Revenue from Contracts with Customers
We transitioned to FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue From Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), from ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition and ASC Subtopic 952-605, Franchisors - Revenue Recognition (together, the “Previous Standards”) on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective transition method. Our Financial Statements reflect the application of ASC 606 guidance beginning in 2018, while our consolidated financial statements for prior periods were prepared under the guidance of Previous Standards. The $9,192 cumulative effect of our transition to ASC 606 is reflected as an adjustment to January 1, 2018 stockholders' deficit.
Our transition to ASC 606 represents a change in accounting principle. ASC 606 eliminates industry-specific guidance and provides a single revenue recognition model for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers. The core principle of ASC 606 is that a reporting entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the reporting entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.
Revenue Recognition Significant Accounting Policies under ASC 606
The Company's revenues are comprised of franchise revenue, equipment revenue, and corporate-owned stores revenue.
Franchise revenues consist primarily of royalties, national advertising fund contributions, initial and renewal franchise fees and upfront fees from area development agreements ("ADAs"), transfer fees, equipment placement revenue, other fees and commission income.
The Company's primary performance obligation under the franchise license is granting certain rights to use the Company's intellectual property, and all other services the Company provides under the ADA and franchise agreement are highly interrelated, not distinct within the contract, and therefore accounted for under ASC 606 as a single performance obligation, which is satisfied by granting certain rights to use our intellectual property over the term of each franchise agreement.
Royalties, including franchisee contributions to national advertising funds, are calculated as a percentage of franchise sales over the term of the franchise agreement. Under our franchise agreements, advertising contributions paid by franchisees must be spent on advertising, marketing and related activities. Initial and renewal franchise fees are payable by the franchisee upon signing a new franchise agreement or renewal of an existing franchise agreement, and transfer fees are paid to the Company when one franchisee transfers a franchise agreement to a different franchisee. Our franchise royalties, as well as our advertising fund contributions, represent sales-based royalties that are related entirely to our performance obligation under the franchise agreement and are recognized as franchise sales occur.
Additionally, under ASC 606, initial and renewal franchise fees as well as transfer fees are recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the term of the respective franchise agreement. Under the Previous Standards, initial franchise fees were recognized as revenue when the related franchisees signed a lease and completed the Company's new franchisee training. Renewal franchise fees and transfer fees were recognized as revenue upon execution of a new franchise agreement. Our performance obligation under area development agreements generally consists of an obligation to grant geographic exclusive area development rights. These development rights are not distinct from franchise agreements, so upfront fees paid by franchisees for exclusive development rights are deferred and apportioned to each franchise agreement signed by the franchisee. The pro-rata amount apportioned to each franchise agreement is accounted for identically to the initial franchise fee.
The Company is generally responsible for assembly and placement of equipment it sells to U.S. based franchisee-owned stores. Placement revenue is recognized upon completion and acceptance of the services at the franchise location.
The Company recognizes commission income from certain of its franchisees’ use of certain preferred vendor arrangements. Commissions are recognized when amounts have been earned and collectability from the vendor is reasonably assured.
Online member join fees are paid to the Company by franchisees for processing new membership transactions when a new member signs up for a membership to a franchisee-owned store through the Company’s website. These fees are recognized as revenue as each transaction occurs.
Billing transaction fees are paid to the Company by certain of its franchisees for the processing of franchisee membership dues and annual fees through the Company’s third-party hosted point-of-sale system and are recognized as revenue as they are earned.
The Company sells and delivers equipment purchased from third-party equipment manufacturers to U.S. based franchisee-owned stores. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of ordered items, generally upon delivery to the customer, which is when the customer obtains physical possession of the goods, legal title is transferred, the customer has all risks and rewards of ownership and an obligation to pay for the goods is created. Franchisees are charged for all freight costs incurred for the delivery of equipment. Freight revenue is recorded within equipment revenue and freight costs are recorded within cost of revenue. The Company recognizes revenue on a gross basis in these transactions as management has determined the Company to be the principal in these transactions. Management determined the Company to be the principal in the transaction because the Company controls the equipment prior to delivery to the final customer as evidenced by its pricing discretion over the goods, inventory transfer of title and risk of loss while the inventory is in transit, and having the primary responsibility to fulfill the customer order and direct the third-party vendor.
Corporate-owned stores revenue
The following revenues are generated from stores owned and operated by the Company.
Customers are offered multiple membership choices varying in length. Membership dues are earned and recognized over the membership term on a straight-line basis.
Enrollment fee revenue
Enrollment fees are charged to new members at the commencement of their membership. The Company recognizes enrollment fees ratably over the estimated duration of the membership life, which is generally two years.
Annual membership fee revenue
Annual membership fees are annual fees charged to members in addition to and in order to maintain low monthly membership dues. The Company recognizes annual membership fees ratably over the 12-month membership period.
The Company sells Planet Fitness branded apparel, food, beverages, and other accessories. The revenue for these items is recognized at the point of sale.
Contract liabilities consist of deferred revenue resulting from initial and renewal franchise fees and ADA fees paid by franchisees, as well as transfer fees, which are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the underlying franchise agreement. Also included are corporate store enrollment fees, annual fees and monthly fees. We classify these contract liabilities as deferred revenue in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. The following table reflects the change in contract liabilities between the date of adoption (January 1, 2018) and June 30, 2018,
Balance at January 1, 2018
Revenue recognized that was included in the contract liability at the beginning of the year
Increase, excluding amounts recognized as revenue during the period
Balance at June 30, 2018
The following table illustrates estimated revenues expected to be recognized in the future related to performance obligations that are unsatisfied (or partially unsatisfied) as of June 30, 2018. The Company has elected to exclude short term contracts, sales and usage based royalties and any other variable consideration recognized on an "as invoiced" basis.
Contract liabilities to be recognized in:
Financial Statement Impact of Transition to ASC 606
As noted above, we transitioned to ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method on January 1, 2018. The cumulative effect of this transition to applicable contracts with customers that were not completed as of January 1, 2018 was recorded as an adjustment to stockholders' deficit as of that date. As a result of applying the modified retrospective method to transition to ASC 606, the following adjustments were made to the consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018 (in millions):
As Reported December 31,
Adjusted January 1,
Cash and cash equivalents
Accounts receivable, net
Due from related parties
Restricted assets – national advertising fund
Other current assets
Total current assets
Property and equipment, net
Intangible assets, net
Deferred income taxes
Other assets, net
Liabilities and stockholders' equity (deficit)
Current maturities of long-term debt