DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Square, Inc. (together with its subsidiaries, Square or the Company) creates tools that help sellers start, run, and grow their businesses. Square enables sellers to accept card payments and also provides reporting and analytics, next-day settlement, and chargeback protection. Square’s point-of-sale software and other business services help sellers manage inventory, locations, and employees; access financing; engage customers; and grow sales. Cash App is an easy way for businesses and individuals to send and receive money and Caviar is a food ordering service for pickup and delivery that helps restaurants reach new customers. Square was founded in 2009 and is headquartered in San Francisco, with offices in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.
Reclassifications and Other Adjustments
As a result of the Company’s adoption of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-18, Restricted Cash, on January 1, 2017, the Company reclassified changes in restricted cash balances from investing activities in the statement of cash flows to changes in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash. For the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, $8.5 million and $1.9 million, respectively, was reclassified from cash outflows from investing activities to changes in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash.
During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company has reclassified certain prior period balances to conform to the current period presentation. In particular the Company has combined the Customer funds obligation and Customers payable into a single caption called Customers payable on the consolidated balance sheet. This classification change was made because both accounts reflect customer amounts that are held by Square that are obligations to the customer.
On June 8, 2016, a final, definitive settlement agreement (Settlement Agreement) was entered into by Robert E. Morley, REM Holdings 3, LLC, Jack Dorsey, Jim McKelvey, and the Company. The Settlement Agreement required an aggregate total payment of $50.0 million to plaintiffs, including meaningful contributions by Mr. Dorsey and Mr. McKelvey. The Company made a payment of $48.0 million to plaintiffs and met its obligations under the Settlement Agreement. This amount was classified within general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2016. On June 17, 2016, the Court entered an Order dismissing the complaints in their entirety, with prejudice.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) and include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, as well as related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from the Company’s estimates. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and actual results, the Company’s financial condition or operating results will be materially affected. The Company bases its estimates on past experience and other assumptions that the Company believes are reasonable under the circumstances, and the Company evaluates these estimates on an ongoing basis.
Estimates, judgments, and assumptions in these consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, those related to revenue recognition, accrued transaction losses, valuation of the debt component of convertible senior notes, valuation of loans held for sale, goodwill and intangible assets, income and other taxes, and share-based compensation.
The Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery of obligations to its customers has occurred, the related fees are fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. Revenue is generated from the following:
Transaction-based revenue and Starbucks transaction-based revenue
The Company charges its sellers a transaction fee for managed payments solutions that is generally calculated as a percentage of the total transaction amount processed. The Company selectively offers custom pricing for certain sellers. The Company had a processing agreement with Starbucks, for certain Starbucks-owned stores in the United States. During the fourth quarter of 2016, Starbucks completed its previously announced transition to another payments solution provider.
The Company recognizes the transaction fees a seller pays to the Company as revenue upon authorization of a transaction by the seller's customer's bank. Revenue is recognized net of refunds, which arise from reversals of transactions initiated by sellers. The Company acts as the merchant of record for its sellers and works directly with payment card networks and banks so that its sellers do not need to manage the complex systems, rules, and requirements of the payments industry. As the merchant of record, Square is liable for settlement of the transactions the Company processes for its sellers.
The gross transaction fees collected from sellers are recognized as revenue on a gross basis as the Company is the primary obligor to the seller and is responsible for processing the payment, has latitude in establishing pricing with respect to the sellers and other terms of service, has sole discretion in selecting the third party to perform the settlement, and assumes the credit risk for the transaction processed.
Subscription and services-based revenue
Subscription and services-based revenue is primarily generated by Instant Deposit, Caviar, Square Capital and various software as a service products.
Instant Deposit is a functionality within the Cash App and the Company's managed payment solutions that enables customer to instantly deposit funds into their bank accounts. The Company charges a per transaction fee which we recognize as revenue when customers instantly deposit funds to their bank account.
