|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Valvoline’s significant accounting policies, which conform to U.S. GAAP and are applied on a consistent basis in all years presented, except when otherwise disclosed, are described below.
Use of estimates, risks and uncertainties
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the disclosures of contingent matters. Significant items that are subject to such estimates and assumptions include, but are not limited to, long-lived assets (including intangible assets and goodwill), customer incentives, employee benefit obligations and income taxes. Although management bases its estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, actual results could differ significantly from the estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Cash and cash equivalents
All short-term, highly liquid investments having original maturities of three months or less are considered to be cash equivalents.
Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts
Valvoline invoices customers once or as performance obligations are satisfied, at which point payment becomes unconditional. As the majority of the Company’s performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time and customers typically do not make material payments in advance, nor does Valvoline have a right to consideration in advance of control transfer, the Company had no contract assets or contract liabilities. The Company recognizes a receivable on its Consolidated Balance Sheet when the Company performs a service or transfers a product in advance of receiving consideration, and the Company’s right to consideration is unconditional and only the passage of time is required before payment of that consideration is due.
Accounts receivable are recorded at net realizable value, and Valvoline records an allowance for doubtful accounts as a best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses for accounts receivable. Valvoline estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on a variety of factors, including the length of time receivables are past due, the financial health of its customers, macroeconomic conditions, past transaction history with the customer, and changes in customer payment terms. If the financial condition of its customers deteriorates or other circumstances occur that result in an impairment of customers’ ability to make payments, the Company records additional allowances as needed. The Company writes off uncollectible accounts receivable against the allowance for doubtful accounts when collection efforts have been exhausted and/or any legal action taken by the Company has concluded.
Inventories are primarily carried at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the weighted average cost method. In addition, certain lubricants are valued at the lower of cost or market using the last-in, first-out (“LIFO”) method to provide matching of revenues with current costs. Costs include materials, labor and manufacturing overhead related to the purchase and production of inventories. The Company regularly reviews inventory quantities on hand and the estimated utilization of inventory. Excess and obsolete reserves are established when inventory is estimated to not be usable based on forecasted usage, product demand and life cycle, as well as utility.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment is recorded at cost and is depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Buildings are depreciated principally over 5 to 25 years and machinery and equipment principally over 5 to 30 years. Property, plant and equipment is relieved of the cost and related accumulated depreciation when assets are disposed of or otherwise retired. Gains or losses on the dispositions of property, plant and equipment are included in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income and generally reported in Equity and other income, net. Property, plant and equipment carrying values are evaluated for recoverability when impairment indicators are present and are conducted at the lowest identifiable level of cash flows. Such indicators could include, among other factors, operating losses, unused capacity, market value declines and technological obsolescence. Recorded values of asset groups of property, plant and equipment that are not expected to be recovered through undiscounted future net cash flows are written down to current fair value, which generally is determined from estimated discounted future net cash flows (assets held for use) or net realizable value (assets held for sale).
Certain of Valvoline's properties, including retail, office, blending and warehouse locations, in addition to certain equipment, are leased. The initial terms of these leases vary in length and in many cases, include renewal options and require the payment of taxes, insurance and maintenance, in addition to rent. Certain leases contain escalation clauses and rent allowances, which have been reflected in rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term, with the difference recognized as deferred rent. Deferred rent was $5 million and $3 million as of September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Capital and financing leases are recorded as assets and an obligation at the present value of the minimum lease payments during the lease term. A financing lease is recorded when Valvoline is deemed the owner of the leased property. Capitalized and financing lease obligations are primarily included in Other noncurrent liabilities with related assets in Property, plant and equipment, net within the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the period from the date the assets are placed in service to the end of the lease term.
