|Summary of significant accounting policies
Principles of consolidation
Our consolidated financial statements include our accounts and the accounts of our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. We base these estimates on current facts, historical and anticipated results, trends and various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, including assumptions as to future events. Actual results could differ materially from those judgments, estimates and assumptions. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis.
Significant estimates and assumptions made by management include the determination of:
revenue recognition (See Note 3, “Revenue, accounts receivable and deferred revenue” for further information);
the fair value of assets and liabilities associated with business combinations;
the impairment assessment of goodwill and intangible assets;
valuation of our 2.00% convertible senior notes due 2024 issued in September 2019 ("Convertible Senior Notes");
the recoverability of long-lived assets;
our incremental borrowing rates used to calculate our lease balances;
stock-based compensation expense and the fair value of awards issued; and
income tax uncertainties.
Concentrations of credit risk and other risks and uncertainties
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to a concentration of credit risk consist of cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities and accounts receivable. Our cash and cash equivalents are held by financial institutions in the United States. Such deposits may exceed federally insured limits.
Significant customers are those that represent 10% or more of our total revenue for each year presented on the statements of operations. Revenue for significant customers as a percentage of total revenue were as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
No customers represented more than 10% of accounts receivable as of December 31, 2019, and Medicare represented 21% of accounts receivable as of December 31, 2018.
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
We consider all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist primarily of amounts invested in money market funds, U.S. treasury notes and government agency securities.
Restricted cash consists primarily of money market funds that secure irrevocable standby letters of credit that serve as collateral for security deposits for our facility leases.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the statements of cash flows (in thousands):
December 31, 2019
December 31, 2018
Cash and cash equivalents
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
All marketable securities have been classified as “available-for-sale” and are carried at estimated fair value as determined based upon quoted market prices or pricing models for similar securities. Management determines the appropriate classification of its marketable debt securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such designation at each balance sheet date. Short-term marketable securities have maturities one year or less at the balance sheet date. Unrealized gains and losses are excluded from earnings and are reported as a component of other comprehensive loss. Realized gains and losses and declines in fair value judged to be other than temporary, if any, on available-for-sale securities are included in other expense, net. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific-identification method. Interest on marketable securities is included in other expense, net.
We receive payment for our tests from partners, patients, institutional customers and third-party payers. See Note 3, "Revenue, accounts receivable and deferred revenue" for further information.
We maintain test reagents and other consumables primarily used in sample collection kits which are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using actual costs on a first-in, first-out basis. Our inventory was $6.6 million and $8.3 million as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and was recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets in our consolidated balance sheets.
We apply Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 805, Business Combinations, or ASC 805, which requires recognition of assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and contingent consideration at their fair value on the acquisition date with subsequent changes recognized in earnings; requires acquisition-related expenses and restructuring costs to be recognized separately from the business combination and expensed as incurred; requires in-process research and development to be capitalized at fair value as an indefinite-lived intangible asset until completion or abandonment; and requires that changes in accounting for deferred tax asset valuation allowances and acquired income tax uncertainties after the measurement period be recognized as a component of provision for taxes.
We account for acquisitions of entities that include inputs and processes and have the ability to create outputs as business combinations. The tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recorded based on their estimated fair values as of the business combination date, including identifiable intangible assets which either arise from a contractual or legal right or are separable from goodwill. We base the estimated fair value of identifiable intangible assets acquired in a business combination on independent valuations that use information and assumptions provided by our management, which consider our estimates of inputs and assumptions that a market participant would use. Any excess purchase price over the estimated fair value assigned to the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recorded to goodwill. The use of alternative valuation assumptions, including estimated revenue projections, growth rates, estimated cost savings, cash flows, discount rates, estimated useful lives and probabilities surrounding the achievement of contingent milestones could result in different purchase price allocations and amortization expense in current and future periods.
In circumstances where an acquisition involves a contingent consideration arrangement that meets the definition of a liability under ASC Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, we recognize a liability equal to the fair value of the contingent payments we expect to make as of the acquisition date. We remeasure this liability each reporting period and record changes in the fair value as a component of operating expenses.
Transaction costs associated with acquisitions are expensed as incurred in general and administrative expenses. Results of operations and cash flows of acquired companies are included in our operating results from the date of acquisition.