Caviar is a food ordering platform that facilitates food delivery services for restaurants. Caviar revenue consists of fees charged to restaurants, as sellers, and delivery and service fees charged to customers. All fees are recognized upon delivery of the food, net of refunds.
Square Capital facilitates a loan that is offered through a partnership with an industrial bank that is generally repaid through withholding a percentage of the collections of the seller's receivables processed by the Company. During the first quarter of 2016, the Company fully transitioned from offering merchant cash advances (MCAs) to loans. The Company facilitates loans to sellers pre-qualified through an analysis of the aggregated data of the seller’s business which includes, but is not limited to, the seller’s historical processing volumes, transaction count, chargebacks, growth, and length of time as a Square customer. The loans are originated by a bank partner, from whom the Company purchases the loans obtaining all rights, title, and interest. The loans have no stated coupon rate but the seller is charged a one-time origination fee by the bank partner based upon their risk rating, which is derived primarily from processing activity. It is the Company’s intent to sell all of its rights, title, and interest of these loans to third-party investors for an upfront fee when the loans are sold. The Company records the net amounts paid to the bank as the cost of the loans purchased and subsequently records a gain on sale of the loans to the third-party investors. The Company is retained by the third-party investors to service the loans and earns a servicing fee for facilitating the repayment of these receivables through its payments solutions. The Company recognizes the gain on sale of the loans to the investors as revenue upon transfer of title to investors. The Company records servicing revenue as servicing is delivered. For the loans which are not sold to third-party investors, the Company recognizes a portion of the expected seller repayments over the cost of the loans as revenue in proportion to the loan principal reduction.
Software as a service provides customers with access to various technologies for a fee which is recognized ratably as the service is provided.
Hardware revenue is generated from sales of contactless and chip readers, chip card readers, Square Stand, Square Register and third-party peripherals. Hardware revenue is recorded net of returns and is recognized upon delivery of hardware to the end customer and satisfaction of the other basic revenue recognition criteria. The Company considers delivery to have occurred once title and risk of loss has been transferred to the end customer. The Company records deferred revenue when it receives payments in advance of the delivery of products.
Cost of Revenue
Transaction-based costs and Starbucks transaction-based costs
Transaction-based costs and Starbucks transaction-based costs consist primarily of interchange and assessment fees, processing fees and bank settlement fees paid to third-party payment processors and financial institutions. Contracts with third-party payment processors are typically for a term of two to four years.
Subscription and services-based costs
Subscription and services-based costs consist primarily of Caviar-related costs, which include payments to third-party couriers for deliveries and the cost of equipment provided to sellers. These costs also include costs associated with Cash App transactions when customers instantly deposit funds to their bank account and for transactions conducted with a Cash Card, credit card or Cash for Business. Cost of revenue for other subscription and services-based costs consists primarily of the amortization related to the development of certain subscription and services-based products.
Hardware costs consist of all product costs associated with contactless and chip readers, chip card readers, Square Stand, Square Register and third-party peripherals. Product costs include manufacturing-related overhead and personnel costs, certain royalties, packaging, and fulfillment costs.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and included in sales and marketing expense on the consolidated statements of operations. Total advertising costs for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015 were $81.9 million, $58.3 million, and $58.3 million, respectively.
Share-based compensation expense relates to stock options, restricted stock units (RSUs), and purchases under the Company’s 2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP) which is measured based on the grant-date fair value. The fair value of RSUs is determined by the closing price of the Company’s common stock on each grant date.The fair value of stock options and employee stock purchase plan shares granted to employees is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes-Merton option valuation model. This share-based compensation expense valuation model requires the Company to make assumptions and judgments regarding the variables used in the calculation. These variables include the expected term (weighted average period of time that the options granted are expected to be outstanding), the expected volatility of the Company’s stock, expected risk-free interest rate and expected dividends. The Company uses the simplified calculation of expected term, as the Company does not have sufficient historical data to use any other method to estimate expected term. Expected volatility is based on a weighted average of the historical volatilities of the Company's common stock along with several entities with characteristics similar to those of the Company. The Company will continue to weight its own volatility more heavily as more of its own historical stock price information becomes available. Once its own historical data is equal to that of the expected term of option grants a peer group is no longer considered necessary. The expected risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for periods corresponding with the expected life of the option. Share-based compensation expense is recorded on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. For the year ended December 31, 2016 and prior, the Company recorded share-based compensation expense net of estimated forfeitures. On January 1, 2017, as a result of the Company's adoption of ASU No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, the Company elected to account for forfeitures as they occur.
