SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation—The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Delphi Technologies’ subsidiaries in which the Company holds a controlling financial or management interest and variable interest entities of which Delphi Technologies has determined that it is the primary beneficiary. All significant intercompany transactions and balances between consolidated Delphi Technologies businesses have been eliminated. For periods prior to December 4, 2017, transactions between the Company and the Former Parent have been included in the financial statements within Former Parent net investment. Prior to December 4, 2017, expenses related to corporate allocations from the Former Parent to the Company were considered to be effectively settled for cash in the financial statements at the time the transaction was recorded. Prior to the Separation, transactions between the Company and the Former Parent’s other subsidiaries were classified as related party, rather than intercompany, transactions within the consolidated financial statements.
Delphi Technologies’ share of the earnings or losses of Delphi-TVS Diesel Systems Ltd (of which Delphi Technologies owns approximately 50%), a non-controlled affiliate located in India over which the Company exercises significant influence, is included in the consolidated operating results of Delphi Technologies using the equity method of accounting.
During the year ended December 31, 2015, Delphi Technologies made a $20 million investment in Tula Technology, Inc. (“Tula”), an engine control software company, over which the Company does not exert significant influence. During the year ended December 31, 2017, Delphi Technologies made an additional $1 million investment in Tula.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2018, Delphi Technologies made a $7 million investment in PolyCharge America, Inc. (“PolyCharge”), a start-up established to commercialize a new capacitor technology, over which the Company does not exert significant influence.
Tula and PolyCharge are privately-held companies that do not have readily determinable fair values and therefore are measured at cost less impairments, adjusted for observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or similar investment of the same issuer. There were no impairments or upward adjustments recorded during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 or 2017. These investments are classified within other long-term assets in the consolidated balance sheets.
The Company monitors its equity investments, including those measured at fair value and those that do not have readily determinable fair values, for indicators of impairments or upward adjustments, on an ongoing basis. If the Company determines that such an indicator is present, an adjustment is recorded, which is measured as the difference between carrying value and estimated fair value. Estimated fair value is generally determined using an income approach based on discounted cash flows or negotiated transaction values.
Use of estimates—Preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect amounts reported therein. Generally, matters subject to estimation and judgment include amounts related to accounts receivable realization, inventory obsolescence, asset impairments, useful lives of intangible and fixed assets, deferred tax asset valuation allowances, income taxes, pension benefit plan assumptions, accruals related to litigation, warranty costs, environmental remediation costs, worker’s compensation accruals and healthcare accruals. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making estimates, actual results reported in future periods may be based upon amounts that differ from those estimates.
Revenue recognition—Delphi Technologies recognizes revenue in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). Revenue is recognized when obligations under the terms of a contract with our customer are satisfied; generally this occurs with the transfer of control of our production parts or aftermarket parts. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods. Sales incentives and allowances (including returns) are recognized as a reduction to revenue at the time of the related sale. The Company estimates the allowances based on an analysis of historical experience. Taxes assessed by a governmental authority collected by the Company concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction are excluded from net sales. Shipping and handling fees billed to customers are included in net sales, while costs of shipping and handling are included in cost of sales.
Delphi Technologies Aftermarket provides certain customers with a right of return. The Company recognizes an estimated return asset (and adjust for cost of sales) for the right to recover the products returned by the customer. ASC 606 requires that return assets be presented separately from inventory. As of September 30, 2018, the Company had return assets of $8 million included in other current assets.
Refer to Note 12. Revenue and Note 5. Assets for additional information.
Net income per share—Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to Delphi Technologies by the weighted–average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share reflects the weighted average dilutive impact of all potentially dilutive securities from the date of issuance and is computed using the treasury stock method by dividing net income attributable to Delphi Technologies by the diluted weighted-average number of ordinary shares outstanding. For periods prior to the Separation, the denominator for basic and diluted net income per share was calculated using the 88.61 million Delphi Technologies ordinary shares outstanding immediately following the Separation. The same number of shares was used to calculate basic and diluted earnings per share in those periods since no Delphi Technologies equity awards were outstanding prior to the Separation. Refer to Note 14. Shareholders’ Equity and Net Income Per Share for additional information including the calculation of basic and diluted net income per share.
Rebates—The Company accrues for rebates pursuant to specific arrangements primarily with certain aftermarket customers. Rebates generally provide for price reductions based upon purchase volumes and are recorded as a reduction of sales as earned by such customers.
Cash and cash equivalents—Cash and cash equivalents are defined as short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.
Accounts receivable—Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and do not bear interest. The Company generally does not require collateral for its trade receivables.
Sales of receivables are accounted for in accordance with the FASB ASC Topic 860, Transfers and Servicing (“ASC 860”). Agreements which result in true sales of the transferred receivables, as defined in ASC 860, which occur when receivables are transferred to a third party without recourse to the Company, are excluded from amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets. Cash proceeds received from such sales are included in operating cash flows. The expenses associated with receivables factoring are recorded in the consolidated statements of operations within interest expense.