The financial results of the businesses that Valvoline has acquired are included in the Company’s consolidated financial results from the respective dates of the acquisitions. The Company allocates the purchase consideration to the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the business combination based on their acquisition-date fair values. The excess of the purchase consideration over the amounts assigned to the identifiable assets and liabilities is recognized as goodwill, or if the fair value of the net assets acquired exceeds the purchase consideration, a bargain purchase gain is recorded. Factors giving rise to goodwill generally include synergies that are anticipated as a result of the business combination, including access to new customers and markets. The fair values of identifiable intangible assets acquired in business combinations are generally determined using an income approach, requiring financial forecasts and estimates as well as market participant assumptions.
Goodwill and other intangible assets
Valvoline tests goodwill for impairment annually as of July 1 or when events and circumstances indicate an impairment may have occurred. This annual assessment consists of Valvoline determining each reporting unit’s current fair value compared to its current carrying value. Valvoline’s reporting units are Quick Lubes, Core North America, and International.
In evaluating goodwill for impairment, Valvoline has the option to first perform a qualitative "step zero" assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary or to perform a quantitative "step one" assessment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. Under the qualitative assessment, an entity is not required to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless the entity determines that it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount. Qualitative factors include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, cost factors, and overall financial performance, among others.
Under the step one assessment, if the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the amount of the impairment loss, if any, must be measured under "step two" of the impairment analysis. In step two of the analysis, an impairment loss will be recorded equal to the excess of the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill over its implied fair value. Fair values of the reporting units are estimated using a weighted methodology considering the output from both the income and market approaches. The income approach incorporates the use of a discounted cash flow (“DCF”) analysis. A number of significant assumptions and estimates are involved in the application of the DCF model to forecast operating cash flows, including markets and market shares, sales volumes and prices, costs to produce, tax rates, capital spending, discount rate, weighted average cost of capital, terminal values and working capital changes. Several of these assumptions vary among reporting units, and the cash flow forecasts are generally based on approved strategic operating plans. The market approach is performed using the Guideline Public Companies method which is based on earnings multiple data. The Company also performs a reconciliation between market capitalization and the estimate of the aggregate fair value of the reporting units, including consideration of a control premium.
Although there were no circumstances indicating a potential impairment, Valvoline elected to perform a quantitative assessment during fiscal 2019 and determined that the fair values of the Company's reporting units were substantially in excess of carrying values and no impairment existed.
Acquired finite-lived intangible assets principally consist of certain trademarks and trade names, reacquired franchise rights and customer relationships. Intangible assets acquired in an asset acquisition are carried at cost, less accumulated amortization. For intangible assets acquired in a business combination, the estimated fair values of the assets acquired are used to establish the carrying values, which are determined using assumptions from the perspective of a market participant and generally an income approach. These intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Valvoline evaluates finite-lived intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, and any assets not expected to be recovered through undiscounted future net cash flows are written down to current fair value.
Equity method investments
Investments in companies, including joint ventures, where Valvoline has the ability to exert significant influence over, but not control, operating and financial policies of the investee are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Judgment regarding the level of influence over each investment includes considering key factors such as the Company’s ownership interest, representation on the board of directors, and participation in policy-making decisions. The Company’s proportionate share of the net income or loss of these companies is included within Equity and other income, net in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
The Company evaluates equity method investments for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the investment might not be recoverable. Factors considered by the Company when reviewing an equity method investment for impairment include the length of time and extent to which the fair value of the equity method investment has been less than cost, the investee’s financial condition and near-term prospects, and the intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for anticipated recovery. An impairment that is other-than-temporary is recognized in the period identified.
Pension and other postretirement benefit plans
Valvoline sponsors defined benefit pension and other postretirement plans in the U.S and in certain countries outside the U.S. The majority of these plans were transferred to and assumed by the Company in the Contribution of certain of Ashland’s pension and other postretirement benefit obligations and plan assets in late fiscal 2016. Valvoline accounts for these obligations as single-employer plans for which Valvoline recognizes the net liabilities and the full amount of any costs or gains.