The fair value of stock options granted to non-employees, including consultants, is initially measured upon the date of grant and remeasured over the vesting period using the same methodology described above. These non-employees provide service to the Company on an ongoing basis, therefore, the performance commitment for each non-employee grant is not considered probable until the award is earned over time. The expected term for non-employee grants is the contractual term and share-based compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over this term. Share-based compensation expense related to non-employees has not been material for any of the periods presented.
Income and Other Taxes
The Company reports income taxes under the asset and liability approach. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, as well as net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax amounts are determined by using the enacted tax rates expected to be in effect when the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance reduces the deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
The Company uses financial projections to support its net deferred tax assets, which contain significant assumptions and estimates of future operations. If such assumptions were to differ significantly from actual future results of operations, it may have a material impact on the Company’s ability to realize its deferred tax assets. At the end of each period, the Company assesses the ability to realize the deferred tax assets. If it is more likely than not that the Company would not realize the deferred tax assets, then the Company would establish a valuation allowance for all or a portion of the deferred tax assets.
The Company recognizes the effect of uncertain income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. The Company records interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in the provision for income tax expense on the consolidated statements of operations.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The Company considers all highly liquid investments, including money market funds, with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents.
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, restricted cash of $28.8 million and $22.1 million, respectively, is related to pledged cash deposited into savings accounts at the financial institutions that process the Company's sellers' payment transactions and as collateral pursuant to an agreement with the originating bank for the Company's loan product. The Company uses the restricted cash to secure letters of credit with the financial institution to provide collateral for cash flow timing differences in the processing of these payments. The Company has recorded this amount as a current asset on the consolidated balance sheets due to the short-term nature of these cash flow timing differences and that there is no minimum time frame during which the cash must remain restricted. Additionally, this balance includes certain amounts held as collateral pursuant to multi-year lease agreements, discussed in the paragraph below, which we expect to become unrestricted within the next year.
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the remaining restricted cash of $9.8 million and $14.6 million, respectively, is primarily related to cash deposited into money market funds that is used as collateral pursuant to multi-year lease agreements entered into in 2012 and 2014 (Note 14). The Company has recorded this amount as a non-current asset on the consolidated balance sheets as the terms of the related leases extend beyond one year.
Concentration of Credit Risk
For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company had no customer who accounted for greater than 10% of total net revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company had no customer other than Starbucks who accounted for greater than 10% of total net revenue. The Company terminated its relationship with Starbucks during the year ended December 31, 2016.
The Company had three third-party payment processors that represented approximately 46%, 42%, and 8% of settlements receivable as of December 31, 2017. The same three parties represented approximately 52%, 35%, and 10% of settlements receivable as of December 31, 2016. All other third-party processors were insignificant.
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, marketable securities, settlements receivables, customer funds, and loans held for sale. The associated risk of concentration for cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash is mitigated by banking with creditworthy institutions. At certain times, amounts on deposit exceed federal deposit insurance limits. The associated risk of concentration for marketable securities is mitigated by holding a diversified portfolio of highly rated investments. Settlements receivable are amounts due from well-established payment processing companies and normally take one or two business days to settle which mitigates the associated risk of concentration. The associated risk of concentration for loans held for sale is partially mitigated by credit evaluations that are performed prior to facilitating the offering of loans and ongoing performance monitoring of the Company’s loan customers.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company applies fair value accounting for all financial assets and liabilities and non-financial assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis. Fair value accounting establishes a three-level hierarchy priority for disclosure of assets and liabilities recorded at fair value. The ordering of priority reflects the degree to which objective prices in external active markets are available to measure fair value. The classification of assets and liabilities within the hierarchy is based on whether the inputs to the valuation methodology used for measurement are observable or unobservable.
