|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the accounts of Acushnet Holdings Corp. (the “Company”), its wholly-owned subsidiaries and less than wholly-owned subsidiaries, including a variable interest entity (“VIE”) in which the Company is the primary beneficiary. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Certain information in footnote disclosures normally included in annual financial statements has been condensed or omitted for the interim periods presented in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and U.S. GAAP. The year-end balance sheet data was derived from audited financial statements; however, the accompanying interim notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements do not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. In the opinion of management, the financial statements contain all normal and recurring adjustments necessary to state fairly the financial position and results of operations of the Company. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2019, nor were those of the comparable 2018 period representative of those actually experienced for the full year ended December 31, 2018. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and related notes for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 included in its Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 28, 2019.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect reported amounts of assets, liabilities, shareholders’ equity, net sales and expenses, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in its unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Variable Interest Entities
VIEs are entities that, by design, either (i) lack sufficient equity to permit the entity to finance its activities independently, or (ii) have equity holders that do not have the power to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact its economic performance, the obligation to absorb the entity’s expected losses, or the right to receive the entity’s expected residual returns. The Company consolidates a VIE when it is the primary beneficiary, which is the party that has both (i) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (ii) through its interests in the VIE, the obligation to absorb expected losses or the right to receive expected benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
The Company consolidates the accounts of Acushnet Lionscore Limited, a VIE, which is 40% owned by the Company. The sole purpose of the VIE is to manufacture the Company’s golf footwear and as such, the Company is deemed to be the primary beneficiary. The Company has presented separately on its consolidated balance sheets, to the extent material, the assets of its consolidated VIE that can only be used to settle specific obligations of its consolidated VIE and the liabilities of its consolidated VIE for which creditors do not have recourse to its general credit. The general creditors of the VIE do not have recourse to the Company. Certain directors of the VIE have guaranteed the credit lines of the VIE, for which there were no outstanding borrowings as of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018. In addition, pursuant to the terms of the agreement governing the VIE, the Company is not required to provide financial support to the VIE.
The ownership interest held by owners other than the Company in less than wholly-owned subsidiaries are classified as noncontrolling interests. The value attributable to the noncontrolling interests is presented on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets separately from the equity attributable to the Company. Net income (loss) and comprehensive income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests are presented separately on the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and unaudited condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income, respectively.
Cash and Restricted Cash
Cash held in Company checking accounts is included in cash. Book overdrafts not subject to offset with other accounts with the same financial institution are classified as accounts payable. The Company classifies as restricted certain cash that is not available for use in its operations. As of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the amount of restricted cash included in cash and restricted cash on the balance sheet was $2.1 million and $2.0 million, respectively.
As of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the allowance for doubtful accounts was $6.1 million and $7.3 million, respectively.
Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions
Foreign currency transaction losses included in selling, general and administrative expense were $0.6 million and $0.1 million for the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Foreign currency transaction losses included in selling, general and administrative expense were $0.2 million and $1.2 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 842, Leases ("ASC 842"), which requires the recognition of right-of-use assets and related operating and finance lease liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet. As permitted by ASC 842, the Company adopted ASC 842 using the optional transition approach, which allowed for a cumulative effect adjustment as of January 1, 2019, which is the date of initial application, and did not restate prior periods. As a result, the consolidated balance sheet prior to January 1, 2019 was not restated and continues to be reported under ASC Topic 840, Leases ("ASC 840"), which did not require the recognition of operating lease liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet, and is not comparative.
Under ASC 842, all leases are required to be recorded on the consolidated balance sheet and are classified as either operating or finance leases. A lease is classified as a finance lease if any one of the following criteria are met: the lease transfers ownership of the asset by the end of the lease term, the lease contains an option to purchase the asset that is reasonably certain to be exercised, the lease term is for a major part of the remaining useful life of the asset, the present value of the lease payments equals or exceeds substantially all of the fair value of the asset, or the leased asset is of a highly specialized nature. A lease is classified as an operating lease if it does not meet any one of these criteria.