Amortizable intangible assets include trade names, non-compete agreements, developed technology and customer relationships acquired as part of business combinations. Customer relationships are amortized on an accelerated basis, utilizing free cash flows, over periods ranging from five to 11 years. All other intangible assets subject to amortization are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives ranging from two to 15 years. All intangible assets subject to amortization are reviewed for impairment in accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment.
In accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (“ASC 350”), our goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment on an annual basis or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. Under ASC 350, we perform annual impairment reviews of our goodwill balance during the fourth fiscal quarter or more frequently if business factors indicate. In testing for impairment, we compare the fair value of our reporting unit to its carrying value including the goodwill of that unit. If the carrying value, including goodwill, exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, we will recognize an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The loss recognized cannot exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. We did not incur any goodwill impairment losses in any of the periods presented.
In-process research and development
Intangible assets related to in-process research and development costs (“IPR&D”) are considered to be indefinite-lived until the completion or abandonment of the associated research and development efforts. If and when development is complete, the associated assets would be deemed finite-lived and would then be amortized based on their respective estimated useful lives at that point in time. During this period, the assets will not be amortized but will be tested for impairment on an annual basis and between annual tests if we become aware of any events occurring or changes in circumstances that would indicate a reduction in the fair value of the IPR&D projects below their respective carrying amounts.
During the fourth quarter and if business factors indicate more frequently, we perform an assessment of the qualitative factors affecting the fair value of our IPR&D projects. If the fair value exceeds the carrying value, there is no impairment. Impairment losses on indefinite-lived intangible assets are recognized based solely on a comparison of the fair value of an asset to its carrying value, without consideration of any recoverability test. We have not identified any such impairment losses to date.
Under ASC 842, Leases, we determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease assets and operating lease obligations in our consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in other assets and finance lease obligations in our consolidated balance sheets.
Lease assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. We generally use our incremental borrowing rate based on the estimated rate of interest for collateralized borrowing over a similar term of the lease payments. The operating lease asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease which are recognized when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease terms, or in some cases, the useful life of the underlying asset.
Property and equipment, net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is computed using the straight‑line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally between three and seven years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight‑line method over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the term of the lease. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred, and improvements and betterments are capitalized. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the balance sheet and any resulting gain or loss is reflected in the statements of operations in the period realized.
The estimated useful lives of property and equipment are as follows:
Furniture and fixtures
Shorter of lease term or estimated useful life
We review long‑lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when the total estimated future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition are less than its carrying amount. Impairment, if any, is assessed using discounted cash flows or other appropriate measures of fair value. There were no long-lived asset impairment losses recorded for any period presented.
Fair value of financial instruments
Our financial instruments consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, finance leases, debt and convertible senior notes. The carrying amounts of certain of these financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued and other current liabilities approximate their current fair value due to the relatively short-term nature of these accounts. Based on borrowing rates available to us, the carrying value of finance leases approximate their fair values.
We recognize revenue when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. All revenues are generated from contracts with customers. We utilize the following practical expedients and exemptions:
Certain information about remaining performance obligations is not disclosed because the underlying contracts have an original expected duration of one year or less,
Costs to obtain or fulfill a contract are expensed when incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less, and
No adjustments to promised consideration were made for financing as we expect, at contract inception, that the period between the transfer of a promised good or service and when the customer pays for that good or service will be one year or less.
The majority of our revenue is generated from genetic testing services that provide analysis and associated interpretation of the sequencing of parts of the genome. Test orders are placed under signed requisitions, and we often enter into contracts with institutions (e.g., hospitals, clinics, partners) and insurance companies that include pricing provisions under which such tests are billed. Billing terms are generally net thirty to sixty days.
While the transaction price of diagnostic tests is originally established either via contract or pursuant to our standard list price, we often provide concessions for tests billed to insurance carriers, and therefore the transaction price for patient insurance-billed tests is considered to be variable and revenue is recognized based on an estimate of the consideration to which we will be entitled at an amount for which it is probable that a reversal of cumulative consideration will not occur. Making these estimates requires significant judgments based upon such factors as length of payer relationship, historical payment patterns, changes in contract provisions and insurance reimbursement policies. These judgments are reviewed quarterly and updated as necessary.
