with applicable authoritative accounting guidance, the Company accounted for the spin-off from NACCO based on the historical carrying value of assets and liabilities. As a result of the distribution of one share of Class A Common and one share of Class B Common for each share of NACCO Class A or NACCO Class B common stock, the earnings per share amounts for the Company for periods prior to the spin-off have been calculated based upon the number of shares distributed in the spin-off. NACCO did not receive any proceeds from the spin-off.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Prior period non-trade customer receivable amounts of $9.5 million have been reclassified from trade receivables, net to prepaid expenses and other current assets to conform to the current period presentation.
As of December 31, 2019, HBB is the Company’s single reportable operating segment. This is supported by the operational structure of HBB which is designed and managed to share resources across the entire suite of products offered by the business. Such resources include research and development, product design, marketing, operations, and administrative functions. The Company's chief operating decision maker does not regularly review financial information for individual product categories, sales channels, or geographic regions that would allow decisions to be made about allocation of resources or performance. Since the Company operates in one reportable segment, all required financial segment information can be found in the consolidated financial statements.
A component of an entity that is disposed of by sale or abandonment is reported as discontinued operations if the transaction represents a strategic shift that will have a major effect on an entity's operations and financial results. The results of discontinued operations are aggregated and presented separately in the Consolidated Statement of Operations. Assets and liabilities of the discontinued operations are aggregated and reported separately as assets and liabilities of discontinued operations in the Consolidated Balance Sheet, including the comparative prior year period. KC’s cash flows are reflected as cash flows from discontinued operations within the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for each period presented.
Amounts presented in discontinued operations have been derived from our consolidated financial statements and accounting records using the historical basis of assets, liabilities, and historical results of KC. The discontinued operations exclude general corporate allocations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities (if any). Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in banks and highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.
Allowances for doubtful accounts are maintained against trade receivables for estimated losses resulting from the inability of customers to make required payments. These allowances are based on both recent trends of certain customers estimated to be a greater credit risk as well as general trends of the entire customer pool. Accounts are written off against the allowance when it becomes evident collection will not occur.
HBB maintains significant trade receivables balances with several large retail customers. At December 31, 2019 and 2018, receivables from HBB’s five largest customers represented 69% and 57%, respectively, of HBB's net trade receivables. HBB’s significant credit concentration is uncollateralized; however, historically, minimal credit losses have been incurred.
Transfer of Financial Assets
HBB has entered into an arrangement with a financial institution to sell certain U.S. trade receivables on a non-recourse basis. HBB utilizes this arrangement as an integral part of financing working capital. Under the terms of the agreement, HBB receives cash proceeds and retains no rights or interest and has no obligations with respect to the sold receivables. These transactions are accounted for as sold receivables which result in a reduction in trade receivables because the agreement transfers effective control over and risk related to the receivables to the buyer. Under this arrangement, HBB derecognized $162.7 million, $165.4 million, and $164.0 million of trade receivables during 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The losses incurred on sold receivables in the consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 were not material. The Company does not carry any servicing assets or liabilities. Cash proceeds from this arrangement are reflected as operating activities.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value with cost determined under the first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) method. Adjustments to the carrying value are recorded for estimated obsolescence or excess inventory equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation, amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Depreciation and amortization are recorded generally using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Estimated lives for buildings are up to 40 years, and for machinery, equipment and furniture and fixtures range from three to seven years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the term of the lease. The units-of-production method is used to amortize certain tooling for sourced products. Costs incurred to develop software for internal use are capitalized and amortized over the estimated useful life of the software. Gains or losses from the sale of assets are included in selling, general and administrative expenses. Repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Interest is capitalized for qualifying long-term capital asset projects as a part of the historical cost of acquiring the asset.
The Company evaluates long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of long-lived assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of the asset to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value of the asset. Fair value is estimated at the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of all acquisitions over the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized but evaluated at least annually for impairment. The Company conducts its annual test for impairment as of October 1 of each year and it may be conducted more frequently if changes in circumstances or the occurrence of events indicates that a potential impairment exists. Using a qualitative assessment in the current year, the Company determined that it was not more-likely-than-not that the goodwill was impaired and a quantitative test for impairment was not required.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives, which represent the period over which the asset is expected to contribute directly or indirectly to future cash flows. Intangible assets with finite lives are reviewed for impairment whenever events and circumstances indicate the carrying value of such assets may not be recoverable and exceed their fair value. If an impairment loss exists, the carrying amount of the intangible asset is adjusted to a new cost basis. The new cost basis is amortized over the remaining useful life of the asset.
