Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Voya Financial, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively the "Company") is a financial services organization in the United States that offers a broad range of retirement services, annuities, investment management services, mutual funds, life insurance, group insurance and supplemental health products.
On December 20, 2017, the Company entered into a Master Transaction Agreement ("MTA") with VA Capital Company LLC ("VA Capital") and Athene Holding Ltd ("Athene"), pursuant to which Venerable Holdings, Inc. ("Venerable"), a wholly owned subsidiary of VA Capital, will acquire two of the Company's subsidiaries, Voya Insurance and Annuity Company ("VIAC") and Directed Services, LLC ("DSL"). This transaction is expected to close during the second or third quarter of 2018 and will result in the disposition of substantially all of the Company's Closed Block Variable Annuity ("CBVA") and Annuities businesses (collectively, the "Transaction"). The assets and liabilities related to the businesses to be sold have been classified as held for sale in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets and as discontinued operations in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows and are reported separately for all periods presented. See the Business Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations Note to these Consolidated Financial Statements.
Pursuant to the Transaction, the Company no longer considers its CBVA and Annuities businesses as reportable segments. Additionally, the Company evaluated its segment presentation and determined that the retained CBVA and Annuities policies that are not included in the disposed businesses described above ("Retained Business") are insignificant. As such, the Company reported the results of the Retained Business in Corporate.
The Company provides its principal products and services through four segments: Retirement, Investment Management, Individual Life and Employee Benefits. In addition, the Company includes in Corporate the financial data not directly related to its segments and other business activities that do not have an ongoing meaningful impact to the Company's results. See the Segments Note to these Consolidated Financial Statements.
Prior to May 2013, the Company was an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of ING Groep N.V. ("ING Group" or "ING"), a global financial services holding company based in The Netherlands. In May 2013, Voya Financial, Inc. completed its initial public offering ("IPO") of common stock, including the issuance and sale of common stock by Voya Financial, Inc. and the sale of shares of common stock owned indirectly by ING Group. Between October 2013 and March 2015, ING Group completed the sale of its remaining shares of common stock of Voya Financial, Inc. in a series of registered public offerings. ING Group continues to hold certain warrants to purchase shares of Voya Financial, Inc. common stock as described further in the Shareholders' Equity Note to these Consolidated Financial Statements.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP").
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Voya Financial, Inc. and its subsidiaries, as well as other (voting interest entities ("VOEs")) and variable interest entities ("VIEs") in which the Company has a controlling financial interest. See the Consolidated Investment Entities Note to these Consolidated Financial Statements. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year financial information to conform to the current year classifications.
Significant Accounting Policies
Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Those estimates are inherently subject to change and actual results could differ from those estimates.
The Company has identified the following accounts and policies as the most significant in that they involve a higher degree of judgment, are subject to a significant degree of variability and/or contain significant accounting estimates:
Reserves for future policy benefits;
Deferred policy acquisition costs ("DAC"), value of business acquired ("VOBA") and other intangibles (collectively, "DAC/VOBA and other intangibles");
Valuation of investments and derivatives;
Fair Value Measurement
The Company measures the fair value of its financial assets and liabilities based on assumptions used by market participants in pricing the asset or liability, which may include inherent risk, restrictions on the sale or use of an asset, or nonperformance risk, including the Company's own credit risk. The estimate of fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or transfer a liability ("exit price") in an orderly transaction between market participants in the principal market, or the most advantageous market in the absence of a principal market, for that asset or liability. The Company uses a number of valuation sources to determine the fair values of its financial assets and liabilities, including quoted market prices, third-party commercial pricing services, third-party brokers, industry-standard, vendor-provided software that models the value based on market observable inputs, and other internal modeling techniques based on projected cash flows.
The accounting policies for the Company's principal investments are as follows:
Fixed Maturities and Equity Securities: The Company's fixed maturities and equity securities are currently designated as available-for-sale, except those accounted for using the fair value option ("FVO"). Available-for-sale securities are reported at fair value and unrealized capital gains (losses) on these securities are recorded directly in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI") and presented net of related changes in DAC/VOBA and other intangibles and Deferred income taxes. In addition, certain fixed maturities have embedded derivatives, which are reported with the host contract on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company has elected the FVO for certain of its fixed maturities to better match the measurement of assets and liabilities in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Certain collateralized mortgage obligations ("CMOs"), primarily interest-only and principal-only strips, are accounted for as hybrid instruments and valued at fair value with changes in the fair value recorded in Other net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Purchases and sales of fixed maturities and equity securities, excluding private placements, are recorded on the trade date. Purchases and sales of private placements and mortgage loans are recorded on the closing date. Investment gains and losses on sales of securities are generally determined on a first-in-first-out ("FIFO") basis.
Interest income on fixed maturities is recorded when earned using an effective yield method, giving effect to amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts. Dividends on equity securities are recorded when declared. Such dividends and interest income are recorded in Net investment income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Included within fixed maturities are loan-backed securities, including residential mortgage-backed securities ("RMBS"), commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS") and asset-backed securities ("ABS"). Amortization of the premium or discount from the purchase of these securities considers the estimated timing and amount of prepayments of the underlying loans. Actual prepayment experience is periodically reviewed and effective yields are recalculated when differences arise between the prepayments originally anticipated and the actual prepayments received and currently anticipated. Prepayment assumptions for single-class and multi-class mortgage-backed securities ("MBS") and ABS are estimated by management using inputs obtained from third-party specialists, including broker-dealers, and based on management's knowledge of the current market. For prepayment-sensitive securities such as interest-only and principal-only strips, inverse floaters and credit-sensitive MBS and ABS securities, which represent beneficial interests in securitized financial assets that are not of high credit quality or that have been credit impaired, the effective yield is recalculated on a prospective basis. For all other MBS and ABS, the effective yield is recalculated on a retrospective basis.
Short-term Investments: Short-term investments include investments with remaining maturities of one year or less, but greater than three months, at the time of purchase. These investments are stated at fair value.
Assets Held in Separate Accounts: Assets held in separate accounts are reported at the fair values of the underlying investments in the separate accounts. The underlying investments include mutual funds, short-term investments, cash and fixed maturities.
Mortgage Loans on Real Estate: The Company's mortgage loans on real estate are all commercial mortgage loans, which are reported at amortized cost, less impairment write-downs and allowance for losses. If a mortgage loan is determined to be impaired (i.e., when it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement), the carrying value of the mortgage loan is reduced to the lower of either the present value of expected cash flows from the loan, discounted at the loan's original purchase yield, or fair value of the collateral. For those mortgages that are determined to require foreclosure, the carrying value is reduced to the fair value of the underlying collateral, net of estimated costs to obtain and sell at the point of foreclosure. The carrying value of the impaired loans is reduced by establishing a permanent write-down recorded in Other net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Property obtained from foreclosed mortgage loans is recorded in Other investments on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Mortgage loans are evaluated by the Company's investment professionals, including an appraisal of loan-specific credit quality, property characteristics and market trends. Loan performance is continuously monitored on a loan-specific basis throughout the year. The Company's review includes submitted appraisals, operating statements, rent revenues and annual inspection reports, among other items. This review evaluates whether the properties are performing at a consistent and acceptable level to secure the debt.
Mortgages are rated for the purpose of quantifying the level of risk. Those loans with higher risk are placed on a watch list and are closely monitored for collateral deficiency or other credit events that may lead to a potential loss of principal or interest. The Company defines delinquent mortgage loans consistent with industry practice as 60 days past due.
Commercial loans are placed on non-accrual status when 90 days in arrears if the Company has concerns regarding the collectability of future payments, or if a loan has matured without being paid off or extended. Factors considered may include conversations with the borrower, loss of major tenant, bankruptcy of borrower or major tenant, decreased property cash flow, number of days past due, or various other circumstances. Based on an assessment as to the collectability of the principal, a determination is made either to apply against the book value or apply according to the contractual terms of the loan. Funds recovered in excess of book value would then be applied to recover expenses, impairments, and then interest. Accrual of interest resumes after factors resulting in doubts about collectability have improved.
The Company records an allowance for probable losses incurred on non-impaired loans on an aggregate basis, rather than specifically identified probable losses incurred by individual loan.
