BUSINESS AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Business
References in this report to "we," "our," "us" and "the Company" are to Vistra Energy and/or its subsidiaries in the Successor period, and to TCEH and/or its subsidiaries in the Predecessor periods, as apparent in the context. See Glossary for defined terms.
Vistra Energy is a holding company operating an integrated retail and generation business in markets throughout the U.S. Through our subsidiaries, we are engaged in competitive electricity market activities including power generation, wholesale energy sales and purchases, commodity risk management and retail sales of electricity to end users.
Vistra Energy has six reportable segments: (i) Retail, (ii) ERCOT, (iii) PJM, (iv) NY/NE (comprising NYISO and ISO-NE), (v) MISO and (vi) Asset Closure. The PJM, NY/NE and MISO segments were established on the Merger Date to reflect markets served by businesses acquired in the Merger. See Note 22 for further information concerning reportable business segments.
On the Petition Date, EFH Corp. and the substantial majority of its direct and indirect subsidiaries, including the Debtors, filed voluntary petitions for relief under the Bankruptcy Code in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware.
On the Effective Date, subsidiaries of TCEH that were Debtors in the Chapter 11 Cases (the TCEH Debtors) and certain EFH Corp. subsidiaries (the Contributed EFH Debtors) completed their reorganization under the Bankruptcy Code and emerged from the Chapter 11 Cases as subsidiaries of a newly formed company, Vistra Energy (our Successor). On the Effective Date, Vistra Energy was spun-off from EFH Corp. in a tax-free transaction to the former first lien creditors of TCEH (Spin-Off). As a result, as of the Effective Date, Vistra Energy is a holding company for subsidiaries principally engaged in competitive electricity market activities including power generation, wholesale energy sales and purchases, commodity risk management and retail sales of electricity to end users. TCEH is the Predecessor to Vistra Energy. See Note 5 for further discussion regarding the Chapter 11 Cases.
On the Merger Date, Vistra Energy and Dynegy completed the transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Dynegy merged with and into Vistra Energy, with Vistra Energy continuing as the surviving corporation. Because the Merger closed on April 9, 2018, Vistra Energy's consolidated financial statements and the notes related thereto do not include the financial condition or the operating results of Dynegy prior to April 9, 2018. See Note 2 for a summary of the Merger transaction and business combination accounting.
Basis of Presentation
As of the Effective Date, Vistra Energy applied fresh start reporting under the applicable provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 852, Reorganizations (ASC 852). Fresh start reporting included (1) distinguishing the consolidated financial statements of the entity that was previously in restructuring (TCEH, or the Predecessor) from the financial statements of the entity that emerges from restructuring (Vistra Energy, or the Successor), (2) accounting for the effects of the Plan of Reorganization, (3) assigning the reorganization value of the Successor entity by measuring all assets and liabilities of the Successor entity at fair value, and (4) selecting accounting policies for the Successor entity. The financial statements of Vistra Energy for periods subsequent to the Effective Date are not comparable to the financial statements of TCEH for periods prior to the Effective Date, as those previous periods do not give effect to any adjustments to the carrying values of assets or amounts of liabilities that resulted from the Plan of Reorganization and the related application of fresh start reporting. The reorganization value of Vistra Energy was assigned to its assets and liabilities in conformity with the procedures specified by FASB ASC 805, Business Combinations, and the portion of the reorganization value that was not attributable to identifiable tangible or intangible assets was recognized as goodwill. See Note 6 for further discussion of fresh start reporting.
The consolidated financial statements of the Predecessor reflect the application of ASC 852 as it applies to entities that have filed a petition for bankruptcy under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code. As a result, the consolidated financial statements of the Predecessor have been prepared as if TCEH was a going concern and contemplated the realization of assets and liabilities in the normal course of business. During the Chapter 11 Cases, the Debtors operated their businesses as debtors-in-possession under the jurisdiction of the Bankruptcy Court and in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Bankruptcy Code. The guidance requires that transactions and events directly associated with the reorganization be distinguished from the ongoing operations of the business. In addition, the guidance provides for changes in the accounting and presentation of liabilities. Prior to the Effective Date, the Predecessor recorded the effects of the Plan of Reorganization in accordance with ASC 852. See Predecessor Reorganization Items in Note 5 for further discussion of these accounting and reporting changes.
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and on the same basis as the audited financial statements included in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, with the exception of the changes in reportable segments as detailed above. Adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) necessary for a fair presentation of the results of operations and financial position have been included therein. All intercompany items and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. All dollar amounts in the financial statements and tables in the notes are stated in millions of U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.