Valvoline recognizes the funded status of each applicable plan on the Consolidated Balance Sheets whereby each underfunded plan is recognized as a liability. The funded status is measured as the difference between the fair value of plan assets and the benefit obligation. Changes in the fair value of plan assets and net actuarial gains or losses are recognized upon remeasurement, which is at least annually as of September 30, the measurement date, and whenever a remeasurement is triggered. The remaining components of pension and other postretirement benefits expense / income are recorded ratably on a quarterly basis. The fair value of plan assets represents the current market value of assets held by irrevocable trust funds for the sole benefit of participants, and the benefit obligation is the actuarial present value of the benefits expected to be paid upon retirement, death, or other distributable event based on estimates. These valuations reflect the terms of the plans and use participant-specific information such as compensation, age and years of service, as well as certain key assumptions that require significant judgment, including, but not limited to, estimates of discount rates, rate of compensation increases, interest rates and mortality rates. Actuarial gains and losses may be related to actual results that differ from assumptions as well as changes in assumptions, which may occur each year.
Due to the freeze of U.S. pension benefits effective September 30, 2016, continuing service costs are limited to certain international pension plans, and are reported in the same caption of the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income as the related employee payroll expenses. All components of net periodic benefit cost / income other than service cost are recognized below operating income within Net pension and other postretirement plan expense / income in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
Commitments and contingencies
Liabilities for loss contingencies arising from claims, assessments, litigation, fines, penalties and other sources are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Legal costs such as outside counsel fees and expenses are charged to expense in the period incurred and are recorded in Selling, general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
Revenue is recognized for the amount that reflects the consideration the Company is expected to be entitled to based on when control of the promised good or service is transferred to the customer. Revenue recognition is evaluated through the following five steps: (i) identification of the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identification of the performance obligation(s) in the contract(s); (iii) determination of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligation(s) in the contract(s); and (v) recognition of revenue when or as a performance obligation is satisfied.
Nature of goods and services
Valvoline generates all revenues from contracts with customers, primarily as a result of the sale and service delivery of engine and automotive maintenance products to customers. Valvoline derives its sales from its broad line of products and complementary services through three principal activities managed across its three reportable segments: (i) engine and automotive maintenance products, (ii) company-owned quick-lube operations, and (iii) franchised quick-lube operations. Valvoline’s sales are generally to retail, installer, industrial, distributor, franchise, and end consumers to facilitate vehicle and equipment service and maintenance. Approximately 98% of Valvoline’s net sales are products and services sold at a point in time through either ship-and-bill performance obligations or company-owned quick-lube operations. The remaining 2% of Valvoline’s net sales generally relate to franchise fees.
Below is a summary of the key considerations for Valvoline's material revenue-generating activities:
Engine and automotive maintenance products
Engine and automotive maintenance products primarily include lubricants, antifreeze, chemicals, filters, and other complementary products for use across a wide array of vehicles and engines. The Company’s customers typically enter into a sales agreement which outlines a framework of terms and conditions that apply to all current and future purchase orders for the customer submitted under such sales agreement. In these situations, the Company’s contract with the customer is the sales agreement combined with the customer purchase order as specific products and quantities are not indicated until a purchase order is submitted. As the Company’s contract with the customer is typically for a single purchase order under the supply agreement to be delivered at a point in time, the duration of the contract is almost always one year or less. The Company’s products are distinct and separately identifiable on customer purchase orders, with each product sale representing a separate performance obligation that is generally delivered simultaneously. Valvoline is the principal to these contracts as the Company has control of the products prior to transfer to the customer. Accordingly, revenue is recognized on a gross basis.
The Company determines the point in time at which control is transferred and the performance obligation is satisfied by considering when the customer has the ability to direct the use of and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits of the product, which generally coincides with the transfer of title and risk of loss to the customer and is typically determined based on delivery terms within the underlying contract.
Customer payment terms vary by region and customer and are generally 30 to 60 days after delivery. Valvoline does not provide extended payment terms greater than one year.