Policy Loans: Policy loans are carried at an amount equal to the unpaid balance. Interest income on such loans is recorded as earned in Net investment income using the contractually agreed upon interest rate. Generally, interest is capitalized on the policy's anniversary date. Valuation allowances are not established for policy loans, as these loans are collateralized by the cash surrender value of the associated insurance contracts. Any unpaid principal or interest on the loan is deducted from the account value or the death benefit prior to settlement of the policy.
Limited Partnerships/Corporations: The Company uses the equity method of accounting for investments in limited partnership interests that are not consolidated, which primarily consist of investments in private equity funds, hedge funds and other VIEs for which the Company is not the primary beneficiary. Generally, the Company records its share of earnings using a lag methodology, relying on the most recent financial information available, generally not to exceed three months. The Company's earnings from limited partnership interests accounted for under the equity method are recorded in Net investment income.
Other Investments: Other investments are comprised primarily of Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB") stock and property obtained from foreclosed mortgage loans, as well as other miscellaneous investments. The Company is a member of the FHLB system and is required to own a certain amount of FHLB stock based on the level of borrowings and other factors. FHLB stock is carried at cost, classified as a restricted security and periodically evaluated for impairment based on ultimate recovery of par value.
Securities Lending: The Company engages in securities lending whereby certain securities from its portfolio are loaned to other institutions, through a lending agent, for short periods of time. The Company has the right to approve any institution with whom the lending agent transacts on its behalf. Initial collateral, primarily cash, is required at a rate of 102% of the market value of the loaned securities. The lending agent retains the collateral and invests it in short-term liquid assets on behalf of the Company. The market value of the loaned securities is monitored on a daily basis with additional collateral obtained or refunded as the market value of the loaned securities fluctuates. The lending agent indemnifies the Company against losses resulting from the failure of a counterparty to return securities pledged where collateral is insufficient to cover the loss.
Corporate Loans: Corporate loans held by consolidated collateralized loan obligations ("CLO" or "CLO entities") are reported in Corporate loans, at fair value using the fair value option on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Changes in the fair value of the loans are recorded in Changes in fair value related to collateralized loan obligations in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The fair values for corporate loans are determined using independent commercial pricing services. In the event that the third-party pricing source is unable to price an investment, other relevant factors are considered.
The Company evaluates its available-for-sale investments quarterly to determine whether there has been an other-than-temporary decline in fair value below the amortized cost basis. This evaluation process entails considerable judgment and estimation. Factors considered in this analysis include, but are not limited to, the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than amortized cost, the issuer's financial condition and near-term prospects, future economic conditions and market forecasts, interest rate changes and changes in ratings of the security. An extended and severe unrealized loss position on a fixed maturity may not have any impact on: (a) the ability of the issuer to service all scheduled interest and principal payments and (b) the evaluation of recoverability of all contractual cash flows or the ability to recover an amount at least equal to its amortized cost based on the present value of the expected future cash flows to be collected. In contrast, for certain equity securities, the Company gives greater weight and consideration to a decline in market value and the likelihood such market value decline will recover.
When assessing the Company's intent to sell a security, or if it is more likely than not it will be required to sell a security before recovery of its amortized cost basis, management evaluates facts and circumstances such as, but not limited to, decisions to rebalance the investment portfolio and sales of investments to meet cash flow or capital needs.
When the Company has determined it has the intent to sell, or if it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell a security before recovery of its amortized cost basis, and the fair value has declined below amortized cost ("intent impairment"), the individual security is written down from amortized cost to fair value, and a corresponding charge is recorded in Net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations as an other-than-temporary impairment ("OTTI"). If the Company does not intend to sell the security, and it is not more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis, but the Company has determined that there has been an other-than-temporary decline in fair value below the amortized cost basis, the OTTI is bifurcated into the amount representing the present value of the decrease in cash flows expected to be collected ("credit impairment") and the amount related to other factors ("noncredit impairment"). The credit impairment is recorded in Net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The noncredit impairment is recorded in Other comprehensive income (loss).
The Company uses the following methodology and significant inputs to determine the amount of the OTTI credit loss:
When determining collectability and the period over which the value is expected to recover for U.S. and foreign corporate securities, foreign government securities and state and political subdivision securities, the Company applies the same considerations utilized in its overall impairment evaluation process, which incorporates information regarding the specific security, the industry and geographic area in which the issuer operates and overall macroeconomic conditions. Projected future cash flows are estimated using assumptions derived from the Company's best estimates of likely scenario-based outcomes, after giving consideration to a variety of variables that includes, but is not limited to: general payment terms of the security; the likelihood that the issuer can service the scheduled interest and principal payments; the quality and amount of any credit enhancements; the security's position within the capital structure of the issuer; possible corporate restructurings or asset sales by the issuer; and changes to the rating of the security or the issuer by rating agencies.
Additional considerations are made when assessing the unique features that apply to certain structured securities, such as subprime, Alt-A, non-agency RMBS, CMBS and ABS. These additional factors for structured securities include, but are not limited to: the quality of underlying collateral; expected prepayment speeds; loan-to-value ratios; debt service coverage ratios; current and forecasted loss severity; consideration of the payment terms of the underlying assets backing a particular security; and the payment priority within the tranche structure of the security.
When determining the amount of the credit loss for U.S. and foreign corporate securities, foreign government securities and state and political subdivision securities, the Company considers the estimated fair value as the recovery value when available information does not indicate that another value is more appropriate. When information is identified that indicates a recovery value other than estimated fair value, the Company considers in the determination of recovery value the same considerations utilized in its overall impairment evaluation process, which incorporates available information and the Company's best estimate of scenario-based outcomes regarding the specific security and issuer; possible corporate restructurings or asset sales by the issuer; the quality and amount of any credit enhancements; the security's position within the capital structure of the issuer; fundamentals of the industry and geographic area in which the security issuer operates; and the overall macroeconomic conditions.
The Company performs a discounted cash flow analysis comparing the current amortized cost of a security to the present value of future cash flows expected to be received, including estimated defaults and prepayments. The discount rate is generally the effective interest rate of the fixed maturity prior to impairment.
In periods subsequent to the recognition of the credit related impairment components of OTTI on a fixed maturity, the Company accounts for the impaired security as if it had been purchased on the measurement date of the impairment. Accordingly, the discount (or reduced premium) based on the new cost basis is accreted into Net investment income over the remaining term of the fixed maturity in a prospective manner based on the amount and timing of estimated future cash flows.
The Company's use of derivatives is limited mainly to economic hedging to reduce the Company's exposure to cash flow variability of assets and liabilities, interest rate risk, credit risk, exchange rate risk and market risk. It is the Company's policy not to offset amounts recognized for derivative instruments and amounts recognized for the right to reclaim cash collateral or the obligation to return cash collateral arising from derivative instruments executed with the same counterparty under a master netting arrangement.
The Company enters into interest rate, equity market, credit default and currency contracts, including swaps, futures, forwards, caps, floors and options, to reduce and manage various risks associated with changes in value, yield, price, cash flow or exchange rates of assets or liabilities held or intended to be held, or to assume or reduce credit exposure associated with a referenced asset, index or pool. The Company also utilizes options and futures on equity indices to reduce and manage risks associated with its universal life-type and annuity products. Derivative contracts are reported as Derivatives assets or liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. Changes in the fair value of derivatives are recorded in Other net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
To qualify for hedge accounting, at the inception of the hedging relationship, the Company formally documents its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedging transaction, as well as its designation of the hedge as either (a) a hedge of the exposure to changes in the estimated fair value of a recognized asset or liability or an identified portion thereof that is attributable to a particular risk ("fair value hedge") or (b) a hedge of a forecasted transaction or of the variability of cash flows that is attributable to interest rate risk to be received or paid related to a recognized asset or liability ("cash flow hedge"). In this documentation, the Company sets forth how the hedging instrument is expected to hedge the designated risks related to the hedged item and sets forth the method that will be used to retrospectively and prospectively assess the hedging instrument's effectiveness and the method that will be used to measure ineffectiveness. A derivative designated as a hedging instrument must be assessed as being highly effective in offsetting the designated risk of the hedged item. Hedge effectiveness is formally assessed at inception and periodically throughout the life of the designated hedging relationship.
