|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Operations
We are one of the largest providers of surface transportation and logistics solutions in North America that, together with our wholly owned subsidiaries, provides safe, reliable, and innovative truckload, intermodal, and logistics services to a diverse group of customers throughout the continental United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with GAAP and include all of our wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
In response to COVID-19 being declared a pandemic in March 2020, the Company has taken steps to mitigate the potential risks it poses. We have taken additional measures to keep our associates safe and minimize unnecessary risk of exposure to COVID-19 including taking precautions for our associates and owner-operators, implementing work from home policies, and imposing travel limitations on employees where appropriate as we continue to provide an essential service.
Management makes estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and disclosures included in its financial statements and accompanying notes and assesses certain accounting matters that require consideration of forecasted financial information. Uncertainty remains regarding the ongoing impact of COVID-19 on our financial condition and future results of operations, as well as on the significant estimates and assumptions used in reporting certain assets and liabilities such as the Company’s goodwill, long-lived and held for sale asset valuations, current expected credit losses, and healthcare reserves.
Use of Estimates
We make estimates and assumptions that affect assets, liabilities, the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash in excess of current operating requirements is invested in short-term, highly liquid investments. We consider all highly liquid investments purchased with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Receivables and Allowance
Our trade accounts receivable is recorded net of an allowance for doubtful accounts and revenue adjustments. The allowance is based on an aging analysis using historical experience, as well as any current and forecasted trends or uncertainties related to customer billing and account collectability. The adequacy of our allowance is reviewed at least quarterly, and reserves for receivables not expected to be collected are established. In circumstances where we are aware of a customer’s inability to meet its financial obligations, a specific reserve is recorded to reduce the net receivable to the amount we reasonably expect to collect. Bad debt expense is included in other general expenses in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
We record our lease receivables net of an allowance for doubtful accounts based on an aging analysis to reserve amounts expected to be uncollectible. The terms of the lease agreements generally give us the ability to take possession of the underlying asset in the event of default. We may incur credit losses in excess of recorded allowances if the full amount of anticipated proceeds from the sale or re-lease of the asset supporting the third party’s financial obligation, which can be impacted by economic conditions, is not realized.
Our inventories consist of tractors and trailing equipment owned by our equipment leasing company to be sold or leased to owner-operators, as well as parts, tires, supplies, and fuel. These inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market using specific identification or average cost. The following table shows the components of our inventory balances as of the dates shown.
|(in millions)||December 31, 2020||December 31, 2019|
|Tractors and trailing equipment for sale or lease||$||33.3 ||$||59.3 |
|Replacement parts||10.7 ||11.3 |
|Tires and other||0.9 ||1.3 |
|Total||$||44.9 ||$||71.9 |
Investments in Marketable Securities
Our marketable securities are classified as available-for-sale and carried at fair value in current assets on the consolidated balance sheets. While our intent is to hold our securities to maturity, sudden changes in the market or to our liquidity needs may cause us to sell certain securities in advance of their maturity date.
With the adoption of ASU 2016-13, as discussed further within Accounting Standards Recently Adopted below, the guidance on reporting credit losses for available-for-sale debt securities was amended. Under this new guidance, credit losses are to be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a direct write-down to the security. As a result, any unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, are included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income on the consolidated balance sheets, unless we determine that the amortized cost basis is not recoverable. If we determine that the amortized cost basis of the impaired security is not recoverable, we recognize the credit loss by increasing the allowance for those losses. Cost basis is determined using the specific identification method.
When adopting this standard, we elected to continue to present the accrued interest receivable balance associated with our investments in marketable securities separate from the marketable securities line in the consolidated balance sheets. As of December 31, 2020, accrued interest receivable associated with our investments in marketable securities was not material and is included within other receivables on the consolidated balance sheets. We have elected the practical expedient provided under the guidance to exclude the applicable accrued interest from the amortized cost basis disclosure of our marketable securities. We have also elected not to measure an allowance for credit losses on our accrued interest receivable and to write off accrued interest receivable by reversing interest income when it is not considered collectible.
Fair value is the estimated price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability, which is referred to as the exit price. Inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value fall into three broad levels (Levels 1, 2, and 3) as follows:
Level 1—Observable inputs that reflect quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets that we have the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2—Observable inputs, other than quoted prices included in Level 1, for the asset or liability or prices for similar assets and liabilities.
Level 3—Unobservable inputs reflecting the reporting entity’s estimates of the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability (including assumptions about risk).
Assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives and residual values. Generally, the estimated useful lives are as follows:
3 - 8 years
6 - 20 years
|Other transportation equipment|
4 - 5 years
|Buildings and improvements|
5 - 25 years
3 - 10 years
Salvage values, when applicable, generally don’t exceed 30% or 25% of the original cost for tractors and trailing equipment, respectively, and reflect any agreements with tractor suppliers for residual or trade-in values for certain new equipment.
Long-lived assets require an impairment review when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. We base our evaluation of other long-lived assets on the presence of impairment indicators such as the future economic benefit of the assets, any historical or future profitability measurements, and other external market conditions or factors. The carrying amount of tangible long-lived assets held and used is considered not recoverable if the carrying amount exceeds the undiscounted sum of cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. If the carrying amount is not recoverable, the impairment loss is measured as the excess of the asset’s carrying amount over its fair value.
Gains and losses on the sale or other disposition of equipment are based on the difference between the proceeds received less costs to sell and the net book value of the assets disposed. Gains and losses are recognized at the time of the sale or disposition and are classified in operating supplies and expenses in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
Assets Held for Sale
Assets held for sale consist of revenue equipment and are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the consolidated balance sheets. Reclassification to assets held for sale occurs when the required criteria, as defined by ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment, are satisfied.
