NOTE 1: ORGANIZATION AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Organization. NovoCure Limited (including its consolidated subsidiaries, the “Company”) was incorporated in the Bailiwick of Jersey and is principally engaged in the development, manufacture and commercialization of Tumor Treating Fields for the treatment of solid tumors. The Company has regulatory approvals and clearances in certain countries for Optune, its first Tumor Treating Fields delivery system, to treat adult patients with glioblastoma (“GBM”).
Financial statement preparation. The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries, and intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which are normal and recurring in nature, necessary for fair financial statement presentation. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in these consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. These consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read in conjunction with the Company’s annual consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 (the “2017 10-K”) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on February 22, 2018.
The significant accounting policies applied in the audited annual consolidated financial statements of the Company as disclosed in the 2017 10-K are applied consistently in these unaudited interim consolidated financial statements, except as noted below:
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements. In May 2014, FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (ASU 2014-09), an updated standard on revenue recognition and issued subsequent amendments to the initial guidance in March 2016, April 2016, May 2016 and December 2016 within ASU 2016-08, 2016-10, 2016-12 and 2016-20, respectively (collectively, “ASC 606”). The core principle of the new standard is for companies to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods and services to patients in amounts that reflect the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services. In addition, the new standard requires expanded disclosures. The Company has adopted the standard effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method for all contracts. The reported results for 2018 reflect the application of ASC 606 guidance while the reported results for 2017 were prepared under the guidance of ASC 605, Revenue Recognition (ASC 605). The amount of revenue recognized in 2018 reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for Optune.
In preparation for adoption of the standard, the Company has implemented internal controls and key system functionality to enable the preparation of financial information, including the assessment of the impact of the standard. The Company uses the portfolio approach to apply the standard to portfolios of contracts with similar characteristics. Adoption of the standard resulted in an increase to trade receivables of $2,807, deferred revenues of $645 and a cumulative impact to the Company's accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2018 of $2,162.
Optune is comprised of two main components: (1) an electric field generator and (2) transducer arrays and related accessories. We retain title to the electric field generator, and the patient is provided replacement transducer arrays and technical support for the device during the term of treatment. The electric field generator and transducer arrays are always supplied and function together and are not sold on a standalone basis.
To recognize revenue under ASC 606, the Company applies the following five steps:
1. Identify the contract with a patient. A contract with a patient exists when (i) the Company enters into an enforceable contract with a patient that defines each party’s rights regarding delivery of and payment for Optune, (ii) the contract has commercial substance and (iii) the Company determines that collection of substantially all consideration for Optune is probable based on the payer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration. The evidence of a contract generally consists of a prescription, a patient service agreement and the verification of the assigned payer (“Payer”) for the contract and intention to collect.
2. Identify the performance obligations in the contract. Optune contracts include the lease of the device, the supply obligation of disposable transducer arrays and technical support for the term of treatment. To the extent a contract includes multiple promised products and/or services, the Company must apply judgment to determine whether those products and/or services are capable of being distinct in the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met the promised products and/or services are accounted for as a combined performance obligation. In the Company’s case, Optune’s device, support, and disposables are provided as one inseparable package of monthly treatment for a single monthly fee.
3. Determine the transaction price. The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which the Company will be entitled in exchange for providing Optune to the patient. To the extent the transaction price includes variable consideration, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration that should be included in the transaction price utilizing either the expected value method or the most likely amount method depending on the nature of the variable consideration. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price if, in the Company’s judgment, it is probable that a significant future reversal of cumulative revenue under the contract will not occur. The Company has agreements with many payers that define explicit discounts off the gross transaction price. In addition to the explicit discounts negotiated with each payer, the Company expects to receive, in aggregate for a given portfolio, less than the gross revenue net of explicit discounts. ASC 606 requires that the Company recognize this variable consideration as an implicit discount in the billing period. The implicit discount includes both an estimate of claims that will pay at an amount less than billed and an estimate of claims that will not pay within a given time horizon. The implicit discount adjustments to the transaction price are due to concessions, not collectability concerns driven by payer credit risk.
4. Allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract. If a contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. As discussed above, there is one performance obligation under the Company’s contracts and, therefore, the monthly transaction price determined for the performance obligation will be recognized over time ratably over the monthly term of the treatment.
5. Recognize revenue when or as the Company satisfies a performance obligation. The Company satisfies performance obligations over time as discussed above. Revenue is recognized at the time the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring a promised service to a patient. The patient consumes the benefits of Optune treatment on a daily basis over the monthly term. As this criterion is met, the revenues will be recognized over the monthly term.
In accordance with ASC 606, the impact of our adoption of ASC 606 on our condensed consolidated statements of income for the three months ended March 31, 2018 was a decrease in net revenues of $3,538, a decrease in tax expenses of $202, an increase in net loss of $3,336 and a decrease in our basic and diluted net loss per ordinary share of $0.04. The impact of our adoption of Topic 606 on our balance sheet as of March 31, 2018 was a decrease in trade receivables of $1,172, an increase to other payables and accrued expenses (deferred revenues net of tax provision) of $884 and an accumulated deficit as of March 31, 2018 of $1,174.
In August 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. ASU 2016-15 eliminates the diversity in practice related to the classification of certain cash receipts and payments for debt prepayment or extinguishment costs, the maturing of a zero coupon bond, the settlement of contingent liabilities arising from a business combination, proceeds from insurance settlements, distributions from certain equity method investees and beneficial interests obtained in a financial asset securitization. ASU 2016-15 designates the appropriate cash flow classification, including requirements to allocate certain components of these cash receipts and payments among operating, investing and financing activities. The retrospective transition method, requiring adjustment to all comparative periods presented, is required unless it is impracticable for some of the amendments, in which case those amendments would be prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. The Company adopted the standard effective as of January 1, 2018, and the adoption of this standard did not have an impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash. This standard requires the presentation of the statement of cash flows to show the changes in the total of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents. The standard is effective for fiscal years and the interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company adopted the standard retrospectively to all periods presented effective as of January 1, 2018.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements. In February 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-02-Leases (ASC 842), which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e. lessees and lessors). The new standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight line basis over the term of the lease, respectively. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than twelve months regardless of their classification. Leases with a term of twelve months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases. The new standard requires lessors to account for leases using an approach that is substantially equivalent to existing guidance for sales-type leases, direct financing leases and operating leases. ASC 842 supersedes the previous leases standard, ASC 840. The standard is effective on January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company currently anticipates adopting the new standard effective January 1, 2019 and is evaluating the impact of the adoption of this standard on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. ASU 2016-13 amends the impairment model to utilize an expected loss methodology in place of the currently used incurred loss methodology, which will result in the more timely recognition of losses. ASU 2016-13 also applies to employee benefit plan accounting, with an effective date of the first quarter of fiscal 2020. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 31, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the adoption of this standard on its consolidated financial statements, footnote disclosures and employee benefit plans’ accounting.