In connection with some diagnostic test orders, we offer limited re-requisition rights (“Re-Requisition Rights”) that are considered distinct at contract inception, and therefore certain diagnostic test orders contain two performance obligations, the performance of the original test and the Re-Requisition Rights. When Re-Requisition Rights are granted, we allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative estimated standalone selling prices. In order to comply with loss contract rules, the allocations are adjusted, if necessary, to ensure the amount deferred for Re-Requisition Rights is no less than the estimated cost of fulfilling our related obligations.
We look to transfer of control in assessing timing of recognition of revenue in connection with each performance obligation. In general, revenue in connection with diagnostic tests is recognized upon delivery of the underlying clinical report or when the report is made available on our web portal. Outstanding performance obligations pertaining to orders received but for which the underlying report has not been issued are generally satisfied within a thirty-day period. Revenue in connection with Re-Requisition Rights is recognized as the rights are exercised or expire unexercised, which is generally within ninety days of initial deferral.
We also enter into collaboration and genome network contracts. Collaboration agreements provide customers with diagnostic testing and related data aggregation reporting services that are provided over the contract term. Collaboration revenue is recognized as the testing and reporting services are delivered to the customer. Genome network offerings consist of subscription services related to a proprietary software platform designed to connect patients, clinicians, advocacy organizations, researchers and therapeutic developers to accelerate the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of hereditary disease. Such services are recognized on a straight-line basis over the subscription periods.
Amounts due under collaboration and genome network agreements are typically billable on net thirty-day terms.
Cost of revenue
Cost of revenue reflects the aggregate costs incurred in delivering the genetic testing results to clinicians and patients and includes expenses for personnel-related costs including stock-based compensation, materials and supplies, equipment and infrastructure expenses associated with testing and allocated overhead including rent, equipment depreciation, amortization of acquired intangibles and utilities.
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial reporting and the tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. Significant judgment is required in determining the net valuation allowance which includes our evaluation of all available evidence including past operating results, estimates on future taxable income and acquisition-related tax assets and liabilities. As of December 31, 2019, we recorded a full valuation allowance on our net deferred tax assets because we expect that it is more likely than not that our deferred tax assets will not be realized in the foreseeable future.
We measure stock-based payment awards made to employees and directors based on the estimated fair values of the awards and recognize the compensation expense over the requisite service period. We use the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock option awards and employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”) purchases. The fair value of restricted stock unit (“RSU”) awards with time-based vesting terms is based on the grant date share price. We grant performance-based restricted stock unit (“PRSU”) awards to certain employees which vest upon the achievement of certain performance conditions, subject to the employees’ continued service relationship with us. The probability of vesting is assessed at each reporting period and compensation cost is adjusted based on this probability assessment. We recognize such compensation expense on an accelerated vesting method.
Stock-based compensation expense for awards without a performance condition is recognized using the straight-line method. Stock-based compensation expense is based on the value of the portion of stock-based payment awards that is ultimately expected to vest. As such, our stock-based compensation is reduced for estimated forfeitures at the date of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.
We account for stock issued in connection with business combinations based on the fair value of our common stock on the date of issuance.
Advertising expenses are expensed as incurred. We incurred advertising expenses of $9.9 million, $0.6 million and $0.6 million during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Comprehensive loss is composed of two components: net loss and other comprehensive income (loss). Other comprehensive income (loss) refers to gains and losses that under U.S. GAAP are recorded as an element of stockholders’ equity, but are excluded from net loss. Our other comprehensive income (loss) consists of unrealized gains or losses on investments in available-for-sale securities.
Net loss per share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration of common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common share equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury stock method. Potentially dilutive securities, consisting of preferred stock, options to purchase common stock, common stock warrants, shares of common stock pursuant to ESPP, common stock issuable in connection with our Convertible Senior Notes, RSUs and PRSUs, are considered to be common stock equivalents and were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would be antidilutive for all periods presented.
Prior period reclassifications
We have reclassified certain amounts in prior periods to conform with current presentation.