Use of Estimates
Preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the reporting of assets and liabilities at the balance sheet dates and the reported amounts of revenue and expense, including fair value measurements, estimates of expected obligations, judgment related to the potential timing of events and other estimates. In the event estimates and/or assumptions prove to be different from actual amounts, adjustments are made in subsequent periods to reflect more current information.
Derivative Instruments and Mark-to-Market Accounting
We enter into contracts for the purchase and sale of electricity, natural gas, coal, uranium and other commodities utilizing instruments such as options, swaps, futures and forwards primarily to manage commodity price and interest rate risks. If the instrument meets the definition of a derivative under accounting standards related to derivative instruments and hedging activities, changes in the fair value of the derivative are recognized in net income as unrealized gains and losses. This recognition is referred to as mark-to-market accounting. The fair values of our unsettled derivative instruments under mark-to-market accounting are reported in the consolidated balance sheets as commodity and other derivative contractual assets or liabilities. We report derivative assets and liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets without taking into consideration netting arrangements we have with counterparties. Margin deposits that contractually offset these assets and liabilities are reported separately in the consolidated balance sheets, except for certain margin amounts related to changes in fair value on CME transactions that, beginning in January 2017, are legally characterized as settlement of derivative contracts rather than collateral. When derivative instruments are settled and realized gains and losses are recorded, the previously recorded unrealized gains and losses and derivative assets and liabilities are reversed. See Notes 17 and 18 for additional information regarding fair value measurement and commodity and other derivative contractual assets and liabilities. A commodity-related derivative contract may be designated as a normal purchase or sale if the commodity is to be physically received or delivered for use or sale in the normal course of business. If designated as normal, the derivative contract is accounted for under the accrual method of accounting (not marked-to-market) with no balance sheet or income statement recognition of the contract until settlement.
Because derivative instruments are frequently used as economic hedges, accounting standards related to derivative instruments and hedging activities allow for hedge accounting, which provides for the designation of such instruments as cash flow or fair value hedges if certain conditions are met. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, there were no derivative positions accounted for as cash flow or fair value hedges.
For the Successor period, we report commodity hedging and trading results as revenue, fuel expense or purchased power in the statements of consolidated income (loss) depending on the type of activity. Electricity hedges, financial natural gas hedges and trading activities are primarily reported as revenue. Physical or financial hedges for coal, diesel or uranium, along with physical natural gas trades, are primarily reported as fuel expense. For the Predecessor periods, all activity was reported as a net gain (loss) from commodity hedging and trading activities. Realized and unrealized gains and losses associated with interest rate swap transactions are reported in the statements of consolidated income (loss) in interest expense for both the Predecessor and Successor.
Revenue is recognized when electricity is delivered to our customers in an amount that we expect to invoice for volumes delivered or services provided. Sales tax is excluded from revenue. Energy sales and services that have been delivered but not billed by period end are estimated. Accrued unbilled revenues are based on estimates of customer usage since the date of the last meter reading provided by the independent system operators or electric distribution companies. Estimated amounts are adjusted when actual usage is known and billed. See Note 7 for detailed descriptions of revenue from contracts with customers.
We record wholesale generation revenue when volumes are delivered or services are performed for transactions that are not accounted for on a mark-to-market basis. These revenues primarily consist of physical electricity sales to the ISO or RTO, ancillary service revenue for reliability services, capacity revenue for making installed generation and demand response available for system reliability requirements, and certain other electricity sales contracts. See Note 7 for detailed descriptions of revenue from contracts with customers. See Derivative Instruments and Mark-to-Market Accounting for revenue recognition related to derivative contracts.
We expense advertising costs as incurred and include them within selling, general and administrative expenses. Advertising expenses totaled $46 million, $44 million, $9 million and $35 million for the Successor period for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 and the period from October 3, 2016 through December 31, 2016 and the Predecessor period from January 1, 2016 through October 2, 2016, respectively.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We evaluate long-lived assets (including intangible assets with finite lives) for impairment whenever indications of impairment exist. The carrying value of such assets is deemed to be impaired if the projected undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying value. If there is such impairment, a loss would be recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value. Fair value is determined primarily by discounted cash flows, supported by available market valuations, if applicable.