The Company utilizes valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible. The Company determines fair value based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability in the principal or most advantageous market. When considering market participant assumptions in fair value measurements, the following fair value hierarchy distinguishes between observable and unobservable inputs, which are categorized in one of the following levels:
Level 1 Inputs: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities accessible to the reporting entity at the measurement date.
Level 2 Inputs: Other than quoted prices included in Level 1 Inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3 Inputs: Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability used to measure fair value to the extent that observable inputs are not available, thereby allowing for situations in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at measurement date.
Loans Held for Sale
The Company classifies customer loans as held for sale upon purchase from a bank partner, as there is an available market for such loans and it is the Company’s intent to sell all of its rights, title, and interest in these loans to third-party investors. Loans held for sale are recorded at the lower of amortized cost or fair value determined on an individual loan basis. To determine the fair value the Company utilizes industry-standard valuation modeling, such as discounted cash flow models, taking into account the estimated timing and amounts of periodic repayments. The Company recognizes a charge within transaction, loan and advance losses on the consolidated statement of operations whenever the amortized cost of a loan exceeds its fair value, with such charges being reversed for subsequent increases in fair value, but only to the extent that such reversals do not result in the amortized cost of a loan exceeding its fair value. A loan that is initially designated as held for sale may be reclassified to held for investment if and when the Company's intent for that loan changes. There have been no reclassifications made to date.
Settlements receivable represents amounts due from third-party payment processors for customer transactions. Settlements receivable are typically received within one or two business days of the transaction date. No valuation allowances have been established, as funds are due from large, well-established financial institutions with no historical collections issue.
Customer funds held represent Cash App customers' stored balances that customers would later use to send money or make payments, or customers cash in transit. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company held these stored balances as short term bank deposits.
Inventory is comprised of contactless and chip readers, chip card readers, Square Stand, Square Register and third-party peripherals, as well as component parts that are used to manufacture these products. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost (generally on a first-in, first-out basis) or net realizable value. Inventory that is obsolete or in excess of forecasted usage is written down to its net realizable value based on the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business. The Company's inventory is held at the Company's warehouses as well as at third party contract manufacturer premises.
Deferred Magstripe Reader Costs
The Company capitalizes the cost of its magstripe readers, which are included in other current assets on the consolidated balance sheets. The amount capitalized represents the cost of the readers, including packaging and shipping costs, held on-hand by the Company as of each consolidated balance sheet date. Once the readers are shipped to a third-party distributor or an end-customer, they are recorded as marketing expense on the consolidated statements of operations.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at historical cost less accumulated depreciation, which is computed on a straight-line basis over the asset’s estimated useful life.
The estimated useful lives of property and equipment are described below:
Property and Equipment
Computer and data center equipment
Furniture and fixtures
Lesser of estimated useful life or remaining lease term
When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from their respective accounts, and any gain or loss on such sale or disposal is reflected in operating expenses.
The Company capitalizes certain cost incurred in developing internal-use software when capitalization requirements have been met. Costs prior to meeting the capitalization requirements are expensed as incurred. Capitalized costs are included in property and equipment, net, and amortized on a straight-lined basis over the estimated useful life of the software and included in product development costs or allocated to subscription and service-based costs on the consolidated statements of operations. The Company capitalized $9.8 million, $7.9 million and $4.5 million of internally developed software during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and recognized $6.6 million, $7.1 million and $3.2 million of amortization expense during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The Company leases office space and equipment under non-cancellable capital and operating leases with various expiration dates. The Company records the total rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
When lease agreements provide allowances for leasehold improvements, the Company capitalizes the leasehold improvement assets and recognizes the related depreciation expense on a straight-line basis over the lesser of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the asset, and reduces rent expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease by the amount of the allowances provided. The Company classifies the cash payments for the leasehold improvements within investing activities while reimbursements from the landlords are classified within operating activities.