Company-owned quick-lube operations
Performance obligations related to company-owned quick-lube operations primarily include the sale of engine and automotive maintenance products and related services. These performance obligations are distinct and are delivered simultaneously at a point in time. Accordingly, revenue from company-owned quick-lube operations is recognized when payment is tendered at the point of sale, which coincides with the completion of product and service delivery and the transfer of control and benefits from the performance obligations to the customer.
Franchised quick-lube operations
The primary performance obligations related to franchised quick-lube operations include product sales as described above and the license of intellectual property, which provides access to the Valvoline brand and proprietary information to operate service center stores over the term of a franchise agreement. Other franchise performance obligations do not result in material revenue. Each performance obligation is distinct, and franchisees generally receive and consume the benefits provided by the Company’s performance over the course of the franchise agreement, which typically ranges from 10 to 15 years. Billings and payments occur monthly.
In exchange for the license of Valvoline intellectual property, franchisees generally remit initial fees upon opening a service center store and royalties at a contractual rate of the applicable service center store sales over the term of the franchise agreement. The license provides access to the intellectual property over the term of the franchise agreement and is considered a right-to-access license of symbolic intellectual property as substantially all of its utility is derived from association with the Company’s past and ongoing activities. The license granted to operate each franchised service center store is the predominant item to which the royalties relate and represents a distinct performance obligation which is recognized over time as the underlying sales occur, as this is the most appropriate measure of progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation. Franchise revenue included within sales was $44 million, $29 million, and $28 million during fiscal 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively.
The Company only offers an assurance-type warranty with regard to the intended functionality of products sold, which does not represent a distinct performance obligation within the context of the contract. Product returns and refunds are generally not material and are not accepted unless the item is defective as manufactured. Estimated product returns are recorded as a reduction in reported revenues at the time of sale based upon historical product return experience and is adjusted for known trends to arrive at the amount of consideration to which Valvoline expects to receive.
The nature of Valvoline’s contracts with customers often give rise to variable consideration consisting primarily of promotional rebates and customer pricing discounts based on achieving certain levels of sales activity that generally
decrease the transaction price. The Company determines the transaction price as the amount of consideration it expects to be entitled to in exchange for fulfilling the performance obligations, including the effects of any variable consideration, or amounts payable to the customer when there is a basis to reasonably estimate the amount and it is probable there will not be a significant reversal. Variable consideration is recorded as a reduction of the transaction price at the time of sale and is primarily estimated utilizing the most likely amount method that is expected to be earned as the Company is able to estimate the anticipated discounts within a sufficiently narrow range of possible outcomes based on its extensive historical experience with certain customers, similar programs and management’s judgment with respect to estimating customer participation and performance levels. Variable consideration is reassessed at each reporting date and adjustments are made, when necessary.
The reduction of transaction price due to customer incentives was $346 million, $357 million, and $360 million in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the years ended September 30, 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively. Reserves for these customer programs and incentives were $72 million and $57 million as of September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and are recorded within Accrued expenses and other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Allocation of transaction price
In each contract with multiple performance obligations, Valvoline allocates the transaction price, including variable consideration, to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis, which is generally determined based on the directly observable data of the Company’s standalone sales of the performance obligations in similar circumstances to similar customers. In the absence of directly observable standalone prices, the Company may utilize prices charged by competitors selling similar products or use an expected cost-plus margin approach. The amount allocated to each performance obligation is recognized as revenue as control is transferred to the customer.
Practical expedients and policy elections
•Sales and use-based taxes - The Company excludes taxes collected from customers from net sales. These amounts are, however, reflected in accrued expenses until remitted to the appropriate governmental authority.
•Shipping and handling costs - Valvoline elected to account for shipping and handling activities that occur after the customer has obtained control as fulfillment activities (i.e., an expense) rather than as a performance obligation. Accordingly, amounts billed for shipping and handling are a component of the transaction price included in net sales, while costs incurred are included in cost of sales. Shipping and handling costs recorded in sales were $10 million in both fiscal 2019 and 2018 and $16 million in fiscal 2017.