No impairment has been recognized for identifiable intangible assets or goodwill for any period presented.
HBB and environmental consultants are investigating or remediating historical environmental contamination at some current and former sites operated by HBB or by businesses it acquired. Liabilities for environmental matters are recorded in the period when it is determined to be probable and reasonably estimable that the Company will incur costs. When only a range of amounts is reasonably estimable and no amount within the range is more probable than another, the Company records the low end of the range. Environmental liabilities are recorded on an undiscounted basis and recorded in selling, general, and administrative expenses. When recovery of a portion of an environmental liability is probable, such amounts are recognized as a reduction to selling, general, and administrative expenses and included in prepaid expenses and other current assets (current portion) and other non-current assets until settled.
Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to the Company's customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. Sales taxes are excluded from revenue. At contract inception, the Company assesses the goods and services promised in its contracts with customers and identifies a performance obligation for each promised good or service that is distinct. The Company has elected to account for shipping and handling activities performed after a customer obtains control of the goods as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer the goods, and therefore these activities are not assessed as a separate service to customers. The amount of revenue recognized varies primarily with changes in returns. In addition, the Company offers price concessions to our customers for incentive offerings, special pricing agreements, price competition, promotions or other volume-based arrangements. We determine whether price concessions offered to its customers are a reduction of the transaction price and revenue or are advertising expense, depending on whether we receive a distinct good or service from our customers and, if so, whether we can reasonably estimate the fair value of that distinct good or service. We evaluated such agreements with our customers and determined they should be accounted for as variable consideration. As of December 31, 2019, we have determined that customer price concessions recorded as a reduction of revenue, certain of which were previously recorded in other current liabilities, meet all of the criteria specified in ASC 210-20, "Balance Sheet Offsetting". Accordingly, amounts related to such arrangements have been classified as a reduction of trade receivables, net as of December 31, 2019 (prior periods have not been adjusted as all the criteria in ASC 210-20 had not previously been met).
To estimate variable consideration, the Company applies both the expected value method and most likely amount method based on the form of variable consideration, according to which method would provide the better prediction. The expected value method involves a probability weighted determination of the expected amount, whereas the most likely amount method identifies the single most likely outcome in a range of possible amounts.
Product Development Costs
Expenses associated with the development of new products and changes to existing products are charged to expense as incurred. These costs, included in selling, general and administrative expenses, amounted to $12.1 million, $11.0 million, and $10.4 million in 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively.
Assets and liabilities of foreign operations are translated into U.S. dollars at the fiscal year-end exchange rate. Revenue and expenses of all foreign operations are translated using average monthly exchange rates prevailing during the year. The related translation adjustments, including translation on long-term intra-entity foreign currency transactions, are recorded as a separate component of stockholders’ equity.
Financial instruments held by the Company include cash and cash equivalents, trade receivables, accounts payable, revolving credit agreements, interest rate swap agreements and forward foreign currency exchange contracts. The Company does not hold or issue financial instruments or derivative financial instruments for trading purposes. Interest rate swap agreements and forward foreign currency exchange contracts held by the Company have been designated as hedges of forecasted cash flows. The Company holds these derivative contracts with high-quality financial institutions and limits the amount of credit exposure to any one institution. The Company does not currently hold any nonderivative instruments designated as hedges or any derivatives designated as fair value hedges.
The Company uses forward foreign currency exchange contracts to partially reduce risks related to transactions denominated in foreign currencies. The Company offsets fair value amounts related to foreign currency exchange contracts executed with the same counterparty. These contracts hedge firm commitments and forecasted transactions relating to cash flows associated with sales and purchases denominated in currencies other than the subsidiaries’ functional currencies. Changes in the fair value of forward foreign currency exchange contracts that are effective as hedges are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“AOCI”). Deferred gains or losses are reclassified from AOCI to the Consolidated Statements of Operations in the same period as the gains or losses from the underlying transactions are recorded and are generally recognized in cost of sales. The ineffective portion of derivatives that are classified as hedges is immediately recognized in earnings and generally recognized in cost of sales.