Fair Value Hedge: For derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as a fair value hedge, the gain or loss on the derivative instrument, as well as the hedged item, to the extent of the risk being hedged, are recognized in Other net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Cash Flow Hedge: For derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as a cash flow hedge, the effective portion of the gain or loss on the derivative instrument is reported as a component of AOCI and reclassified into earnings in the same periods during which the hedged transaction impacts earnings in the same line item associated with the forecasted transaction. The ineffective portion of the derivative's change in value, if any, along with any of the derivative's change in value that is excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness, are recorded in Other net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
When hedge accounting is discontinued because it is determined that the derivative is no longer expected to be highly effective in offsetting changes in the estimated fair value or cash flows of a hedged item, the derivative continues to be carried on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at its estimated fair value, with subsequent changes in estimated fair value recognized currently in Other net realized capital gains (losses). The carrying value of the hedged asset or liability under a fair value hedge is no longer adjusted for changes in its estimated fair value due to the hedged risk, and the cumulative adjustment to its carrying value is amortized into income over the remaining life of the hedged item. Provided the hedged forecasted transaction is still probable of occurrence, the changes in estimated fair value of derivatives recorded in Other comprehensive income (loss) related to discontinued cash flow hedges are released into the Consolidated Statements of Operations when the Company's earnings are affected by the variability in cash flows of the hedged item.
When hedge accounting is discontinued because it is no longer probable that the forecasted transactions will occur on the anticipated date, or within two months of that date, the derivative continues to be carried on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at its estimated fair value, with changes in estimated fair value recognized currently in Other net realized capital gains (losses). Derivative gains and losses recorded in Other comprehensive income (loss) pursuant to the discontinued cash flow hedge of a forecasted transaction that is no longer probable are recognized immediately in Other net realized capital gains (losses).
The Company also has investments in certain fixed maturities and has issued certain universal life-type and annuity products that contain embedded derivatives for which fair value is at least partially determined by levels of or changes in domestic and/or foreign interest rates (short-term or long-term), exchange rates, prepayment rates, equity markets or credit ratings/spreads. Embedded derivatives within fixed maturities are included with the host contract on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, and changes in the fair value of the embedded derivatives are recorded in Other net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Embedded derivatives within certain universal life-type and annuity products are included in Future policy benefits on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, and changes in the fair value of the embedded derivatives are recorded in Other net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
In addition, the Company has entered into coinsurance with funds withheld reinsurance arrangements that contain embedded derivatives, the fair value of which is based on the change in the fair value of the underlying assets held in trust. The embedded derivatives within coinsurance with funds withheld reinsurance arrangements are reported with the host contract in Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, and changes in the fair value of embedded derivatives are recorded in Policyholder benefits in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, amounts due from banks and other highly liquid investments, such as money market instruments and debt instruments with maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase. Cash and cash equivalents are stated at fair value. Cash and cash equivalents of VIEs and VOEs are not available for general use by the Company.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are carried at cost, less accumulated depreciation, and are included in Other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Expenditures for replacements and major improvements are capitalized; maintenance and repair expenditures are expensed as incurred. Depreciation on property and equipment is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which generally range from 3 to 40 years, with the exception of land and artwork which are not depreciated. Depreciation expense is included in Operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, total cost basis of property and equipment was $376 and $373, respectively. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, total accumulated depreciation was $269 and $261, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, depreciation expense was $19, $25 and $24, respectively.
Deferred Policy Acquisition Costs, Value of Business Acquired and Other Intangibles
DAC represents policy acquisition costs that have been capitalized and are subject to amortization and interest. Capitalized costs are incremental, direct costs of contract acquisition and certain other costs related directly to successful acquisition activities. Such costs consist principally of commissions, underwriting, sales and contract issuance and processing expenses directly related to the successful acquisition of new and renewal business. Indirect or unsuccessful acquisition costs, maintenance, product development and overhead expenses are charged to expense as incurred. VOBA represents the outstanding value of in-force business acquired and is subject to amortization and interest. The value is based on the present value of estimated net cash flows embedded in the insurance contracts at the time of the acquisition and increased for subsequent deferrable expenses on purchased policies.
Collectively, the Company refers to DAC, VOBA, deferred sales inducements ("DSI") and unearned revenue ("URR") as "DAC/VOBA and other intangibles." (See respective "Sales Inducements" and "Recognition of Insurance Revenue and Related Benefits" sections below). DAC/VOBA and other intangibles are adjusted for the impact of unrealized capital gains (losses) on investments, as if such gains (losses) have been realized, with corresponding adjustments included in AOCI.
The Company amortizes DAC and VOBA related to certain traditional life insurance contracts and certain accident and health insurance contracts over the premium payment period in proportion to the present value of expected gross premiums. Assumptions as to mortality, morbidity, persistency and interest rates, which include provisions for adverse deviation, are consistent with the assumptions used to calculate reserves for future policy benefits.
These assumptions are "locked-in" at issue and not revised unless the DAC or VOBA balance is deemed to be unrecoverable from future expected profits. Recoverability testing is performed for current issue year products to determine if gross premiums are sufficient to cover DAC or VOBA, estimated benefits and related expenses. In subsequent periods, the recoverability of DAC or VOBA is determined by assessing whether future gross premiums are sufficient to amortize DAC or VOBA, as well as provide for expected future benefits and related expenses. If a premium deficiency is deemed to be present, charges will be applied against the DAC and VOBA balances before an additional reserve is established. Absent such a premium deficiency, variability in amortization after policy issuance or acquisition relates only to variability in premium volumes.
The Company amortizes DAC and VOBA related to universal life-type contracts and fixed and variable deferred annuity contracts, except for deferred annuity contracts within the CBVA business, over the estimated lives of the contracts in relation to the emergence of estimated gross profits. Assumptions as to mortality, persistency, interest crediting rates, fee income, returns associated with separate account performance, impact of hedge performance, expenses to administer the business and certain economic variables, such as inflation, are based on the Company's experience and overall capital markets. At each valuation date, estimated gross profits are updated with actual gross profits, and the assumptions underlying future estimated gross profits are evaluated for continued reasonableness. Adjustments to estimated gross profits require that amortization rates be revised retroactively to the date of the contract issuance ("unlocking"). For deferred annuity contracts within the CBVA business, the Company amortizes DAC/VOBA and DSI in relation to the emergence of estimated gross revenue.
For universal life-type contracts and fixed and variable deferred annuity contracts, recoverability testing is performed for current issue year products to determine if gross profits are sufficient to cover DAC/VOBA and other intangibles, estimated benefits and related expenses. In subsequent years, the Company performs testing to assess the recoverability of DAC/VOBA and other intangibles on an annual basis, or more frequently if circumstances indicate a potential loss recognition issue exists. If DAC/VOBA or other intangibles are not deemed recoverable from future gross profits, charges will be applied against the DAC/VOBA or other intangible balances before an additional reserve is established.
During the year ended December 31, 2017, as a result of the held for sale classification of substantially all of the Annuities and CBVA businesses discussed above, the Company has evaluated and redefined its contract groupings for loss recognition testing in those businesses. This has resulted in the establishment of premium deficiency reserves for the Retained Business of $43, which was recorded as an increase in Policyholder benefits in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, with a corresponding increase to Future policy benefits on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, for its continuing operations, the Company's reviews resulted in loss recognition in its Retained Business of $8 before income taxes, of which $7 was recorded to Net amortization of DAC and VOBA in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, with a corresponding decrease to Deferred policy acquisition costs and Value of business acquired on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The remaining loss recognition of $1 was related to the establishment of premium deficiency reserves which was recorded as an increase in Policyholder benefits in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, with a corresponding increase to Future policy benefits on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, for its discontinued operations, the Company's reviews resulted in loss recognition of $313, before income taxes, of which $78 and $19 were related to DAC/VOBA and Sales Inducements, respectively and reported as a loss in Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax with a corresponding decrease in Assets held for sale in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The loss recognition also included the establishment of $216 of premium deficiency reserves related to the continued decline in earned rates in the current interest rate environment, which was reported as a loss in Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax, with an offsetting increase in Liabilities held for sale on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company had no loss recognition for the year ended December 31 2015.