The Company records a liability for the estimated fair value for any asset retirement obligation (ARO) associated with its leases, with an offsetting asset. In the determination of the fair value of AROs, the Company uses various assumptions and judgments, including such factors as the existence of a legal obligation, estimated amounts and timing of settlements, and discount and inflation rates. The liability is subsequently accreted while the asset is depreciated. As of December 31, 2017, the Company had a liability for ARO, gross of accretion, of $3.6 million and an associated asset, net of depreciation, of $2.3 million.
The purchase price of an acquisition is allocated to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. The excess of total consideration over the fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed is recorded as goodwill. During the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company may record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments would be recorded on the consolidated statements of operations.
Long-Lived Assets, including Goodwill and Acquired Intangibles
The Company evaluates the recoverability of property and equipment and finite lived intangible assets for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of such assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by comparing the carrying amount of an asset or an asset group to estimate undiscounted future net cash flows expected to be generated. If the carrying amount of the long–lived asset or asset group is not recoverable on an undiscounted cash flow basis, an impairment is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds its fair value. Fair value is determined through various valuation techniques including discounted cash flow models, quoted market values, and third–part independent appraisals, as considered necessary. For the periods presented, the Company had recorded no impairment charges.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired in a business combination. The Company performs a goodwill impairment test annually on December 31 and more frequently if events and circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether events or circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount and determine whether further action is needed. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, the Company determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is unnecessary. For the periods presented, the Company had recorded no impairment charges.
Acquired intangibles consist of acquired technology and customer relationships associated with various acquisitions. Acquired technology is amortized over its estimated useful life on a straight-line basis within cost of revenue. Customer relationships acquired are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives within operating expenses. The Company evaluates the remaining estimated useful life of its intangible assets being amortized on an ongoing basis to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization.
Customers payable represents the transaction amounts, less revenue earned by the Company, owed to sellers or Cash App customers. The payable amount comprises amounts owed to customers due to timing differences as we typically settle within one business day, amounts held by the Company in accordance with its risk management policies, and amounts held for customers who have not yet linked a bank account. This balance also includes the Company's liability for customer funds held on the Cash App.
Accrued Transaction Losses
The Company establishes a reserve for estimated transaction losses due to chargebacks, which represent a potential loss due to disputes between a seller and their customer or due to a fraudulent transaction. The reserve is estimated based on available data as of the reporting date, including expectations of future chargebacks, and historical trends related to loss rates. Additions to the reserve are reflected in current operating results, while charges to the reserve are made when losses are recognized. These amounts are classified within transaction and advance losses on the consolidated statements of operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and issued subsequent amendments to the initial guidance within ASU 2015-04, ASU 2016-08, ASU 2016-10, ASU 2016-12, and ASU 2016-20. The new guidance will replace all current U.S. GAAP guidance about revenue recognition, including industry specific guidance. The core principal of this new guidance is that revenue is recognized when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration for which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The new guidance will also change how companies account for certain incremental costs to obtain a customer contract, such as sales commissions, by requiring that such costs be capitalized and charged to expense over the period of expected benefit. This guidance is effective for the Company’s interim and annual financial statements beginning January 1, 2018. The guidance can be adopted either through the full retrospective approach, which requires restatement of all periods presented with a cumulative effect adjustment as of the beginning of the earliest period presented, or through a modified retrospective approach, which requires a cumulative effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The modified retrospective approach also requires additional disclosures, for the year of adoption, of the impact of the new guidance to each of the financial statements line items and qualitative explanation of the significant changes between the reported results under the new revenue guidance and the previous revenue guidance. The Company adopted this new guidance on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective approach. Apart from the incremental disclosure requirements it is the Company’s conclusion that the new guidance will not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements, financial reporting systems, processes or controls.