•Significant financing component - Valvoline does not adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component as the period between transfer of a promised product or service to a customer and when the customer pays for that product or service is expected to be one year or less.
•Remaining performance obligations - The Company elected to omit disclosures of remaining performance obligations for contracts which have an initial expected term of one year or less. In addition, the Company has elected to not disclose remaining performance obligations for its franchise agreements with variable consideration based on service center store sales.
•Incremental costs of obtaining a contract - The Company expenses incremental direct costs of obtaining a contract, primarily sales commissions, when incurred due to the short-term nature of individual contracts, which would result in amortization periods of one year or less. These costs are not material and are recorded in Selling, general and administrative expenses within the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
Cost of sales are expensed as incurred and include material and production costs, as well as the costs of inbound and outbound freight, purchasing and receiving, inspection, warehousing, and all other distribution network costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses are expensed as incurred and include sales and marketing costs, research and development costs, advertising, customer support, and administrative costs. Advertising costs were $73 million in fiscal 2019, $63 million in fiscal 2018 and $61 million in fiscal 2017, and research and development costs were $13 million in fiscal 2019, $14 million in fiscal 2018 and $13 million in fiscal 2017.
Stock-based compensation expense is recognized within Selling, general and administrative expense in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income and is principally based on the grant date fair value of new or modified awards over the requisite vesting period. The Company’s outstanding stock-based compensation awards are primarily classified as equity, with certain liability-classified awards based on award terms and conditions. Valvoline accounts for forfeitures when they occur.
The timing of recognition and related measurement of an employee termination benefit liability associated with a non-recurring benefit arrangement depends on whether employees are required to render service beyond a minimum retention period until they are terminated in order to receive the termination benefits. For employees who are not required to render service until they are terminated or provide service beyond the minimum retention period in order to receive the termination benefits, the Company records a liability for the termination benefits at the communication date. If employees are required to render service beyond the minimum retention period until they are terminated in order to receive the termination benefits, the Company measures the liability for termination benefits at the communication date and recognizes the expense and liability ratably over the future service period.
Income tax expense is provided based on income before income taxes. The Company estimates its tax expense based on current tax laws in the statutory jurisdictions in which it operates. These estimates include judgments about the recognition and realization of deferred tax assets and liabilities resulting from the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to be recovered or settled. As changes in tax laws or rates occur, deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted in the period changes are enacted through income tax expense. Valvoline records valuation allowances related to its deferred income tax assets when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized.
The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being sustained upon examination by authorities. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are recognized as part of the provision for income taxes and are accrued beginning in the period that such interest and penalties would be applicable under relevant tax law and until such time that the related tax benefits are recognized. Interest and penalties were not material to any of the periods presented herein.
Valvoline’s derivative instruments consist of currency exchange contracts, which are accounted for as either assets or liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value and the resulting gains or losses are recognized as adjustments to earnings. Valvoline does not currently have any derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as hedging instruments. The Company classifies its cash flows for these transactions as investing activities in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Fair value measurements
Fair value is defined as an exit price, representing an amount that would be received to sell an asset or the amount paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, the accounting guidance prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into the following three-tier fair value hierarchy for which an instrument’s classification within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the instrument’s fair value measurement:
•Level 1 - Observable inputs such as unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
•Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. These include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets and quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active.
•Level 3 - Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability for which there is little, if any, market activity at the measurement date. Unobservable inputs reflect the Valvoline's assumptions about what market participants would use to price the asset or liability. The inputs are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances, which may include the Company's own financial data, such as internally developed pricing models, DCF methodologies, as well as instruments for which the fair value determination requires significant management judgment.
Certain investments which measure fair value using the net asset value (“NAV”) per share practical expedient are not classified within the fair value hierarchy and are separately disclosed.