Contract owners may periodically exchange one contract for another, or make modifications to an existing contract. These transactions are identified as internal replacements. Internal replacements that are determined to result in substantially unchanged contracts are accounted for as continuations of the replaced contracts. Any costs associated with the issuance of the new contracts are considered maintenance costs and expensed as incurred. Unamortized DAC/VOBA and other intangibles related to the replaced contracts continue to be deferred and amortized in connection with the new contracts. Internal replacements that are determined to result in contracts that are substantially changed are accounted for as extinguishments of the replaced contracts, and any unamortized DAC/VOBA and other intangibles related to the replaced contracts are written off to the same account in which amortization is reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Changes in assumptions can have a significant impact on DAC/VOBA and other intangible balances, amortization rates, reserve levels, and results of operations. Assumptions are management’s best estimate of future outcome.
Several assumptions are considered significant in the estimation of gross profits associated with the Company's variable products. One significant assumption is the assumed return associated with the variable account performance. To reflect the volatility in the equity markets, this assumption involves a combination of near-term expectations and long-term assumptions regarding market performance. The overall return on the variable account is dependent on multiple factors, including the relative mix of the underlying sub-accounts among bond funds and equity funds, as well as equity sector weightings. The Company uses a reversion to the mean approach, which assumes that the market returns over the entire mean reversion period are consistent with a long-term level of equity market appreciation. The Company monitors market events and only changes the assumption when sustained deviations are expected. This methodology incorporates a 9% long-term equity return assumption, a 14% cap and a five-year look-forward period.
Other significant assumptions used in the estimation of gross profits include mortality, and for products with credited rates include interest rate spreads and credit losses. Estimated gross revenues and gross profits of variable annuity contracts are sensitive to mortality and estimated policyholder behavior assumptions, such as surrender, lapse and annuitization rates.
DSI represents benefits paid to contract owners for a specified period that are incremental to the amounts the Company credits on similar contracts without sales inducements and are higher than the contract's expected ongoing crediting rates for periods after the inducement. The Company defers sales inducements and amortizes DSI over the estimated lives of the related contracts using the same methodology and assumptions used to amortize DAC. The amortization of DSI is included in Interest credited to contract owner account balances in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Each year, or more frequently if circumstances indicate a potentially significant recoverability issue exists, the Company reviews DSI to determine the recoverability of these balances.
For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, the Company capitalized $1 of sales inducements. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 the Company amortized $5 of DSI. For the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company amortized $4 of DSI. See "Deferred Policy Acquisition Costs, Value of Business Acquired and Other Intangibles" above for loss recognition on Sales Inducements during 2017 and 2016.
Future Policy Benefits and Contract Owner Account Balances
Future Policy Benefits
The Company establishes and carries actuarially-determined reserves that are calculated to meet its future obligations, including estimates of unpaid claims and claims that the Company believes have been incurred but have not yet been reported as of the balance sheet date. The principal assumptions used to establish liabilities for future policy benefits are based on Company experience and periodically reviewed against industry standards. These assumptions include mortality, morbidity, policy lapse, contract renewal, payment of subsequent premiums or deposits by the contract owner, retirement, investment returns, inflation, benefit utilization and expenses. Changes in, or deviations from, the assumptions used can significantly affect the Company's reserve levels and related results of operations.
Reserves for traditional life insurance contracts (term insurance, participating and non-participating whole life insurance and traditional group life insurance) and accident and health insurance represent the present value of future benefits to be paid to or on behalf of contract owners and related expenses, less the present value of future net premiums. Assumptions as to interest rates, mortality, expenses and persistency are based on the Company's estimates of anticipated experience at the period the policy is sold or acquired, including a provision for adverse deviation. Interest rates used to calculate the present value of these reserves ranged from 2.3% to 7.7%.
Reserves for payout contracts with life contingencies are equal to the present value of expected future payments. Assumptions as to interest rates, mortality and expenses are based on the Company's estimates of anticipated experience at the period the policy is sold or acquired, including a provision for adverse deviation. Such assumptions generally vary by annuity plan type, year of issue and policy duration. Interest rates used to calculate the present value of future benefits ranged from 2.7% to 8.3%.
Although assumptions are "locked-in" upon the issuance of traditional life insurance contracts, certain accident and health insurance contracts and payout contracts with life contingencies, significant changes in experience or assumptions may require the Company to provide for expected future losses on a product by establishing premium deficiency reserves. Premium deficiency reserves are determined based on best estimate assumptions that exist at the time the premium deficiency reserve is established and do not include a provision for adverse deviation. See "Deferred Policy Acquisition Costs, Value of Business Acquired and Other Intangibles" above for premium deficiency reserves established during 2017 and 2016.
Contract Owner Account Balances
Contract owner account balances relate to universal life-type and investment-type contracts, as follows:
Account balances for guaranteed investment contracts and funding agreements with fixed maturities (collectively referred to as "GICs") are calculated using the amount deposited with the Company, less withdrawals, plus interest accrued to the ending valuation date. Interest on these contracts is accrued by a predetermined index, plus a spread or a fixed rate, established at the issue date of the contract.
Account balances for universal life-type contracts, including variable universal life ("VUL") contracts, are equal to cumulative deposits, less charges, withdrawals and account values released upon death, plus credited interest thereon.
Account balances for fixed annuities and payout contracts without life contingencies are equal to cumulative deposits, less charges and withdrawals, plus credited interest thereon. Credited interest rates vary by product and ranged up to 7.5% for the years 2017, 2016 and 2015. Account balances for group immediate annuities without life contingent payouts are equal to the discounted value of the payment at the implied break-even rate.
For fixed-indexed annuity ("FIA") and indexed universal life ("IUL") contracts, the aggregate initial liability is equal to the deposit received, plus a bonus, if applicable, and is split into a host component and an embedded derivative component. Thereafter, the host liability accumulates at a set interest rate, and the embedded derivative liability is recognized at fair value.
Product Guarantees and Additional Reserves
The Company calculates additional reserve liabilities for certain universal life-type products, certain variable annuity guaranteed benefits and variable funding products. The Company periodically evaluates its estimates and adjusts the additional liability balance, with a related charge or credit to benefit expense, if actual experience or other evidence suggests that earlier assumptions should be revised. Changes in, or deviations from, the assumptions used can significantly affect the Company's reserve levels and related results of operations.
Universal and Variable Life: Reserves for universal life ("UL") and VUL secondary guarantees and paid-up guarantees are calculated by estimating the expected value of death benefits payable and recognizing those benefits ratably over the accumulation period based on total expected assessments. The reserve for such products recognizes the portion of contract assessments received in early years used to compensate the Company for benefits provided in later years. Assumptions used, such as the interest rate, lapse rate and mortality, are consistent with assumptions used in estimating gross profits for purposes of amortizing DAC. Reserves for UL and VUL secondary guarantees and paid-up guarantees are recorded in Future policy benefits on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company also calculates a benefit ratio for each block of business that meets the requirements for additional reserves and calculates an additional reserve by accumulating amounts equal to the benefit ratio multiplied by the assessments for each period, reduced by excess benefits during the period. The additional reserve is accumulated at interest rates consistent with the DAC model for the period. The calculated reserve includes provisions for UL contracts that produce expected gains from the insurance benefit function followed by losses from that function in later years. Additional reserves are recorded in Future policy benefits on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
URR relates to UL and VUL products and represents policy charges for benefits or services to be provided in future periods (see "Recognition of Insurance Revenue and Related Benefits" below). The URR balance is recorded in Contract owner account balances on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
GMDB and GMIB: Reserves for annuity guaranteed minimum death benefits ("GMDB") and guaranteed minimum income benefits ("GMIB") are determined by estimating the value of expected benefits in excess of the projected account balance and recognizing the excess ratably over the accumulation period based on total expected assessments. Expected experience is based on a range of scenarios. Assumptions used, such as the long-term equity market return, lapse rate and mortality, are consistent with assumptions used in estimating gross revenues for the purpose of amortizing DAC. The assumptions of investment performance and volatility are consistent with the historical experience of the appropriate underlying equity index, such as the Standard & Poor's ("S&P") 500 Index. In addition, the reserve for the GMIB incorporates assumptions for the likelihood and timing of the potential annuitizations that may be elected by the contract owner. In general, the Company assumes that GMIB annuitization rates will be higher for policies with more valuable ("in the money") guarantees, where the notional benefit amount is in excess of the account value. Reserves for GMDB and GMIB are recorded in Future policy benefits. Changes in reserves for GMDB and GMIB are reported in Policyholder benefits.