Assets held for sale are evaluated for impairment when transferred to held for sale status or as impairment indicators are present. The carrying amount of assets held for sale is not recoverable if the carrying amount exceeds the fair value less estimated costs to sell the asset. An impairment loss is recorded for the excess of the asset’s carrying amount over the fair value less estimated costs to sell. Impairment losses are recorded in operating supplies and expenses in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, total impairment losses were $4.7 million, $42.4 million, and $0.3 million, respectively. Impairment losses for the year ended December 31, 2019 included a $28.1 million impairment related to the shutdown of our FTFM service offering and an $11.5 million impairment related to a bulk sale of tractors. Impairment losses related to the shutdown of our FTFM service offering were not material for the year ended December 31, 2020.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, assets held for sale by segment were as follows:
|$||16.9 ||$||63.5 |
|Intermodal||1.9 ||3.9 |
|Total||$||18.8 ||$||67.4 |
(1)As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, $1.6 million and $33.4 million related to the shutdown of our FTFM service offering, respectively.
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually in October, or more frequently if impairment indicators exist. The carrying amount of a reporting unit’s goodwill is considered not recoverable, and an impairment loss is recorded if the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, as determined based on the combination of an income approach and a market approach. See Note 6, Goodwill, for more information on our goodwill.
We recognize revenue during the delivery period based on relative transit time in each reporting period, in accordance with ASC 606, with expenses recognized as incurred. Accordingly, a portion of the total revenue that will be billed to the customer once a load is delivered is recognized in each reporting period based on the percentage of the freight pickup and delivery service that has been completed at the end of the reporting period. See Note 3, Revenue Recognition, for more information on ASC 606.
When we use third-party carriers, we generally record revenues on the gross basis at amounts charged to our customers because we are the primary obligor, we are a principal in the transaction, we invoice our customers and retain all credit risks, and we maintain discretion over pricing. Additionally, we are responsible for selection of third-party transportation providers to the extent used to satisfy customer freight requirements.
We record revenues net of pass-through taxes in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, no customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenues.
Income taxes are accounted for under the liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment date. We record valuation allowances for deferred tax assets to the extent we believe these assets are not more likely than not to be realized through the reversal of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, or tax-planning strategies. We record a liability for unrecognized tax benefits when the benefits of tax positions taken on a tax return are not more likely than not to be sustained upon audit. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions are classified as income tax expense in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
Earnings Per Share
We compute basic earnings per share by dividing net income available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the reporting period. Diluted earnings per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if holders of unvested restricted and performance share units or options exercised or converted their holdings into common stock. Awards that would have an anti-dilutive impact are excluded from the calculation.
We have share-based compensation plans covering certain employees, including officers and directors. We account for share-based compensation using the fair value recognition provisions of current accounting standards for share-based payments. We grant restricted stock units, restricted shares, performance-based restricted stock units, performance-based restricted shares, and nonqualified stock options. We recognize compensation expense over the requisite service periods within each award. See Note 12, Share-Based Compensation, for more information about our plans.
We are self-insured for loss of and damage to our owned and leased revenue equipment. We purchase insurance coverage for a portion of expenses related to employee injuries, vehicular accidents, and cargo damage. Certain insurance arrangements include a level of self-insurance (deductible) coverage applicable to each claim. We have excess policies to limit our exposure to catastrophic claim costs. The amounts of self-insurance change from time to time based on measurement dates, policy expiration dates, and claim type.
Our claims accrual policy for all self-insured claims is to recognize a liability at the time of the incident based on our analysis of the nature and severity of the claims and analyses provided by third-party claims administrators, as well as legal, economic, and regulatory factors. The ultimate cost of a claim develops over time as additional information regarding the nature, timing, and extent of damages claimed becomes available. Accordingly, we use an actuarial method to develop current claim information to derive an estimate of our ultimate claim liability. This process involves the use of loss-development factors based on our
historical claims experience and includes a contractual premium adjustment factor, if applicable. In doing so, the recorded liability considers future claims growth and provides an allowance for incurred but not reported claims. We do not discount our estimated losses. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had an accrual of $144.2 million and $143.5 million, respectively, for estimated claims net of reinsurance receivables. In addition, we are required to pay certain advanced deposits and monthly premiums. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had an aggregate prepaid insurance asset of $10.6 million and $8.1 million, respectively, which represented prefunded premiums and deposits.
Accounting Standards Recently Adopted
We adopted ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which reduces complexity in accounting for income taxes by eliminating certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and clarifying and amending existing guidance to improve consistent application among reporting entities, as of January 1, 2021. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements or related disclosures.
We adopted ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which was effective as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022, when the reference rate replacement activity is expected to be complete. This guidance offers optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to transactions, including contract modifications, hedging relationships, and the sale or transfer of debt securities classified as held-to-maturity affected by reference rate reform, if certain criteria are met. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
We adopted ASU 2018-15, Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract, which amends ASC 350, as of January 1, 2020 on a prospective basis. This standard aligned the capitalization requirements for implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the existing capitalization requirements for implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. The adoption did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
We adopted ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which is codified in ASC 326, as of January 1, 2020. The guidance replaced the incurred loss model with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses over the life of the financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, as well as considerations of current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. This new model for estimating our expected credit losses was implemented for our trade accounts receivable (Note 2, Trade Accounts Receivable and Allowance), available-for-sale debt securities (Note 5, Investments), and net investment in leases (Note 8, Leases) and did not result in a material impact to our consolidated financial statements or disclosures upon adoption.