Intangible assets—Intangible assets were $69 million and $75 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The Company has definite-lived intangible assets related to patents and developed technology, customer relationships and trade names. The Company amortizes definite-lived intangible assets over their estimated useful lives. The Company also has intangible assets related to acquired trade names that are classified as indefinite-lived when there are no foreseeable limits on the periods of time over which they are expected to contribute cash flows. These indefinite-lived trade name assets are tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when indicators of potential impairment exist. Costs to renew or extend the term of acquired intangible assets are recognized as expense as incurred. Amortization expense was $3 million and $9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and $5 million and $13 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively.
Goodwill—Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in business combinations. The Company tests goodwill for impairment annually in the fourth quarter, or more frequently when indications of potential impairment exist. The Company monitors the existence of potential impairment indicators throughout the fiscal year. The Company tests for goodwill impairment at the reporting unit level. Our reporting units are the components of operating segments which constitute businesses for which discrete financial information is available and is regularly reviewed by segment management.
There were no indicators of potential goodwill impairment during the nine months ended September 30, 2018. Goodwill was $7 million and $7 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
Warranty and product recalls—Expected warranty costs for products sold are recognized at the time of sale of the product based on an estimate of the amount that eventually will be required to settle such obligations. These accruals are based on factors such as past experience, production changes, industry developments and various other considerations. Costs of product recalls, which may include the cost of the product being replaced as well as the customer’s cost of the recall, including labor to remove and replace the recalled part, are accrued as part of our warranty accrual at the time an obligation becomes probable and can be reasonably estimated. These estimates are adjusted from time to time based on facts and circumstances that impact the status of existing claims. Refer to Note 7. Warranty Obligations for additional information.
Income taxes—Deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect temporary differences between the amount of assets and liabilities for financial and tax reporting purposes. Such amounts are adjusted, as appropriate, to reflect changes in tax rates expected to be in effect when the temporary differences reverse. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in earnings in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In the event the Company determines it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be realized in the future, the valuation allowance adjustment to the deferred tax assets will be charged to earnings in the period in which the Company makes such a determination. In determining the provision for income taxes for financial statement purposes, the Company makes certain estimates and judgments which affect its evaluation of the carrying value of its deferred tax assets, as well as its calculation of certain tax liabilities. Refer to Note 13. Income Taxes for additional information.
Restructuring—Delphi Technologies continually evaluates alternatives to align the business with the changing needs of its customers and to lower operating costs. This includes the realignment of its existing manufacturing capacity, facility closures, or similar actions, either in the normal course of business or pursuant to significant restructuring programs. These actions may result in employees receiving voluntary or involuntary employee termination benefits, which are mainly pursuant to union or other contractual agreements. Voluntary termination benefits are accrued when an employee accepts the related offer. Involuntary termination benefits are accrued upon the commitment to a termination plan and when the benefit arrangement is communicated to affected employees, or when liabilities are determined to be probable and estimable, depending on the existence of a substantive plan for severance or termination. Contract termination costs are recorded when contracts are terminated or when Delphi Technologies no longer derives economic benefit from a contract or ceases to use a leased facility. All other exit costs are expensed as incurred. Refer to Note 8. Restructuring for additional information.
Derivative financial instruments—All derivative instruments are required to be reported on the balance sheet at fair value unless the transactions qualify and are designated as normal purchases or sales. Changes in fair value are reported currently through earnings unless they meet hedge accounting criteria.
Exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates are managed by entering into a variety of forward contracts and swaps with various counterparties. Such financial exposures are managed in accordance with the policies and procedures of Delphi Technologies. The Company does not enter into derivative transactions for speculative or trading purposes. As part of the hedging program approval process, the Company identifies the specific financial risk which the derivative transaction will minimize, the appropriate hedging instrument to be used to reduce the risk and the correlation between the financial risk and the hedging instrument. Purchase orders, sales contracts, letters of intent, capital planning forecasts and historical data are used as the basis for determining the anticipated values of the transactions to be hedged. The Company does not enter into derivative transactions that do not have a high correlation with the underlying financial risk. Hedge positions, as well as the correlation between the transaction risks and the hedging instruments, are reviewed on an ongoing basis.
Foreign exchange forward contracts are accounted for as hedges of firm or forecasted foreign currency commitments to the extent they are designated and assessed as highly effective. All foreign exchange contracts are marked to market on a current basis. Refer to Note 16. Derivatives and Hedging Activities and Note 17. Fair Value of Financial Instruments for additional information.
Customer concentrations— There were no customers with greater than 10% of our net sales for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and September 30, 2017.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements—Delphi Technologies adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), in the first quarter of 2018 using the modified retrospective method. This ASU supersedes most of the existing guidance on revenue recognition in ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition and establishes a broad principle that requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The adoption of this guidance did not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Topic 606 was applied to contracts with customers which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods. Refer to Note 12. Revenue for additional information.