GMWBL, GMWB, GMAB, FIA and IUL: The Company issues certain products that contain embedded derivatives that are measured at estimated fair value separately from the host contracts. These products include deferred variable annuity contracts containing guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits with life payouts ("GMWBL"), guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits without life contingencies ("GMWB"), and guaranteed minimum accumulation benefits ("GMAB") features and FIA and IUL contracts. Embedded derivatives associated with GMAB, GMWB and GMWBL are recorded in Future policy benefits. Embedded derivatives associated with FIA and IUL contracts are recorded in Contract owner account balances. Changes in estimated fair value, that are not related to attributed fees or premiums collected or payments made, are reported in Other net realized capital gains (losses).
At inception of the contracts containing the GMWBL, GMWB and GMAB features, the Company projects a fee to be attributed to the embedded derivative portion of the guarantee equal to the present value of projected future guaranteed benefits. After inception, the estimated fair value of the GMWBL, GMWB and GMAB embedded derivatives is determined based on the present value of projected future guaranteed benefits, minus the present value of projected attributed fees. A risk neutral valuation methodology is used under which the cash flows from the guarantees are projected under multiple capital market scenarios using observable risk free rates. The projection of future guaranteed benefits and future attributed fees requires the use of assumptions for capital markets (e.g., implied volatilities, correlation among indices, risk-free swap curve, etc.) and policyholder behavior (e.g., lapse, benefit utilization, mortality, etc.).
The estimated fair value of the embedded derivative in the FIA contracts is based on the present value of the excess of interest payments to the contract owners over the growth in the minimum guaranteed contract value. The excess interest payments are determined as the excess of projected index driven benefits over the projected guaranteed benefits. The projection horizon is over the anticipated life of the related contracts, which takes into account best estimate actuarial assumptions, such as partial withdrawals, full surrenders, deaths, annuitizations and maturities.
The estimated fair value of the embedded derivative in the IUL contracts is based on the present value of the excess of interest payments to the contract owners over the growth in the minimum guaranteed account value. The excess interest payments are determined as the excess of projected index driven benefits over the projected guaranteed benefits. The projection horizon is over the current index term of the related contracts, which takes into account best estimate actuarial assumptions, such as partial withdrawals, full surrenders, deaths and maturities.
Stabilizer and MCG: Guaranteed credited rates give rise to an embedded derivative in the Stabilizer products and a stand-alone derivative for managed custody guarantee products ("MCG"). These derivatives are measured at estimated fair value and recorded in Contract owner account balances on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Changes in estimated fair value, that are not related to attributed fees collected or payments made, are reported in Other net realized capital gains (losses) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The estimated fair value of the Stabilizer embedded derivative and MCG stand-alone derivative is determined based on the present value of projected future claims, minus the present value of future guaranteed premiums. At inception of the contract, the Company projects a guaranteed premium to be equal to the present value of the projected future claims. The income associated with the contracts is projected using actuarial and capital market assumptions, including benefits and related contract charges, over the anticipated life of the related contracts. The cash flow estimates are projected under multiple capital market scenarios using observable risk-free rates and other best estimate assumptions.
The liabilities for the GMWBL, GMWB, GMAB, FIA, IUL and Stabilizer embedded derivatives and the MCG stand-alone derivative (collectively, "guaranteed benefit derivatives") include a risk margin to capture uncertainties related to policyholder behavior assumptions. The margin represents additional compensation a market participant would require to assume these risks.
The discount rate used to determine the fair value of the liabilities for the GMWBL, GMWB, GMAB, FIA, IUL and Stabilizer embedded derivatives and the MCG stand-alone derivative includes an adjustment to reflect the risk that these obligations will not be fulfilled ("nonperformance risk").
Separate account assets and liabilities generally represent funds maintained to meet specific investment objectives of contract owners or participants who bear the investment risk, subject, in limited cases, to minimum guaranteed rates. Investment income and investment gains and losses generally accrue directly to such contract owners. The assets of each account are legally segregated and are not subject to claims that arise out of any other business of the Company.
Separate account assets supporting variable options under variable annuity contracts are invested, as designated by the contract owner or participant under a contract, in shares of mutual funds that are managed by the Company or in other selected mutual funds not managed by the Company.
The Company reports separately, as assets and liabilities, investments held in the separate accounts and liabilities of separate accounts if:
Such separate accounts are legally recognized;
Assets supporting the contract liabilities are legally insulated from the Company's general account liabilities;
Investments are directed by the contract owner or participant; and
All investment performance, net of contract fees and assessments, is passed through to the contract owner.
The Company reports separate account assets that meet the above criteria at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheets based on the fair value of the underlying investments. Separate account liabilities equal separate account assets. Investment income and net realized and unrealized capital gains (losses) of the separate accounts, however, are not reflected in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, and the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows do not reflect investment activity of the separate accounts.
Short-term and Long-term Debt
Short-term and long-term debt are carried on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at an amount equal to the unpaid principal balance, net of any remaining unamortized discount or premium and any direct and incremental costs attributable to issuance. Discounts, premiums and direct and incremental costs are amortized as a component of Interest expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations over the life of the debt using the effective interest method of amortization.
Collateralized Loan Obligations Notes
CLO notes issued by consolidated CLO entities are recorded in Corporate loans, at fair value using the fair value option on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Changes in the fair value of the notes are recorded in Changes in fair value related to collateralized loan obligations in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company engages in dollar repurchase agreements with MBS ("dollar rolls") and repurchase agreements with other collateral types to increase its return on investments and improve liquidity. Such arrangements meet the requirements to be accounted for as financing arrangements.
The Company enters into dollar roll transactions by selling existing MBS and concurrently entering into an agreement to repurchase similar securities within a short time frame at a lower price. Under repurchase agreements, the Company borrows cash from a counterparty at an agreed upon interest rate for an agreed upon time frame and pledges collateral in the form of securities. At the end of the agreement, the counterparty returns the collateral to the Company, and the Company, in turn, repays the loan amount along with the additional agreed upon interest.
The Company's policy requires that at all times during the term of the dollar roll and repurchase agreements that cash or other collateral types obtained is sufficient to allow the Company to fund substantially all of the cost of purchasing replacement assets. Cash received is invested in Short-term investments, with the offsetting obligation to repay the loan included within Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The carrying value of the securities pledged in dollar rolls and repurchase agreement transactions and the related repurchase obligation are included in Securities pledged and Short-term debt, respectively, on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The primary risk associated with short-term collateralized borrowings is that the counterparty will be unable to perform under the terms of the contract. The Company's exposure is limited to the excess of the net replacement cost of the securities over the value of the short-term investments. The Company believes the counterparties to the dollar rolls and repurchase agreements are financially responsible and that the counterparty risk is minimal.
Recognition of Insurance Revenue and Related Benefits
Premiums related to traditional life insurance contracts and payout contracts with life contingencies are recognized in Premiums in the Consolidated Statements of Operations when due from the contract owner. When premiums are due over a significantly shorter period than the period over which benefits are provided, any gross premium in excess of the net premium (i.e., the portion of the gross premium required to provide for expected future benefits and expenses) is deferred and recognized into revenue in a constant relationship to insurance in force. Benefits are recorded in Policyholder benefits in the Consolidated Statements of Operations when incurred.
Amounts received as payment for investment-type, universal life-type, fixed annuities, payout contracts without life contingencies and FIA contracts are reported as deposits to contract owner account balances. Revenues from these contracts consist primarily of fees assessed against the contract owner account balance for mortality and policy administration charges and are reported in Fee income. Surrender charges are reported in Other revenue. In addition, the Company earns investment income from the investment of contract deposits in the Company's general account portfolio, which is reported in Net investment income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Fees assessed that represent compensation to the Company for services to be provided in future periods and certain other fees are established as a URR liability and amortized into revenue over the expected life of the related contracts in proportion to estimated gross profits in a manner consistent with DAC for these contracts. URR is reported in Contract owner account balances and amortized into Fee income. Benefits and expenses for these products include claims in excess of related account balances, expenses of contract administration and interest credited to contract owner account balances.
