DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Square, Inc. (together with its subsidiaries, Square or the Company) creates tools that help sellers start, run, and grow their businesses. Square enables sellers to accept card payments and also provides reporting and analytics, next-day settlement, and chargeback protection. Square’s point-of-sale software and other business services help sellers manage inventory, locations, and employees; access financing; engage buyers; build a website or online store; and grow sales. The Cash App is an easy way to send, spend, and receive money, and Caviar is a food-ordering platform. Square was founded in 2009 and is headquartered in San Francisco, with offices in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, Ireland, and the UK.
Reclassifications and Other Adjustments
During the third quarter of 2018, the Company has reclassified prior period balances within interest and other (income) expense, net, to disaggregate the amounts and separately present interest (income) expense, net and other (income) expense, net on its consolidated statements of operations to conform to the current period presentation. This classification change was made to provide clarity of the balances as the activity continues to grow, particularly as a result of the impact of revaluation of an equity investment in the current period. During both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company recorded a gain of $36.9 million to other income on the consolidated statements of operations arising from revaluation of this investment (Note 12). There was no impact to the net income (loss) on its consolidated statements of operations to any of the periods presented as result of this change.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company are unaudited. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The December 31, 2017 condensed consolidated balance sheet was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements.
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments of a normal recurring nature considered necessary to state fairly the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income (loss), and cash flows for the interim periods. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. The interim results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2018, or for any other future annual or interim period.
The information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto included in Items 7, 7A, and 8, respectively, in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, as well as related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from the Company’s estimates. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and actual results, the Company’s financial condition or operating results will be materially affected. The Company bases its estimates on past experience and other assumptions that the Company believes are reasonable under the circumstances, and the Company evaluates these estimates on an ongoing basis.
Estimates, judgments, and assumptions in these consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, those related to revenue recognition, accrued transaction losses, valuation of the debt component of convertible senior notes, valuation of loans held for sale, goodwill, acquired intangible assets and deferred revenue, income and other taxes, and share-based compensation.
Concentration of Credit Risk
For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company had no customer that accounted for greater than 10% of total net revenue.
The Company had three third-party payment processors that represented approximately 50%, 37%, and 9% of settlements receivable as of September 30, 2018. The same three parties represented approximately 46%, 42%, and 8% of settlements receivable as of December 31, 2017. All other third-party processors were insignificant.
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, marketable debt securities, settlements receivables, customer funds, and loans held for sale. The associated risk of concentration for cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash is mitigated by banking with creditworthy institutions. At certain times, amounts on deposit exceed federal deposit insurance limits. The associated risk of concentration for marketable debt securities is mitigated by holding a diversified portfolio of highly rated investments. Settlements receivable are amounts due from well-established payment processing companies and normally take one or two business days to settle which mitigates the associated risk of concentration. The associated risk of concentration for loans held for sale is partially mitigated by credit evaluations that are performed prior to facilitating the offering of loans and ongoing performance monitoring of the Company’s loan customers.
Except for the adoption of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), described in Note 2, and the accounting policy on cryptocurrency transactions and customer funds, both described below, there have been no material changes to the Company’s accounting policies during the nine months ended September 30, 2018, as compared to the accounting policies described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.
During the fourth quarter of 2017, the Company started offering its Cash App customers the ability to purchase bitcoin, a cryptocurrency denominated asset, from the Company. The Company purchases bitcoin from private broker dealers or from Cash App customers. Upon purchase, the Company records the cost of bitcoin within other current assets in its consolidated balance sheets. Upon sale, the Company records the total sale amount received from customers as bitcoin revenue and the associated cost as cost of revenue. The carrying value of bitcoin held by the Company was $0.2 million and $0.3 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The Company assesses the carrying value of bitcoin held by the Company at each reporting date and records an impairment charge if the cost exceeds the fair value. Losses on bitcoin for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, were insignificant.
Customer funds represent Cash App customers' stored balances that customers can later use to send money or make payments, or customers with cash in transit. As of December 31, 2017, the Company held these stored balances as short term bank deposits. During the third quarter of 2018, the Company started investing a portion of these stored balances in short-term marketable debt securities (Note 5).
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-02, Leases, which will require, among other items, lessees to recognize a right of use asset and a related lease liability for most leases on the balance sheet. Qualitative and quantitative disclosures will be enhanced to better understand the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The new standard should be applied on a modified retrospective basis. The Company does not plan to early adopt this guidance. The Company’s operating leases primarily comprise of office facilities, with the most significant leases relating to corporate headquarters in San Francisco and an office in New York. While the Company continues to evaluate the impact of adopting this guidance on its consolidated financial statements, it does expect to record material right to use assets and related lease liabilities on its consolidated balance sheets upon adoption, which will increase total assets and liabilities.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance may have on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The new guidance eliminates the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill assuming a hypothetical purchase price allocation (i.e., Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test) to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, entities will record an impairment charge based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. This standard should be adopted when the Company performs its annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The amendments should be applied on a prospective basis. The Company does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-08, Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities, which amends the amortization period for certain purchased callable debt securities held at a premium, shortening such period to the earliest call date. This standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The amendments in this guidance should be applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance may have on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. When the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 was enacted in December 2017, there was a valuation allowance on the deferred tax assets included within the Company's accumulated other comprehensive income; therefore no tax expense resulted from the change in the federal income tax rate. This guidance allows companies to reclassify such tax effects from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which will remove, modify and add disclosure requirements for fair value measurements to improve the overall usefulness of such disclosures. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted for any removed or modified disclosure requirements. Transition is on a prospective basis for the new and modified disclosures, and on a retrospective basis for disclosures that have been eliminated. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance may have on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract, which is intended to align the requirements for capitalization of implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract with the existing guidance for internal-use software. This guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The guidance provides flexibility in adoption, allowing for either retrospective adjustment or prospective adjustment for all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance may have on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.