The lease classification affects the expense recognition in the consolidated statement of operations. Operating lease expense consists of the lease payments plus any initial direct costs and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term in the consolidated statement of operations. Finance lease charges are split, where amortization of the right-of-use asset is recorded as depreciation and amortization expense and an implied interest component is recorded in interest expense, net. The expense recognition for operating leases and finance leases under ASC 842 is consistent with ASC 840. As a result, there is no impact on the results of operations presented in the Company's unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and unaudited condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income for the periods presented as a result of the adoption of ASC 842.
As permitted under ASC 842, the Company also elected to not reassess prior conclusions related to the identification, classification and accounting for initial direct costs for leases that commenced prior to January 1, 2019. As permitted under ASC 842, the Company elected to not use hindsight to determine lease terms and to not separate non-lease components within its lease portfolio. As permitted under ASC 842, the Company has also elected not to recognize right-of-use assets and lease
liabilities for short-term leases that have a term of 12 months or less. The effect of short-term leases on the Company's operating right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities was not material.
Upon adoption of ASC 842, the Company recognized operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities. The right-of-use asset represents the right to use the leased asset for the lease term. The lease liability represents the present value of the lease payments under the lease. The right-of-use asset is initially measured at cost, which primarily comprises the initial amount of the lease liability, plus any initial direct costs incurred less any lease incentives received. Lease payments included in the measurement of the lease liability comprise the following: the fixed non-cancelable lease payments, payments for optional renewal periods where it is reasonably certain the renewal period will be exercised, and payments for early termination options unless it is reasonably certain the lease will not be terminated early. The discount rate implicit within the Company's leases is generally not determinable and therefore the Company determines the discount rate based on its incremental collateralized borrowing rate applicable to the location where the lease is held. The incremental borrowing rate for each of the Company's leases is determined based on the lease term and currency in which such lease payments are made. Accordingly, upon adoption, the Company recorded an adjustment of $48.1 million to operating lease right-of-use assets and the related lease liabilities.
The Company leases office and warehouse space, machinery and equipment, and vehicles, among other items. Certain leases include one or more options to renew, with renewal terms that can extend the lease term up to 3 years. For contracts entered into on or after the effective date, at the inception of a contract the Company assesses whether the contract is, or contains, a lease. The Company's assessment is based on: (1) whether the contract involves the use of a distinct identified asset, (2) whether the Company obtained the right to substantially all the economic benefit from the use of the asset throughout the period, and (3) whether the Company has the right to direct the use of the asset. See further discussion in Note 2.
Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017‑12, “Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities” ("ASU 2017-12"). The amendments in this update expand and refine hedge accounting guidance and align the recognition and presentation of the effects of the hedging instrument and the hedged item in the financial statements. ASU 2017-12 also simplified the application of hedge accounting guidance, hedge documentation requirements and the assessment of hedge effectiveness. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2018-13, "Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) —Disclosure Framework —Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement" ("ASU 2018-13"). The amendments in this update are meant to provide more relevant information regarding valuation techniques and inputs used to arrive at measures of fair value, uncertainty in the fair value measurements, and how changes in fair value measurements impact an entity's performance and cash flows. The adoption of this standard did not have an impact on the consolidated financial statements or related disclosures.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Intangibles —Goodwill and Other —Internal-Use Software
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU 2018-15, "Intangibles -Goodwill and Other -Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that is a Service Contract" ("ASU 2018-15"). The amendments in this update align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). ASU 2018-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Defined Benefit Plans—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-14, "Compensation —Retirement Benefits —Defined Benefit Plans —General (Subtopic 715-20) —Disclosure Framework —Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans" ("ASU 2018-14"). The amendments in this update remove defined benefit plan disclosures that are no longer considered cost-beneficial, clarify the specific requirements of disclosures, and add disclosure requirements identified as relevant. ASU 2018-14 is effective for fiscal years ending after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this standard should be applied to all periods presented. The adoption of this standard will not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Financial Instruments—Credit LossesIn June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments —Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments" ("ASU 2016-13"). ASU 2016-13 is intended to improve financial reporting by requiring timelier recording of credit losses on loans and other financial instruments held by financial institutions and other organizations. ASU 2016-13 requires the measurement of all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Additionally, enhanced disclosures will be required to help investors and other financial statement users better understand significant estimates and judgments used in estimating credit losses, as well as the credit quality and underwriting standards of an organization’s portfolio. ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.