Delphi Technologies adopted ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, in the first quarter of 2018. This guidance makes targeted improvements to historical U.S. GAAP for financial instruments, including requiring equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting, or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income as opposed to other comprehensive income. Entities with equity investments that do not have a readily determinable fair value, and do not qualify for the practical expedient in ASC 820 to estimate fair value using the net asset value per share, may elect to measure these investments at cost, less any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for an identical or similar investment of the same issuer. The adoption of this guidance did not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Delphi Technologies adopted ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, in the first quarter of 2018. This guidance clarifies the presentation requirements of eight specific issues within the statement of cash flows. The adoption of this guidance did not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements, as the Company’s treatment of the relevant affected items within its consolidated statement of cash flows is generally consistent with the requirements of this guidance. As a result of adopting this guidance the Company reclassified $1 million insurance settlement proceeds within the consolidated statement of cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2017.
Delphi Technologies adopted ASU 2016-16, Accounting for Income Taxes: Intra-Entity Asset Transfers of Assets Other than Inventory, in the first quarter of 2018. This guidance requires that the tax effects of all intra-entity sales of assets other than inventory be recognized in the period in which the transaction occurs. The guidance was applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The adoption of this guidance did not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Delphi Technologies adopted ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash, in the first quarter of 2018. This guidance requires that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash. As a result, restricted cash is included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The adoption of this guidance did not have a significant impact on Company’s consolidated financial statements, other than the classification of restricted cash within the beginning-of-period and end-of-period totals on the consolidated statements of cash flows, as opposed to being excluded from these totals.
Delphi Technologies elected to early adopt ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging - Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, in the first quarter of 2018. This guidance expands and refines the application of hedge accounting for both non-financial and financial risk components and aligns the recognition and presentation of the effects of the hedging instrument and the hedged item in the financial statements. The adoption of this guidance did not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements, other than modifications to the disclosures. Refer to Note 16. Derivatives and Hedging Activities for additional details.
Delphi Technologies adopted ASU 2018-03, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Financial Instruments—Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, in the third quarter of 2018. This update was issued to clarify certain guidance within ASU 2016-01. This includes an amendment to clarify that an entity measuring an equity investment using the measurement alternative may change its measurement approach to a fair value method in accordance with ASC 820, through an irrevocable election that would apply to that investment and all identical or similar investments. The Company did not change its measurement approach for equity investments as a result of the adoption of this guidance.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted—In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). Under this guidance, lessees will be required to recognize on the balance sheet a lease liability and a right-of-use asset for all leases, with the exception of short-term leases. The lease liability represents the lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, and will be measured as the present value of the lease payments. The right-of-use asset represents the lessee’s right to use a specified asset for the lease term, and will be measured at the lease liability amount, adjusted for lease prepayment, lease incentives received and the lessee’s initial direct costs. The standard also requires a lessee to recognize a single lease cost allocated over the lease term, generally on a straight-line basis. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted.
ASU 2016-02 provides for certain practical expedients when adopting the guidance. The Company intends to utilize the package of practical expedients that allows an entity to not reassess existing leases for: i) whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases, ii) the lease classification for any expired or existing leases and iii) the initial direct costs for any existing leases. Additionally, the Company intends to elect the practical expedient under ASU 2018-01, that allows an entity to not reassess whether any expired or existing land easements are or contain leases. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which amends Topic 842 so that entities may elect not to recast the comparative periods presented when transitioning to Topic 842. The Company plans on electing this transition method. The Company is currently evaluating the effects that the adoption of this guidance will have on the Company’s consolidated financial statements, and anticipates the new guidance will significantly impact its consolidated balance sheet and will not have a material impact on its consolidated statements of operations or cash flows. As further described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K as of December 31, 2017, the Company had minimum lease commitments under non-cancellable operating leases totaling $85 million.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This guidance requires the measurement of all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. This guidance also requires enhanced disclosures regarding significant estimates and judgments used in estimating credit losses. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of this guidance will have on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. This guidance simplifies how an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating step two from the goodwill impairment test, which measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount. Under the new guidance, if a reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value, an entity will record an impairment charge based on that difference. The impairment charge will be limited to the amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. The standard will be applied prospectively and is effective for annual and interim impairment tests performed in periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard on its financial statements, but does not anticipate a material impact. As this standard is prospective in nature, the impact to the Company’s consolidated financial statements of not performing a step two in order to measure the amount of any potential goodwill impairment will depend on various factors associated with the Company’s assessment of goodwill for impairment in those future periods.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. This guidance expands the scope of ASC Topic 718, which currently only includes share-based payments to employees, to include share-based payments issued to nonemployees for goods or services. Consequently, the accounting for share-based payments to nonemployees and employees will be substantially aligned. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. Early adoption is permitted as long as the entity has adopted ASC 606. While the Company continues to assess all potential impacts of the new standard, the adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. This guidance amends ASC 820 to add, remove and clarify certain disclosure requirements related to fair value measures. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that fiscal year. Early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-14, Compensation-Retirement Benefits-Defined Benefit Plans-General (Subtopic 715-20): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans. This guidance amends ASC 715 to add, remove and clarify certain disclosure requirements related to defined benefit pension and other postretirement plans. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years ending after December 31, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.