Valvoline measures its financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value based on one or more of the following three valuation techniques:
•Market approach: Prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities
•Cost approach: Amount that would be required to replace the service capacity of an asset (replacement cost)
•Income approach: Techniques to convert future amounts to a single present amount based upon market expectations (including present value techniques, option pricing and excess earnings models)
The Company generally uses a market approach, when practicable, in valuing financial instruments. In certain instances, when observable market data is lacking, the Company uses valuation techniques consistent with the income approach whereby future cash flows are converted to a single discounted amount. The Company uses multiple sources of pricing as well as trading and other market data in its process of reporting fair values. The fair values of accounts receivables and accounts payable approximate their carrying values due to the relatively short-term nature of the instruments.
The methods described above may produce a fair value that may not be indicative of net realizable value or reflective of future fair values. Furthermore, while the Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different fair value measurement.
Operations outside the United States are measured primarily using the local currency as the functional currency. Upon consolidation, the results of operations of the subsidiaries and affiliates whose functional currency is other than the U.S. dollar are translated into U.S. dollars at the average exchange rates for the year while assets and liabilities are translated at year-end exchange rates. Adjustments to translate assets and liabilities into U.S. dollars are recorded in the stockholders’ equity section of the Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of Accumulated other comprehensive income and are included in net earnings only upon sale or substantial liquidation of the underlying non-U.S. subsidiary or affiliated company.
Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reported period. Diluted EPS is calculated similar to basic EPS, except that the weighted-average number of shares outstanding includes the number of shares that would have been outstanding had potentially dilutive common shares been issued. Potentially dilutive securities include stock appreciation rights and nonvested share-based awards. Nonvested market and performance-based share awards are included in the weighted-average diluted shares outstanding each period if established market or performance criteria have been met at the end of the respective periods.
Recent accounting pronouncements
The following standards relevant to Valvoline were either issued or adopted in the current year, or are expected to have a meaningful impact on Valvoline in future periods.
During fiscal 2019, Valvoline adopted the following:
•In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued accounting guidance, which established a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue from contracts with customers and superseded most industry-specific revenue recognition guidance. This new guidance introduced the five-step model for revenue recognition focused on the transfer of control, as opposed to the transfer of risk and rewards under prior guidance. Valvoline adopted this new revenue recognition guidance on October 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts that were not completed at the date of adoption. Under this method, the new revenue recognition guidance has been applied prospectively from the date of adoption, while prior period financial statements continue to be reported in accordance with the previous guidance. The cumulative effect of the changes at adoption was recognized through an increase to retained deficit of $13 million, net of tax, related to the timing of certain sales to distributors. Revenue transactions recorded under the new guidance are substantially consistent with the treatment under prior guidance, and the impact of adoption was not material to the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended September 30, 2019 and is not expected to be material on an ongoing basis. As part of the adoption, Valvoline modified certain control procedures and processes, none of which had a material effect on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Refer to Note 3 for additional information regarding Valvoline’s adoption of this new guidance.
•In August 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance regarding the classification of certain cash receipts and payments in the statement of cash flows. The Company adopted the accounting guidance on October 1, 2018 using a retrospective approach and made an accounting policy election to classify distributions received from equity method investments based on the nature of the activities of the investee that generated the distribution, which is consistent with the Company’s previous classification as cash flows from operating activities. The other cash flow classification matters addressed in this guidance were either not relevant or material to Valvoline’s current activities. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
•In November 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance, which requires amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents to be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. Valvoline adopted this guidance retrospectively on October 1, 2018. The application of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, nor did it require retrospective adjustment to the prior period financial statements as Valvoline did not have restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents in the prior periods presented. During fiscal 2019, Valvoline held deposits with financial institutions, which was generally restricted and utilized in completing an acquisition. As of September 30, 2019, no significant restricted cash remained in Prepaid expenses and other current assets within the Consolidated Balance Sheet or within the end-of-period balances shown within the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the year ended September 30, 2019.