The Company uses interest rate swap agreements to partially reduce risks related to floating rate financing agreements that are subject to changes in the market rate of interest. Terms of the interest rate swap agreements require the Company to receive a variable interest rate and pay a fixed interest rate. The Company’s interest rate swap agreements and its variable rate financings are predominately based upon LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate). Changes in the fair value of interest rate swap agreements that are effective as hedges are recorded in AOCI. Deferred gains or losses are reclassified from AOCI to the Consolidated Statements of Operations in the same period as the gains or losses from the underlying transactions are recorded and are generally recognized in interest expense, net. The ineffective portion of derivatives that are classified as hedges is immediately recognized in earnings and included in interest expense, net. The Company periodically enters into foreign currency exchange contracts that do not meet the criteria for hedge accounting. These derivatives are used to reduce the Company’s exposure to foreign currency risk related to forecasted purchase or sales transactions or forecasted intercompany cash payments or settlements. Gains and losses on these derivatives are included in other expense, net.
Cash flows from hedging activities are reported in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in the same classification as the hedged item, generally as a component of cash flows from operations.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company defines the fair value measurement of its financial assets and liabilities as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
A fair value hierarchy requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs, where available, and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
Described below are the three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 - Quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Observable prices that are based on inputs not quoted on active markets, but corroborated by market data.
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs are used when little or no market data is available.
The hierarchy is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. The classification of fair value measurements within the hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the measurement.
Pursuant to the Executive Long-Term Equity Incentive Plan (the "Executive Plan") established in September 2017, the Company grants stock of Class A Common, subject to transfer restrictions, as a means of retaining and rewarding selected employees for long-term performance. Stock awarded under the Executive Plan are fully vested and entitle the stockholder to all rights of common stock ownership except that shares may not be assigned, pledged or otherwise transferred during the restriction period. In general, the restriction period ends after three, five or ten years from the award date or at the earliest of (i) three years after the participant's retirement date, or (ii) the participant's death or permanent disability. The Company issued 118,688 and 5,512 shares of stock of Class A Common in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. No stock was issued in the year ended December 31, 2017 under the Executive Plan. Stock compensation expense related to the Executive Plan was $1.6 million and $2.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and was based on the fair value of Class A Common on the grant date.
The Company records the aggregate purchase price of treasury stock at cost and includes treasury stock as a reduction to stockholders' equity.
Tax law requires certain items to be included in the tax return at different times than the items are reflected in the financial statements. Some of these differences are permanent, such as expenses that are not deductible for tax purposes, and some differences are temporary, reversing over time, such as depreciation expense. These temporary differences create deferred tax assets and liabilities using currently enacted tax rates. The objective of accounting for income taxes is to recognize the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year, and deferred tax liabilities and assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the financial statements or tax returns. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in the provision for income taxes in the period that includes the enactment date. Management is required to estimate the timing of the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities, make assumptions about the future deductibility of deferred tax assets and assess deferred tax liabilities based on enacted law and tax rates for the appropriate tax jurisdictions to determine the amount of such deferred tax assets and liabilities. Changes in the calculated deferred tax assets and liabilities may occur in certain circumstances, including statutory income tax rate changes, statutory tax law changes, or changes in the Company's structure or tax status.
The Company's tax assets, liabilities, and tax expense are supported by historical earnings and losses and the Company's best estimates and assumptions of future earnings. The Company assesses whether a valuation allowance should be established against the Company's deferred tax assets based on consideration of all available evidence, both positive and negative, using a more likely than not standard. This assessment considers, among other matters, scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, and results of recent operations. The assumptions about future taxable income require significant judgment and are consistent with the plans and estimates the Company is using to manage the underlying businesses. When the Company determines, based on all available evidence, that it is more likely than not that deferred tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance is established.
Accounting Standards Adopted
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, "Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715)," which amends the requirements in GAAP related to the income statement presentation of the components of net periodic benefit cost for an entity's sponsored defined benefit pension and other post-retirement plans. The Company adopted this guidance on January 1, 2019. The change in presentation of the components of net periodic pension cost was applied retrospectively which resulted in $0.7 million and $0.9 million of net periodic pension income for the years end December 31, 2018, and 2017, respectively, being reclassified from selling, general and administrative expenses to other expense (income), net.
Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
The Company is an emerging growth company and has elected not to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or nonpublic entities, the Company can adopt the new or revised standard at the time nonpublic entities adopt the new or revised standard.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)," which requires an entity to recognize assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by leased assets. For nonpublic entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is planning to adopt ASU 2016-02 for its year ending December 31, 2021 and is currently evaluating to what extent ASU 2016-02 will affect the Company's financial position, results of operations, cash flows and related disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326)," which requires an entity to recognize credit losses as an allowance rather than as a write-down. For nonpublic entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is planning to adopt ASU 2016-03 for its year ending December 31, 2022 and is currently evaluating to what extent ASU 2016-13 will affect the Company's financial position, results of operations, cash flows and related disclosures.