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory, as part of its simplification initiative. The previous guidance required an entity to measure inventory at the lower of cost or market. Market could be replacement cost, net realizable value, or net realizable value less a normal profit margin. Under the new guidance, inventory is measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value, which would eliminate the other two options that currently exist for market replacement cost and net realizable value less a normal profit margin. The amendment is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this new guidance on January 1, 2017, and it did not have any effect on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. This guidance is intended to improve the recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted with certain restrictions. The new guidance could result to volatility of other income (expense), net, in future periods as a result of the remeasurement of the equity securities through earnings upon the occurrence of future observable price changes. The Company adopted this new guidance on January 1, 2018, and it did not have any effect on the consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, which will require, among other items, lessees to recognize a right of use asset and a related lease liability for most leases on the balance sheet. Qualitative and quantitative disclosures will be enhanced to better understand the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not plan to early adopt this guidance. The Company’s operating leases primarily comprise of office spaces, with the most significant leases relating to corporate headquarters in San Francisco and an office in New York. While the Company continues to evaluate the impact of adopting this guidance on its consolidated financial statements, it does expect to record right to use assets and related lease liabilities on its consolidated balance sheets upon adoption, which will increase total assets and liabilities.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting,
which is intended to simplify several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this new guidance on January 1, 2017. As part of the adoption, the Company elected to account for forfeitures as they occur. As this guidance requires a modified retrospective approach when eliminating the forfeiture rate, the Company recorded an adjustment of $0.7 million to increase accumulated deficit and additional paid-in capital as of January 1, 2017. With respect to classification of excess tax benefits on the Statement of Cash Flows, the Company has elected to apply this guidance on a prospective basis. Thus, the prior periods have not been adjusted. The remaining areas of simplification in this guidance did not have an impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this new guidance may have on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. This guidance addresses several cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. Specific issues addressed in this guidance include, but are not limited to, debt prepayment or extinguishment costs, contingent consideration payments made after a business combination and application of the predominance principle. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The amendments should be applied retrospectively. The Company adopted this new guidance on January 1, 2018, and it did not have any effect on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory, which amends existing guidance on the recognition of current and deferred income tax impacts for intra-entity asset transfers other than inventory. The current guidance requires companies to defer the income tax effects of intercompany transfers of all assets, until the asset has been sold to an outside party whereas the new guidance will not allow the deferral of income tax effects of intercompany transfers of assets except for inventory. This standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The amendments in this guidance should be applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company adopted this new guidance on January 1, 2018, and it did not have any effect on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Restricted Cash, which provides guidance on the classification of restricted cash to be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning of period and end of period total amounts on the statement of cash flows. This standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The Company early adopted this guidance on January 1, 2017, and adjusted its consolidated statements of cash flow for each of the periods presented.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business. The amendment seeks to clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The definition of a business affects many areas of accounting including acquisitions, disposals, goodwill, intangible assets and consolidation. This standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The amendments should be applied prospectively on or after the effective dates. The Company adopted this new guidance on January 1, 2018, and it did not have any effect on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The new guidance eliminates the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill assuming a hypothetical purchase price allocation (i.e., Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test) to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, entities will record an impairment charge based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. This standard should be adopted when the Company performs its annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The amendments should be applied on a prospective basis. The Company does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material the impact on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-08, Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities, which amends the amortization period for certain purchased callable debt securities held at a premium, shortening such period to the earliest call date. This standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The amendments in this guidance should be applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this new guidance may have on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, Scope of Modification Accounting, which clarifies when to account for a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award as a modification. This standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The amendments should be applied on a prospective basis. The Company adopted this new guidance on January 1, 2018, and it did not have any effect on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.