•In January 2017, the FASB issued new accounting guidance, which clarifies the definition of a business used across several areas of accounting, including the evaluation of whether a transaction should be accounted for as an acquisition (or disposal) of assets or as a business combination. The new guidance clarifies that a business must have at least one substantive process and also narrows the definition of outputs by more closely aligning with how outputs are described in the new revenue recognition standard. Valvoline adopted this guidance on October 1, 2018 with prospective application. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
•In May 2017, the FASB issued accounting guidance that amended the scope of modification accounting for share-based payment awards. The new guidance requires modification accounting if the fair value, vesting condition, or the classification of the award is not the same immediately before and after a change to the terms and conditions of the award. Valvoline adopted this guidance prospectively on October 1, 2018, and the Company did have certain modifications of share-based awards in connection with the restructuring activities described in Note 11; however, the award modifications and the adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
•In August 2018, the FASB issued new accounting guidance related to fees paid by a customer in a cloud computing arrangement, which aligns the accounting for implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service arrangement with the existing capitalization guidance for implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. Valvoline adopted this guidance prospectively on October 1, 2018 and capitalized approximately $4 million of cloud computing arrangement implementation costs during fiscal 2019. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Issued but not yet adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance, which outlines a comprehensive lease accounting model that requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability on the balance sheet. The lease liability will be measured at the present value of future lease payments, and the right-of-use asset will be measured at the
lease liability amount, adjusted for prepaid lease payments, lease incentives received and the lessee’s initial direct costs (e.g., commissions). Lease expense will be recognized similar to current accounting guidance with operating leases resulting in straight-line expense and finance leases resulting in accelerated expense recognition similar to the existing accounting for capital leases. The accounting for lessor arrangements is not significantly changed by the new guidance.
Valvoline elected certain practical expedients permitted by the new guidance, including the package of practical expedients that allows for previous accounting conclusions regarding lease identification and classification to be carried forward for leases which commenced prior to adoption, as well as the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components and account for them as a single lease component. The Company did not elect the hindsight or short-term lease practical expedients.
The Company has substantially completed its assessment and implementation efforts, including the identification and assessment of all forms of its leases, implementing an enterprise-wide lease management system, and evaluating additional changes to business processes and internal controls to ensure the reporting and disclosure requirements of the new guidance are met. This new guidance will be adopted with election of the optional transition approach through recognition of the cumulative effect as an adjustment to retained deficit at adoption on October 1, 2019 without retrospective application to prior period financial statements.
On October 1, 2019, the Company expects to recognize operating lease assets and liabilities largely attributed to the Company's service center store locations, derecognize existing finance lease assets and liabilities related to a build-to-suit arrangement in accordance with the transition requirements, and carry forward existing capital lease assets and liabilities. As a result, the Company expects to recognize total incremental lease assets, inclusive of prepaid lease payments, in the range of $220 million to $235 million and lease liabilities in the range of $210 million to $225 million, with an immaterial cumulative effect adjustment to Retained deficit expected primarily as a result of the build-to-suit lease transition guidance. The Company does not currently anticipate a material impact on the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income, Cash Flows, or Stockholders’ Deficit, nor does the Company expect an impact related to compliance with any of its existing debt covenants. While Valvoline is substantially complete with the process of implementing the new guidance, the Company's efforts will be finalized during the first quarter of 2020 and its estimates are subject to change as adoption is finalized.
In June 2016, the FASB issued updated guidance that introduces a forward-looking approach based on expected losses, rather than incurred loses, to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments including trade and other receivables. The estimate of expected credit losses will require entities to incorporate historical, current, and forecasted information. This guidance also includes expanded disclosure requirements and is effective for Valvoline on October 1, 2020. The Company is evaluating the effect of adopting this new accounting guidance, including changes to related processes, but does not expect adoption will have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.
The FASB issued other accounting guidance during the period that is not currently applicable or expected to have a material impact on Valvoline’s financial statements, and therefore, is not described above.