Finite-lived intangibles identified as a result of fresh start reporting or purchase accounting are amortized over their estimated useful lives based on the expected realization of economic effects. See Note 8 for details of intangible assets with indefinite lives, including discussion of fair value determinations.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets with Indefinite Lives
As part of fresh start reporting and purchase accounting, reorganization value or the purchase consideration is generally allocated, first, to identifiable tangible assets, identifiable intangible assets and liabilities, then any remaining excess reorganization value is allocated to goodwill (see Note 6). We evaluate goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives for impairment at least annually, or when indications of impairment exist. We have established October 1 as the date we evaluate goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives for impairment. The Predecessor's annual evaluation date was December 1. See Note 8 for details of goodwill, including discussion of fair value determinations.
Nuclear fuel is capitalized and reported as a component of our property, plant and equipment in our consolidated balance sheets. Amortization of nuclear fuel is calculated on the units-of-production method and is reported as a component of fuel, purchased power costs and delivery fees in our statements of consolidated income (loss).
Major Maintenance Costs
Major maintenance costs incurred by the Successor during generation plant outages are deferred and amortized into operating costs over the period between the major maintenance outages for the respective asset. Other routine costs of maintenance activities are charged to expense as incurred and reported as operating costs in our statements of consolidated income (loss). The Predecessor charged all maintenance activities to expense as incurred.
Defined Benefit Pension Plans and OPEB Plans
On the Merger Date, Vistra Energy assumed the pension and OPEB plans that Dynegy had provided to certain of its eligible employees and retirees. The excess of the benefit obligations over the fair value of plan assets was recognized as a liability. See Note 2 for additional information regarding the Merger.
On the Effective Date, EFH Corp. transferred sponsorship of certain employee benefit plans (including related assets), programs and policies to a subsidiary of Vistra Energy. Certain health care and life insurance benefits are offered to eligible employees and their dependents upon the retirement of such employee from the company. Pension benefits are offered to eligible employees under collective bargaining agreements based on either a traditional defined benefit formula or a cash balance formula. Effective January 1, 2017, the OPEB plan was amended to discontinue the life insurance benefits for active employees. Costs of pension and OPEB plans are dependent upon numerous factors, assumptions and estimates.
Prior to the Effective Date, our Predecessor bore a portion of the costs of the EFH Corp. sponsored pension and OPEB plans and accounted for the arrangement under multiple employer plan accounting.
See Note 19 for additional information regarding pension and OPEB plans.
Stock-based compensation is accounted for in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation. The fair value of our non-qualified stock options is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. Forfeitures are recognized as they occur. We recognize compensation expense for graded vesting awards on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award. See Note 20 for additional information regarding stock-based compensation.
Sales and Excise Taxes
Sales and excise taxes are accounted for as "pass through" items on the consolidated balance sheets with no effect on the statements of consolidated income (loss) (i.e., the tax is billed to customers and recorded as trade accounts receivable with an offsetting amount recorded as a liability to the taxing jurisdiction).
Franchise and Revenue-Based Taxes
Unlike sales and excise taxes, franchise and gross receipt taxes are not a "pass through" item. These taxes are imposed on us by state and local taxing authorities, based on revenues or kWh delivered, as a cost of doing business and are recorded as an expense. Rates we charge to customers are intended to recover our costs, including the franchise and gross receipt taxes, but we are not acting as an agent to collect the taxes from customers. We report franchise and revenue-based taxes in SG&A expense in our statements of consolidated income (loss).
On the Merger Date, Vistra Energy and Dynegy effected a merger transaction that for tax purposes was treated as a tax-free reorganization in which Vistra Energy survived as the parent entity. In general, all of Dynegy's tax basis and attributes were transferred to Vistra Energy, including approximately $4.2 billion of utilizable NOLs and refundable AMT tax credits.
Prior to the Effective Date, EFH Corp. filed a consolidated U.S. federal income tax return that included the results of our Predecessor; however, our Predecessor's income tax expense and related balance sheet amounts were recorded as if it filed separate corporate income tax returns.
Investment tax credits are accounted for under the deferral method, which resulted in a reduction to the basis of the Upton 2 solar facility of $78 million and a corresponding increase in the deferred tax assets in 2018.
Deferred income taxes are provided for temporary differences between the book and tax basis of assets and liabilities as required under accounting rules. See Note 9.
We report interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as current income tax expense. See Note 9.
Tax Receivable Agreement
The Company accounts for its obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement (TRA) as a liability in our consolidated balance sheets (see Note 10). The carrying value of the TRA obligation represents the discounted amount of projected payments under the TRA. The projected payments are based on certain assumptions, including but not limited to (a) the federal corporate income tax rate and (b) estimates of our taxable income in the current and future years. Our taxable income takes into consideration the current federal tax code and reflects our current estimates of future results of the business.