Performance-based Capital Allocations on Private Equity Funds
Under asset management arrangements for certain of its sponsored private equity funds, the Company, as General Partner, is entitled to receive performance-based capital allocations ("carried interest") when the return on assets under management for such funds exceeds prescribed investment return hurdles or other performance targets. Carried interest is accrued quarterly based on measuring cumulative fund performance against the stated performance hurdle, as if the fund was liquidated at its estimated fair value as of the applicable balance sheet date.
Carried interest is subject to adjustment to the extent that subsequent fund performance causes the fund’s cumulative investment return to fall below specified investment return hurdles. In such a circumstance, some or all of the previously accrued carried interest is reversed to the extent that the Company is no longer entitled to the performance-based capital allocation and, if such allocations have been distributed to the Company but are subject to recoupment by the fund, a liability is established for the potential repayment obligation.
The Company files a consolidated federal income tax return, which includes many of its subsidiaries, in accordance with the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
Items required by tax regulations to be included in the tax return may differ from the items reflected in the financial statements. As a result, the effective tax rate reflected in the financial statements may be different than the actual rate applied on the tax return. Some of these differences are permanent, such as the dividends received deduction which is estimated using information from the prior period and current year results. Other differences are temporary, reversing over time, such as the valuation of insurance reserves, and create deferred tax assets and liabilities.
The Company's deferred tax assets and liabilities resulting from temporary differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities are measured at the balance sheet date using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years the temporary differences are expected to reverse.
Deferred tax assets represent the tax benefit of future deductible temporary differences, net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards. The Company evaluates and tests the recoverability of its deferred tax assets. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Considerable judgment and the use of estimates are required in determining whether a valuation allowance is necessary and, if so, the amount of such valuation allowance. In evaluating the need for a valuation allowance, the Company considers many factors, including:
The nature, frequency and severity of book income or losses in recent years;
The nature and character of the deferred tax assets and liabilities;
The nature and character of income by life and non-life subgroups;
The recent cumulative book income (loss) position after adjustment for permanent differences;
Taxable income in prior carryback years;
Projected future taxable income, exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards;
Projected future reversals of existing temporary differences;
The length of time carryforwards can be utilized;
Prudent and feasible tax planning strategies the Company would employ to avoid a tax benefit from expiring unused; and
Tax rules that would impact the utilization of the deferred tax assets.
In establishing unrecognized tax benefits, the Company determines whether a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained under examination by the appropriate taxing authority. The Company also considers positions that have been reviewed and agreed to as part of an examination by the appropriate taxing authority. Tax positions that do not meet the more likely than not standard are not recognized in the Consolidated Financial Statements. Tax positions that meet this standard are recognized in the Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company measures the tax position as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate resolution with the tax authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information.
The Company utilizes reinsurance agreements in most aspects of its insurance business to reduce its exposure to large losses. Such reinsurance permits recovery of a portion of losses from reinsurers, although it does not discharge the primary liability of the Company as direct insurer of the risks reinsured.
For each of its reinsurance agreements, the Company determines whether the agreement provides indemnification against loss or liability relating to insurance risk. The Company reviews contractual features, particularly those that may limit the amount of insurance risk to which the reinsurer is subject or features that delay the timely reimbursement of claims. The assumptions used to account for both long and short-duration reinsurance agreements are consistent with those used for the underlying contracts. Ceded Future policy benefits and Contract owner account balances are reported gross on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Long-duration: For reinsurance of long-duration contracts that transfer significant insurance risk, the difference, if any, between the amounts paid and benefits received related to the underlying contracts is included in the expected net cost of reinsurance, which is recorded as a component of the reinsurance asset or liability. Any difference between actual and expected net cost of reinsurance is recognized in the current period and included as a component of profits used to amortize DAC.
Short-duration: For prospective reinsurance of short-duration contracts that meet the criteria for reinsurance accounting, amounts paid are recorded as ceded premiums and ceded unearned premiums and are reflected as a component of Premiums in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, respectively. Ceded unearned premiums are amortized through premiums over the remaining contract period in proportion to the amount of protection provided.
For retroactive reinsurance of short-duration contracts that meet the criteria for reinsurance accounting, amounts paid in excess of the related insurance liabilities ceded are recognized immediately as a loss. Any gains on such retroactive agreements are deferred in Other liabilities and amortized over the remaining life of the underlying contracts.
Accounting for reinsurance requires use of assumptions and estimates, particularly related to the future performance of the underlying business and the potential impact of counterparty credit risks. The Company periodically reviews actual and anticipated experience compared to the assumptions used to establish assets and liabilities relating to ceded and assumed reinsurance. The Company also evaluates the financial strength of potential reinsurers and continually monitors the financial condition of reinsurers. The S&P ratings for the Company's reinsurers with the largest reinsurance recoverable balances are A-rated or better, including Lincoln National Corporation ("Lincoln"), Hannover Life Reassurance Company of America ("Hannover US") and Hannover Re (Ireland) Limited ("HLRI") (collectively, "Hannover Re") and various subsidiaries of Reinsurance Group of America Incorporated (collectively, "RGA").
Only those reinsurance recoverable balances deemed probable of recovery are recognized as assets on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets and are stated net of allowances for uncollectible reinsurance. Amounts currently recoverable and payable under reinsurance agreements are included in Premium receivable and reinsurance recoverable and Other liabilities, respectively. Such assets and liabilities relating to reinsurance agreements with the same reinsurer are recorded net on the Consolidated Balance Sheets if a right of offset exists within the reinsurance agreement. Premiums, Fee income and Policyholder benefits are reported net of reinsurance ceded. Amounts received from reinsurers for policy administration are reported in Other revenue.
The Company has entered into coinsurance funds withheld reinsurance arrangements that contain embedded derivatives for which carrying value is estimated based on the change in the fair value of the assets supporting the funds withheld payable under the agreements.
Employee Benefits Plans
The Company sponsors and/or administers various plans that provide defined benefit pension and other postretirement benefit plans covering eligible employees, sales representatives and other individuals. The plans are generally funded through payments, determined by periodic actuarial calculations, to trustee-administered funds.
A defined benefit plan is a pension plan that defines an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive upon retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation. The liability recognized in respect of defined benefit pension plans is the present value of the projected pension benefit obligation ("PBO") at the balance sheet date, less the fair value of plan assets, together with adjustments for unrecognized past service costs. This liability is included in Pension and other postretirement provisions on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The PBO is defined as the actuarially calculated present value of vested and non-vested pension benefits accrued based on future salary levels. The Company recognizes the funded status of the PBO for pension plans and the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation ("APBO") for other postretirement plans on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Net periodic benefit cost is determined using management estimates and actuarial assumptions to derive service cost, interest cost and expected return on plan assets for a particular year. The obligations and expenses associated with these plans require use of assumptions, such as discount rate, expected rate of return on plan assets, rate of future compensation increases and healthcare cost trend rates, as well as assumptions regarding participant demographics, such as age of retirements, withdrawal rates and mortality. Management determines these assumptions based on a variety of factors, such as historical performance of the plan and its assets, currently available market and industry data and expected benefit payout streams. Actual results could vary significantly from assumptions based on changes, such as economic and market conditions, demographics of participants in the plans and amendments to benefits provided under the plans. These differences may have a significant effect on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements and liquidity. Differences between the expected return and the actual return on plan assets and actuarial gains (losses) are immediately recognized in Operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
For postretirement healthcare and other benefits to retirees, the entitlement to these benefits is usually conditional on the employee remaining in service up to retirement age and the completion of a minimum service period. The expected costs of these benefits are accrued in Other liabilities over the period of employment using an accounting methodology similar to that for defined benefit pension plans. Actuarial gains (losses) are immediately recognized in Operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company grants certain employees and directors share-based compensation awards under various plans. Share-based compensation plans are subject to certain vesting conditions. The Company measures the cost of its share-based awards at their grant date fair value, which in the case of restricted stock units ("RSUs ") and performance share units ("PSUs") is based upon the market value of the Company's common stock on the date of grant. In 2016 and 2017, the Company granted certain PSU awards, which are subject to attainment of specified total shareholder return ("TSR") targets relative to a specified peer group. The number of TSR-based PSU awards expected to be earned, based on achievement of the market condition, is factored into the grant date Monte Carlo valuation for the award. Fair value of stock options is determined using a Black-Scholes options valuation methodology. Compensation expense is principally related to the granting of performance share units, restricted stock units and stock options and is recognized in Operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations over the requisite service period. The majority of awards granted are provided in the first quarter of each year.