Recent accounting pronouncements
We evaluate all Accounting Standards Updates (“ASUs”) issued by the FASB for consideration of their applicability. ASUs not included in the disclosures in this report were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
In June 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), which requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets. This guidance will become effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2020 and must be adopted using a modified retrospective approach, with certain exceptions. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this standard on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which simplifies the accounting for income taxes, eliminates certain exceptions within ASC 740, Income Taxes, and clarifies certain aspects of the current guidance to promote consistency among reporting entities. ASU 2019-12 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020 with early adoption permitted. We have early adopted this ASU effective for the year ended December 31, 2019.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), and in July 2018 issued ASU 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases, and ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements (the foregoing ASUs collectively referred to as “Topic 842”). Under this guidance, lessees are required to recognize a lease liability and a right-of-use asset for all leases at the commencement date and also make expanded disclosures about leasing arrangements.
On January 1, 2019, we adopted Topic 842 using the modified retrospective approach in accordance with Topic 842. Adoption of Topic 842 had a material impact on our consolidated balance sheets, but did not have an impact on our consolidated statements of operations. We elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance which, among other things, allowed us to carry forward the historical classification of leases in place as of January 1, 2019.
The effect of the adoption of Topic 842 on our consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019 was as follows (in thousands):
December 31, 2018
Adjustments Due to the Adoption of Topic 842
January 1, 2019
Property and equipment, net
Operating lease assets
Operating lease obligations
Operating lease obligations, net of current portion
Other long-term liabilities
The adjustments due to the adoption of Topic 842 primarily relate to the recognition of operating and finance lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities. Finance lease assets are recorded within other assets on our consolidated balance sheet and were $5.2 million as of implementation of Topic 842 on January 1, 2019 and $5.6 million as of December 31, 2019.
Under Topic 842, we determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception primarily based on the determination of the party responsible for directing the use of an underlying asset within a contract. Operating leases are included in operating lease assets and operating lease obligations in our consolidated balance sheets. Lease assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. In determining the present value of lease payments, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the lease commencement date which includes significant assumptions made by us including our estimated credit rating. Operating lease right-of-use assets also include any lease payments made prior to the lease commencement date and exclude any lease incentives paid or payable at the lease commencement date. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise any such options. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the expected lease term, or in some cases, the useful life of the underlying asset.
As allowed under Topic 842, we elected to not apply the recognition requirements of Topic 842 to short-term leases, that is, leases with terms of 12 months or less which do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that we are reasonably certain to exercise. For short-term leases, we recognize lease payments as operating expenses on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
As a result of our election of the package of practical expedients permitted under the Topic 842 transition guidance, for assets related to facilities leases we elected to account for lease and non-lease components, such as common area maintenance charges, as a single lease component.
We did not identify any material embedded leases with the adoption of Topic 842 and therefore the implementation of Topic 842 primarily focused on the treatment of our previously identified leases.
Prior period amounts were not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting under previous lease guidance, ASC 840: Leases. Under ASC 840, we rented facilities under operating lease agreements and recognized related rent expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the applicable lease agreement. Some of the lease agreements contained rent holidays, scheduled rent increases, lease incentives, and renewal options. Rent holidays and scheduled rent increases were included in the determination of rent expense recorded over the lease term. Lease incentives were recognized as a reduction of rent expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Renewals were not assumed in the determination of the lease term unless they were deemed to be reasonably assured at the inception of the lease. We recognized rent expense beginning on the date we obtained the legal right to use and control the leased space.
On January 1, 2018, we adopted the provisions of ASC Topic 606 using the modified retrospective method. From adoption to date, we have recognized all our revenue from contracts with customers within the scope of Topic 606. In connection with the adoption, we recognized the cumulative effect of initially applying this standard as an adjustment to retained earnings on the date of adoption. Comparative information prior to the date of adoption has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods.
Under ASC 605, test revenue was recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement existed; delivery had occurred or services had been rendered; the fee was fixed or determinable; and collectability was reasonably assured. The criterion for whether the fee was fixed or determinable and whether collectability was reasonably assured were based on management’s judgments. When evaluating collectability, in situations where contracted reimbursement coverage did not exist, we considered whether we had sufficient history to reliably estimate a payer’s individual payment patterns. For most customers, we had not been able to demonstrate a predictable pattern of collectability, and therefore recognized revenue when payment was received. For customers who had demonstrated a consistent pattern of payment of tests billed at appropriate amounts, we recognized revenue at estimated realizable amounts upon delivery of test results.