The carrying value of the obligation is being accreted to the amount of the gross expected obligation using the effective interest method and the interest rate estimated at the Emergence Date. Changes in the estimated amount of this obligation resulting from changes to either the timing or amount of TRA payments are recognized in the period of change and are included on our statement of consolidated income (loss) under the heading of Impacts of Tax Receivable Agreement.
Accounting for Contingencies
Our financial results may be affected by judgments and estimates related to loss contingencies. Accruals for loss contingencies are recorded when management determines that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and that such economic loss can be reasonably estimated. Such determinations are subject to interpretations of current facts and circumstances, forecasts of future events and estimates of the financial impacts of such events. See Note 15 for a discussion of contingencies.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For purposes of reporting cash and cash equivalents, temporary cash investments purchased with a remaining maturity of three months or less are considered cash equivalents.
The terms of certain agreements require the restriction of cash for specific purposes. See Notes 14 and 23 for more details regarding restricted cash.
Property, Plant and Equipment
In connection with fresh start reporting, carrying amounts of property, plant and equipment were adjusted to estimated fair values as of the Effective Date (see Note 6). Property, plant and equipment added subsequent to the Effective Date has been recorded at estimated fair values at the time of acquisition for assets acquired or at cost for capital improvements and individual facilities developed (see Notes 2 and 3). Significant improvements or additions to our property, plant and equipment that extend the life of the respective asset are capitalized at cost, while other costs are expensed when incurred. The cost of self-constructed property additions includes materials and both direct and indirect labor, including payroll-related costs. Interest related to qualifying construction projects and qualifying software projects is capitalized in accordance with accounting guidance related to capitalization of interest cost. See Note 11.
Depreciation of our property, plant and equipment (except for nuclear fuel) is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated service lives of the properties. Depreciation expense is calculated on an asset-by-asset basis. Estimated depreciable lives are based on management's estimates of the assets' economic useful lives. See Note 23.
Asset Retirement Obligations (ARO)
A liability is initially recorded at fair value for an asset retirement obligation associated with the legal obligation associated with law, regulatory, contractual or constructive retirement requirements of tangible long-lived assets in the period in which it is incurred if a fair value is reasonably estimable. At initial recognition of an ARO obligation, an offsetting asset is also recorded for the long-lived asset that the liability corresponds with, which is subsequently depreciated over the estimated useful life of the asset. These liabilities primarily relate to our nuclear generation plant decommissioning, land reclamation related to lignite mining and removal of lignite/coal-fueled plant ash treatment facilities. Over time, the liability is accreted for the change in present value and the initial capitalized costs are depreciated over the remaining useful lives of the assets. Generally, changes in estimates related to ARO obligations are recorded as increases or decreases to the liability and related asset as information becomes available. Changes in estimates related to assets that have been retired or for which capitalized costs are not recoverable are reflected in the statements of consolidated income (loss). See Note 23.
Inventories consist of materials and supplies, fuel stock and natural gas in storage. Materials and supplies inventory is valued at weighted average cost and is expensed or capitalized when used for repairs/maintenance or capital projects, respectively. Fuel stock and natural gas in storage are reported at the lower of cost (on a weighted average basis) or market. We expect to recover the value of inventory costs in the normal course of business. See Note 23.
Investments in a nuclear decommissioning trust fund are carried at current market value in the consolidated balance sheets. Assets related to employee benefit plans represent investments held to satisfy deferred compensation liabilities and are recorded at current market value. See Note 23 for discussion of these and other investments.
We use the equity method of accounting for investments in affiliates over which we exercise significant influence. Our share of net income (loss) from these affiliates is recorded to equity in earnings (loss) of unconsolidated investment in the statements of consolidated net income (loss). See Note 23.
Noncontrolling interest is comprised of the 20% of Electric Energy, Inc. (EEI) that we do not own. EEI is our consolidated subsidiary that owns a coal facility in Joppa, Illinois. This noncontrolling interest is classified as a component of equity separate from stockholders' equity in the consolidated balance sheets.
Treasury stock purchases are accounted for under the cost method whereby the entire cost of the acquired stock is recorded as treasury stock, which is presented in our consolidated balance sheets as a reduction to additional paid-in capital. See Note 16.
Adoption of New Accounting Standards
Revenue from Contracts with Customers — On January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and all related amendments (new revenue standard) using the modified retrospective method for all contracts outstanding at the time of adoption. We recognized the cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods. The impact of the adoption of the new revenue standard was immaterial and we expect the adoption to continue to be immaterial to our net income on an ongoing basis. Our retail energy charges and wholesale generation, capacity and contract revenues will continue to be recognized when electricity and other services are delivered to our customers. The impact of adopting the new revenue standard primarily relates to the deferral of acquisition costs associated with retail contracts with customers that were previously expensed as incurred. Under the new revenue standard, these amounts are capitalized and amortized over the expected life of the customer.
