|DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
||DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Square, Inc. (together with its subsidiaries, Square or the Company) creates tools that empower businesses, sellers and individuals to participate in the economy. Square enables sellers to accept card payments and also provides reporting and analytics, and next-day settlement. Square’s point-of-sale software and other business services help sellers manage inventory, locations, and employees; access financing; engage buyers; build a website or online store; and grow sales. Cash App is an easy way to send, spend, and store money. Square was founded in 2009 and is headquartered in San Francisco, with offices in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company are unaudited. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The December 31, 2019 condensed consolidated balance sheet was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements.
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments of a normal recurring nature considered necessary to state fairly the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations, comprehensive loss, and cash flows for the interim periods. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. The interim results for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2020, or for any other future annual or interim period.
The information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, as well as related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from the Company’s estimates. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and actual results, the Company’s financial condition or operating results will be materially affected. Generally, the Company's estimates and assumptions consider current and past experience, to the extent that historical experience is predictive of future performance.
Estimates, judgments, and assumptions in these consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, those related to revenue recognition, accrued transaction losses, credit loss allowances from marketable debt securities, contingencies, valuation of the debt component of convertible senior notes, valuation of loans held for sale, goodwill, acquired intangible assets, income and other taxes, operating and financing lease right-of-use assets and related liabilities, assessing the likelihood of adverse outcomes from claims and disputes, and share-based compensation.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic. The Company operates in geographic locations that have been impacted by COVID-19 and that are subject to various mandated public health ordinances, which have negatively impacted the business operations of the Company and its customers. As a consequence of the pandemic and related public health orders, the Company’s customers are now exposed to a variety of uncertainties that could negatively impact their ability to repay outstanding amounts, or even continue in business. As of the date of issuance of the financial statements, the Company has revised or updated the carrying values of its assets or liabilities based on estimates, judgments and circumstances we are aware of, particularly, the expected impact of COVID-19. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Company’s estimates of accrued transaction losses and valuation of loans held for sale were subject to greater uncertainty. The Company's estimates were based on historical experience, adjusted for market
data relevant to the current economic environment. Additionally, the Company incorporated market data for similar historical periods of recessionary economic conditions and uncertainty in developing such estimates and assumptions. The Company evaluates these estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis and will make adjustments as appropriate. In the three months ended March 31, 2020, the provision for transaction losses increased to $79.3 million, compared to $19.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 — See Note 10, Other Consolidated Balance Sheet Components (Current), for further details on transaction losses. In the three months ended March 31, 2020, the charge for the excess of amortized costs over the fair value of loans increased to $22.0 million, compared to $6.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 — See Note 5, Fair Value of Financial Instruments, for further details on amortized cost over fair value of the loans. These estimates may change, as new events develop and additional information is obtained. Actual results could differ from these estimates, and such differences may be material to the Company's financial statements.
The extent of the impact of COVID-19 on the Company's operational and financial performance will depend on certain developments, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the outbreak, duration of local, state and federal issued public health orders, impact on our customers and our sales cycles, impact on our employees, and impact on regional and worldwide economies and financial markets in general, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted.
Concentration of Credit Risk
For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019, the Company had no customer that accounted for greater than 10% of total net revenue.
The Company had two third-party payment processors that represented approximately 45% and 28% of settlements receivable as of March 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had three parties that represented approximately 48%, 29%, and 9% of settlements receivable. All other third-party processors were insignificant.
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, marketable debt securities, settlements receivables, customer funds, and loans held for sale. The associated risk of concentration for cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash is mitigated by banking with creditworthy institutions. At certain times, amounts on deposit exceed federal deposit insurance limits. The associated risk of concentration for marketable debt securities is mitigated by holding a diversified portfolio of highly rated investments. Settlements receivable are amounts due from well-established payment processing companies and normally take or business days to settle which mitigates the associated risk of concentration. The associated risk of concentration for loans held for sale is partially mitigated by credit evaluations that are performed prior to facilitating the offering of loans and ongoing performance monitoring of the Company’s loan customers.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses, which requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. It also eliminates the concept of other-than-temporary impairment and requires credit losses related to available for sale debt securities to be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a reduction in the amortized cost basis of the securities. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2020 and has applied the guidance prospectively. The Company has concluded that the adoption of the guidance did not have a material impact on the balances reported in its consolidated financial statements and has included disclosures under the guidance.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The new guidance eliminates the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill assuming a hypothetical purchase price allocation (i.e., Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test) to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, entities will record an impairment charge based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. This standard should be adopted when the Company performs its annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The amendments should be applied on a
prospective basis. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2020 and will apply the guidance during its annual goodwill impairment test for the year ending December 31, 2020. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which will remove, modify, and add disclosure requirements for fair value measurements to improve the overall usefulness of such disclosures. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted for any removed or modified disclosure requirements. Transition is on a prospective basis for the new and modified disclosures, and on a retrospective basis for disclosures that have been eliminated. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2020 and has applied the guidance prospectively, and included additional disclosures required by the new guidance relating to significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract, which is intended to align the requirements for capitalization of implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract with the existing guidance for internal-use software. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The guidance provides flexibility in adoption, allowing for either retrospective adjustment or prospective adjustment for all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2020 and has applied the guidance prospectively. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In April 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-04, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and Topic 825, Financial Instruments. The amendments clarify the scope of the credit losses standard and hedge accounting among other things. The Company adopted ASC 326 on January 1, 2020 for credit losses. With respect to hedge accounting, the amendments address partial-term fair value hedges and fair value hedge basis adjustments, among other things. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted as long an entity has also adopted the amendments in ASU 2016-13. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. For entities which have already adopted ASU 2017-12, they are permitted to elect either retrospectively or prospectively adopt the amendments. The Company had previously adopted ASU 2017-12 on January 1, 2019 and therefore is eligible to and has prospectively adopted the amendments.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes: Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, as part of its overall simplification initiative to reduce costs and complexity of applying accounting standards while maintaining or improving the usefulness of the information provided to users of financial statements. Among other things, the new guidance simplifies intraperiod tax allocation and reduces the complexity in accounting for income taxes with year-to-date losses in interim periods. The guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The Company early adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2020 and has applied the guidance prospectively. The adoption did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.