The liability related to the cash-settled awards is recorded within Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Unlike equity-settled awards, which have a fixed grant-date fair value, the fair value of unvested cash-settled awards is remeasured at the end of each reporting period until the awards vest.
Excess tax benefits recorded in Additional paid-in capital in 2016 and prior years are accounted for in a single pool available to all share-based compensation awards. Excess tax benefits in Additional paid-in capital are not recognized until the benefits result in a reduction in taxes payable. The Company uses tax law ordering when determining when excess tax benefits have been realized.
On a prospective basis from January 1, 2017, all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies related to share-based compensation are reported in Net income (loss), rather than Additional paid-in capital.
Earnings per Common Share
Basic earnings per common share ("EPS") is computed by dividing earnings available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is computed assuming the issuance of nonvested shares, restricted stock units, stock options, performance share units and warrants using the treasury stock method. Basic and diluted earnings per share are calculated using unrounded, actual amounts. Under the treasury stock method, the Company utilizes the average market price to determine the amount of cash that would be available to repurchase shares if the common shares vested. The net incremental share count issued represents the potential dilutive or anti-dilutive securities.
For any period where a loss from earnings available to common shareholders is experienced, shares used in the diluted EPS calculation represent basic shares, as using diluted shares would be anti-dilutive to the calculation.
Consolidation and Noncontrolling Interests
As of January 1, 2016, the Company changed its method for determining whether consolidation is required for VIEs and VOEs upon the adoption of Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2015-02, "Consolidation (Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis" ("ASU 2015-02") (See "Adoption of New Pronouncements" below).
In the normal course of business, the Company invests in, provides investment management services to, and has transactions with, various CLO entities, private equity funds, real estate funds, funds-of-hedge funds, single strategy hedge funds, insurance entities, securitizations and other investment entities. In certain instances, the Company serves as the investment manager, making day-to-day investment decisions concerning the assets of these entities. These entities are considered to be either VIEs or VOEs, and the consolidation guidance requires an assessment involving judgments and analysis to determine (a) whether an entity in which the Company holds a variable interest is a VIE and (b) whether the Company's involvement, through holding interests directly or indirectly in the entity or contractually through other variable interests (e.g., management and performance related fees), would give it a controlling financial interest.
The Company consolidates entities in which it, directly or indirectly, is determined to have a controlling financial interest. Consolidation conclusions are reviewed quarterly to identify whether any reconsideration events have occurred.
VIEs: The Company consolidates VIEs for which it is the primary beneficiary at the time it becomes involved with a VIE. An entity is a VIE if it has equity investors who, as a group, lack the characteristics of a controlling financial interest or it does not have sufficient equity at risk to finance its expected activities without additional subordinated financial support from other parties. The primary beneficiary (a) has the power to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance and (b) has the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the entity.
VOEs: For entities determined not to be VIEs, the Company consolidates entities in which it holds greater than 50% of the voting interest, or, for limited partnerships, when the Company owns a majority of the limited partnership's kick-out rights through voting interests.
Noncontrolling interest represents the interests of shareholders, other than the Company, in consolidated entities. In the Consolidated Statements of Operations, Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest represents such shareholders' interests in the earnings and losses of those entities, or the attribution of results from consolidated VIEs or VOEs to which the Company is not economically entitled.
A loss contingency is an existing condition, situation or set of circumstances involving uncertainty as to possible loss that will ultimately be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. Examples of loss contingencies include pending or threatened adverse litigation, threat of expropriation of assets and actual or possible claims and assessments. Amounts related to loss contingencies are accrued and recorded in Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets if it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated, based on the Company's best estimate of the ultimate outcome.
Adoption of New Pronouncements
Interests Held through Related Parties
In October 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU 2016-17, "Consolidation (ASC Topic 810): Interests Held through Related Parties That Are under Common Control" ("ASU 2016-17"), which changes how a single decision maker of a VIE should treat indirect interests in the entity that are held through related parties under common control when determining whether it is the primary beneficiary of the VIE.
The provisions of ASU 2016-17 were adopted by the Company, retrospectively, on January 1, 2017. The adoption had no effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (ASC Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting" ("ASU 2016-09"), which simplifies the accounting for share-based payment award transactions with respect to:
The income tax consequences of awards,
The impact of forfeitures on the recognition of expense for awards,
Classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and
Classification on the statement of cash flows.
The provisions of ASU 2016-09 were adopted by the Company on January 1, 2017 using the transition method prescribed for each applicable provision:
On a prospective basis, all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies related to share-based compensation are reported in Net income (loss), rather than Additional paid-in capital. Prior year excess tax benefits remain in Additional paid-in capital.
The provision that removed the requirement to delay recognition of excess tax benefits until they reduce taxes payable was required to be adopted on a modified retrospective basis. Upon adoption, this provision resulted in a $15 increase in Deferred income tax assets with a corresponding increase to Retained earnings on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as of January 1, 2017, to record previously unrecognized excess tax benefits.
The Company elected to retrospectively adopt the requirement to present cash inflows related to excess tax benefits as operating activities, which resulted in a $5 reclassification of Share-based compensation cash flows from financing activities to operating activities in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the twelve months ended December 31, 2016.
The Company also elected to continue its existing accounting policy of including estimated forfeitures in the calculation of share-based compensation expense.
The adoption of the remaining provisions of ASU 2016-09 had no effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-06, "Derivatives and Hedging (ASC Topic 815): Contingent Put and Call Options in Debt Instruments" ("ASU 2016-06"), which clarifies that an entity is only required to follow the four-step decision sequence when assessing whether contingent call (put) options that can accelerate the payment of principal on debt instruments are clearly and closely related to their debt hosts for purposes of bifurcating an embedded derivative. The entity does not need to assess whether the event that triggers the ability to exercise a call (put) option is related to interest rates or credit risks.
The provisions of ASU 2016-06 were adopted by the Company on January 1, 2017 using a modified retrospective approach. The adoption had no effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-02, "Consolidation (ASC Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis" ("ASU 2015-02"), which:
Modifies the evaluation of whether limited partnerships and similar legal entities are VIEs or VOEs, including the requirement to consider the rights of all equity holders at risk to determine if they have the power to direct the entity’s most significant activities.
Eliminates the presumption that a general partner should consolidate a limited partnership. Limited partnerships and similar entities will be VIEs unless the limited partners hold substantive kick-out rights or participating rights.
Affects the consolidation analysis of reporting entities that are involved with VIEs, particularly those that have fee arrangements and related party relationships.
Provides a new scope exception for registered money market funds and similar unregistered money market funds, and ends the deferral granted to investment companies from applying the VIE guidance.
The Company adopted the provisions of ASU 2015-02 on January 1, 2016 using the modified retrospective approach. The impact to the Company’s January 1, 2016 Consolidated Balance Sheet was the deconsolidation of $7.5 billion of Assets related to consolidated investment entities (comprised mainly of $2.5 billion of Limited partnerships/corporations, at fair value, $0.3 billion of Cash and cash equivalents, $4.6 billion of Corporate loans, at fair value using the fair value option, and $0.1 billion of Other assets related to consolidated investment entities) and $5.9 billion of liabilities (comprised of $4.6 billion of Collateralized loan obligations notes, at fair value using the fair value option, and $1.3 billion of Other liabilities related to consolidated investment entities), with a related adjustment to Noncontrolling interest of $1.6 billion and elimination of $9 Appropriated retained earnings related to consolidated investment entities.
The adoption of ASU 2015-02 did not result in consolidation of any entities that were not previously consolidated. Limited partnerships previously accounted for as VOEs became VIEs under the new guidance as the limited partners do not hold substantive kick-out rights or participating rights.
The adoption of ASU 2015-02 had no impact to net income available to Voya Financial, Inc.’s common shareholders.
Collateralized Financing Entities
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-13, "Consolidation (ASC Topic 810): Measuring the Financial Assets and the Financial Liabilities of a Consolidated Collateralized Financing Entity" ("ASU 2014-13"), which allows an entity to elect to measure the financial assets and financial liabilities of a consolidated collateralized financing entity using either:
ASC Topic 820, whereby both the financial assets and liabilities are measured using the requirements of ASC Topic 820, with any difference reflected in earnings and attributed to the reporting entity in the statement of operations.