As of January 1, 2018, the cumulative effect of the changes made to our consolidated balance sheet for the adoption of the new revenue standard was as follows:
December 31, 2017
Adoption of New Revenue Standard
Impact on consolidated balance sheet:
Prepaid expense and other current assets
Accumulated deferred income taxes
Other noncurrent assets
The disclosure of the impact of adoption on our statement of consolidated income (loss) and consolidated balance sheet was as follows:
Year Ended December 31, 2018
Amount Without Adoption of New Revenue Standard
Effect of Change
Impact on statement of consolidated income (loss):
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Net income (loss)
December 31, 2018
Balances Without Adoption of New Revenue Standard
Effect of Change
Impact on consolidated balance sheet:
Prepaid expense and other current assets
Accumulated deferred income taxes
Other noncurrent assets
See Note 7 for the disclosures required by the new revenue standard.
Statement of Cash Flows — In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18 Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash. The ASU requires restricted cash to be included in the cash and cash equivalents and a reconciliation between the change in cash and cash equivalents and the amounts presented on the balance sheet. We adopted the standard on January 1, 2018. The ASU modified our presentation of our statements of consolidated cash flows, and retrospective application to comparative periods presented was required. For the Successor period for the year ended December 31, 2017 and the period from October 3, 2016 through December 31, 2016, our statements of consolidated cash flows previously reflected a source of cash of $186 million and $48 million, respectively, reported as changes in restricted cash that is now reported in net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash. See the statements of consolidated cash flows and Note 23 for disclosures related to the adoption of this accounting standard.
Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income — In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. The ASU permits the reclassification of income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on items within accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) to retained earnings. We adopted this ASU in the fourth quarter of 2018, and the impact was additional tax expense to AOCI of $1 million with the offset to retained earnings.
Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans — In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-14, Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans. The ASU removes disclosure requirements for (a) the amounts in accumulated other comprehensive income expected to be recognized as components of net periodic benefit cost over the next fiscal year, (b) related party disclosures about the amount of future annual benefits covered by insurance and annuity contracts and significant transactions between the employer or related parties and the plan and (c) the effects of a one-percentage-point change in assumed health care cost trend rates on the aggregate of the service and interest cost components of net periodic benefit costs and benefit obligation for postretirement health care benefits. The ASU requires new disclosures for (a) the weighted-average interest crediting rates for cash balance plans and other plans with promised interest crediting rates and (b) an explanation of the reasons for significant gains and losses related to changes in the benefit obligation for the period. We adopted this ASU in the fourth quarter of 2018, and the updated disclosures are included in Note 19.
Leases — In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (ASU 2016-02), which was further amended through several updates issued by the FASB in 2018. The ASU amends previous GAAP to require lessees to recognize leases on-balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. The ASU requires the lessee to recognize a right-of-use asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases. Leases will be classified as finance and operating with classifications affecting the pattern and expense recognition in the income statement.
We adopted the new standard on January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective approach. The new standard provides a number of optional practical expedients in transition. We have elected the practical expedient which permits us to not reassess our prior conclusion about lease classification and initial direct costs under the new standard. We have also elected the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components for all applicable asset classes. We have also elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. On adoption, we currently expect to recognize additional liabilities within the range of approximately $230 million to $280 million, with corresponding right-of-use assets of the same amount based on the present value of the remaining rental payments for existing leases. The adoption of this standard will have an immaterial impact to beginning retained earnings and the statements of consolidated income (loss).
Changes in Accounting Standards
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The ASU will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and early adoption is permitted. The ASU removes disclosure requirements for (a) the reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2, (b) the policy for timing of transfers between levels and (c) the valuation processes for Level 3. The ASU will require new disclosures around (a) the changes in unrealized gains and losses for the period included in other comprehensive income for recurring Level 3 fair value measurements held at the end of the reporting period and (b) the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements. We are currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. The ASU will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and early adoption is permitted. The ASU requires a customer in a cloud hosting arrangement that is a service contract to determine which implementation costs to capitalize and which costs to expense based on the project stage of the implementation. The ASU also requires the customer to expense the capitalized implementation costs over the term of the hosting arrangement. The customer is required to apply the existing impairment and abandonment guidance on the capitalized implementation costs. We are currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our financial statements.