The measurement alternative, whereby both the financial assets and liabilities are measured using the more observable of the fair value of the financial assets and the fair value of the financial liabilities.
The Company adopted the provisions of ASU 2014-13 on January 1, 2016, using the measurement alternative under the modified retrospective method. Subsequent to the adoption of ASU 2014-13, the impact to the Company’s January 1, 2016 Consolidated Balance Sheet was an increase of $18 in Collateralized loan obligations notes, at fair value using the fair value option, related to consolidated investment entities, with an offsetting decrease to Appropriated retained earnings of $18, resulting in the elimination of Appropriated retained earnings related to consolidated investment entities. As a result of adoption of ASU 2014-13, CLO liabilities are measured based on the fair value of the assets of the CLOs; therefore, the changes in fair value related to consolidated CLOs is zero. The changes in fair value of the Company’s interest in the CLOs are presented in Net investment income on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Future Adoption of Accounting Pronouncements
Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, "Income Statement-Reporting Comprehensive Income (ASC Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income" ("ASU 2018-02"), which allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the newly enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("Tax Reform"). Stranded tax effects arise because generally accepted accounting principles require that the impact of a change in tax laws or rates on deferred tax liabilities and assets be reported in net income, even if related to items recognized within accumulated other comprehensive income. The amount of the reclassification would be based on the difference between the historical corporate income tax rate and the newly enacted 21% corporate income tax rate, applied to deferred tax liabilities and assets reported within accumulated other comprehensive income.
The provisions of ASU 2018-02 are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. Initial adoption of ASU 2018-02 may be reported either in the period of adoption or on a retrospective basis in each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate resulting from Tax Reform is recognized. The Company is currently evaluating the provisions of ASU 2018-02.
Derivatives & Hedging
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, "Derivatives and Hedging (Topic ASC 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities " ("ASU 2017-12"), which enables entities to better portray risk management activities in their financial statements, as follows:
Expands an entity's ability to hedge nonfinancial and financial risk components and reduces complexity in accounting for fair value hedges of interest rate risk,
Eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness and generally requires the entire change in the fair value of a hedging instrument to be presented in the same income statement line as the hedged item,
Eases certain documentation and assessment requirements and modifies the accounting for components excluded from
the assessment of hedge effectiveness, and
Modifies required disclosures.
The provisions of ASU 2017-12 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods, with early adoption permitted. Initial adoption of ASU 2017-12 is required to be reported using a modified retrospective approach, with the exception of the presentation and disclosure requirements, which are required to be applied prospectively. The Company is currently in the process of determining the impact of adoption of the provisions of ASU 2017-12.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-08, "Receivables-Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (ASC Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities" ("ASU 2017-08), which shortens the amortization period for certain callable debt securities held at a premium by requiring the premium to be amortized to the earliest call date.
The provisions of ASU 2017-08 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods, with early adoption permitted. Initial adoption of ASU 2017-08 is required to be reported using a modified retrospective approach. The Company is currently in the process of determining the impact of adoption of the provisions of ASU 2017-08.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, "Compensation-Retirement Benefits (ASC Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost" ("ASU 2017-07"), which requires employers to report the service cost component of net periodic pension cost and net periodic postretirement benefit cost in the same line item as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by employees during the period. Other components of net benefit costs are required to be presented in the statement of operations separately from service costs. In addition, only service costs are eligible for capitalization in assets, when applicable.
The provisions of ASU 2017-07 are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods, with early adoption permitted. Initial adoption of ASU 2017-07 is required to be reported retrospectively for the presentation of service costs and other components in the statement of operations and prospectively for the capitalization of service costs in assets. The Company does not currently expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows; however, finalization of implementation efforts will continue into the first quarter of 2018.
Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets
In February 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-05, "Other Income-Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets (ASC Subtopic 610-20): Clarifying the Scope of Asset Derecognition Guidance & Accounting for Partial Sales of Nonfinancial Assets" ("ASU 2017-05"), which requires entities to apply certain recognition and measurement principles in ASU 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC Topic 606)" (see "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" below) when they derecognize nonfinancial assets and in substance nonfinancial assets through sale or transfer, and the counterparty is not a customer.
The provisions of ASU 2017-05 are effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted, using either a retrospective or modified retrospective method. The Company does not currently expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows; however, finalization of implementation efforts will continue into the first quarter of 2018.
Statement of Cash Flows
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, "Statement of Cash Flows (ASC Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments" ("ASU 2016-15"), which addresses diversity in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The amendments provide guidance on eight specific cash flow issues.
The provisions of ASU 2016-15 are effective retrospectively for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not currently expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows; however, finalization of implementation efforts will continue into the first quarter of 2018.
Financial Instruments - Credit Losses
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (ASC Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments" ("ASU 2016-13"), which:
Introduces an approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments,
Modifies the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities, and
Provides a simplified accounting model for purchased financial assets with credit deterioration since their origination.
The provisions of ASU 2016-13 are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Initial adoption of ASU 2016-13 is required to be reported on a modified retrospective basis, with a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the year of adoption, except for certain provisions that are required to be applied prospectively. The Company is currently in the process of determining the impact of adoption of the provisions of ASU 2016-13.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (ASC Topic 842)" ("ASU 2016-02"), which requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with terms of more than 12 months. The lease liability will be measured as the present value of the lease payments, and the asset will be based on the liability. For income statement purposes, expense recognition will depend on the lessee's classification of the lease as either finance, with a front-loaded amortization expense pattern similar to current capital leases, or operating, with a straight-line expense pattern similar to current operating leases. Lessor accounting will be similar to the current model, and lessors will be required to classify leases as operating, direct financing, or sales-type.
ASU 2016-02 also replaces the sale-leaseback guidance to align with the new revenue recognition standard, addresses statement of operation and statement of cash flow classification, and requires additional disclosures for all leases.
The provisions of ASU 2016-02 are effective on a modified retrospective basis for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently in the process of determining the impact of adoption of the provisions of ASU 2016-02.
Financial Instruments - Recognition and Measurement
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, "Financial Instruments-Overall (ASC Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities" ("ASU 2016-01"), which requires:
Equity investments (except those consolidated or accounted for under the equity method) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income.
Elimination of the disclosure of methods and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value for financial instruments measured at amortized cost.
The use of the exit price notion when measuring the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes.
Separate presentation in other comprehensive income of the portion of the total change in fair value of a liability resulting from a change in own credit risk if the liability is measured at fair value under the fair value option.
Separate presentation on the balance sheet or financial statement notes of financial assets and financial liabilities by measurement category and form of financial asset.
The provisions of ASU 2016-01 are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption only permitted for certain provisions. Initial adoption of ASU 2016-01 is required to be reported on a modified retrospective basis, with a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the year of adoption, except for certain provisions that are required to be applied prospectively. The Company does not currently expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows; however, finalization of implementation efforts will continue into the first quarter of 2018.
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC Topic 606)" ("ASU 2014-09"), which requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Revenue is recognized when, or as, the entity satisfies a performance obligation under the contract. ASU 2014-09 also updated the accounting for certain costs associated with obtaining and fulfilling contracts with customers and requires disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. In addition, the FASB issued various amendments during 2016 to clarify the provisions and implementation guidance of ASU 2014-09. Revenue recognition for insurance contracts and financial instruments is explicitly scoped out of the guidance.
The provisions of ASU 2014-09 are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted as of January 1, 2017. Initial adoption of ASU 2014-09 is required to be reported using either a retrospective or modified retrospective approach.
The Company plans to adopt ASU 2014-09 on January 1, 2018 on a modified retrospective basis. As the scope of ASU 2014-09 excludes insurance contracts and financial instruments, the guidance does not apply to a significant portion of the Company’s business. Based on review to date, the Company anticipates that the adoption of ASU 2014-09 will result in the deferral of costs to obtain and fulfill certain financial services contracts in the Retirement segment and Corporate, with a related cumulative impact on retained earnings upon adoption, net of tax, of approximately $80; however, finalization of implementation efforts will continue into the first quarter of 2018.