|Summary of significant accounting policies
Principles of consolidation
Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include our accounts and the accounts of our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. We base these estimates on historical and anticipated results, trends and various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, including assumptions as to future events. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates and assumptions.
Significant estimates and assumptions made by management include the determination of:
revenue recognition (See Note 3, “Revenue, accounts receivable and deferred revenue” for further information);
the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed for business combinations;
the fair value of goodwill and intangible assets;
valuation of the liability and equity components of our convertible notes issued in September 2019 ("Convertible Senior Notes");
the recoverability of long-lived assets;
our incremental borrowing rates used to calculate our lease obligations;
stock-based compensation expense and the fair value of awards issued; and
income tax uncertainties.
Concentrations of credit risk and other risks and uncertainties
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to a concentration of credit risk consist of cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities and accounts receivable. Our cash and cash equivalents are held by financial institutions in the United States. Such deposits may exceed federally insured limits.
Significant customers are those that represent 10% or more of our total revenue presented on the consolidated statements of operations. Our revenue for significant customers as a percentage of our total revenue were as follows:
Three Months Ended September 30,
Nine Months Ended September 30,
* Balance represents less than 10% of total revenue
Accounts receivable for customers that represent 10% or more of our total accounts receivable presented on the consolidated balance sheets were as follows:
September 30, 2019
December 31, 2018
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
We consider all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist primarily of amounts invested in money market funds.
Restricted cash consists primarily of money market funds held in irrevocable standby letters of credit that serve as collateral for security deposits for our facility leases.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the statements of cash flows (in thousands):
Cash and cash equivalents
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
We receive payment for our tests from partners, patients, institutional customers and third-party payers. See Note 3, “Revenue, accounts receivable and deferred revenue” for further information.
We maintain test reagents and other consumables primarily used in sample collection kits which are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using actual costs on a first-in, first-out basis. Our inventory was $6.0 million and $8.3 million as of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively, and was recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets on our consolidated balance sheets.
The tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recorded based on their estimated fair values as of the business combination date, including identifiable intangible assets which either arise from a contractual or legal right or are separable from goodwill. We base the estimated fair value of identifiable intangible assets acquired in a business combination on independent valuations that use information and assumptions provided by our management, which consider our estimates of inputs and assumptions that a market participant would use. Any excess purchase price over the estimated fair value assigned to the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recorded to goodwill. The use of alternative valuation assumptions, including estimated revenue projections, growth rates, cash flows, discount rates, estimated useful lives and probabilities surrounding the achievement of contingent milestones could result in different purchase price allocations and amortization expense in current and future periods.
In circumstances where an acquisition involves a contingent consideration arrangement that meets the definition of a liability under Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, we recognize a liability equal to the fair value of the contingent payments we expect to make as of the acquisition date. We remeasure this liability each reporting period and record changes in the fair value as a component of operating expenses.
Transaction costs associated with acquisitions are expensed as incurred in general and administrative expenses. Results of operations and cash flows of acquired companies are included in our operating results from the date of acquisition.
In accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (“ASC 350”), our goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment on an annual basis or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. Under ASC 350, we perform annual impairment reviews of our goodwill balance during the fourth fiscal quarter. In testing for impairment, we compare the fair value of our consolidated single reporting unit to its carrying value including the goodwill of that unit. If the carrying value, including goodwill, exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, we will recognize an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The loss recognized cannot exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit.
We have not incurred any goodwill impairment losses in any of the periods presented.
Indefinite-lived intangible assets
ASC 350 requires companies to test indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually, and more frequently if indicators of impairment exist. ASC 350 includes an optional qualitative assessment for testing indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment that permits companies to assess whether it is more likely than not (i.e., a likelihood of greater than 50%) that an indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. If a company concludes based on the qualitative assessment that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset or, in the case of goodwill, that the fair value of the related reporting unit, is less than carrying value, it would not have to determine the asset’s or reporting unit’s fair value, as applicable.
In-process research and development
Intangible assets related to in-process research and development costs (“IPR&D”) are considered to be indefinite-lived until the completion or abandonment of the associated research and development efforts. If and when development is complete, the associated assets would be deemed finite-lived and would then be amortized based on their respective estimated useful lives at that point in time. Prior to completion of the research and development efforts, the assets are considered indefinite-lived. During this period, the assets will not be amortized but will be tested for impairment on an annual basis and between annual tests if we become aware of any events occurring or changes in circumstances that would indicate a reduction in the fair value of the IPR&D projects below their respective carrying amounts.
During the fourth quarter and if business factors indicate more frequently, we perform an assessment of the qualitative factors affecting the fair value of our IPR&D. Impairment losses on indefinite-lived intangible assets are recognized based solely on a comparison of the fair value of an asset to its carrying value, without consideration of any recoverability test. We have not identified any such impairment losses to date.
Fair value of financial instruments
Our financial instruments consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, finance leases and contingent consideration. The carrying amounts of certain of these financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued and other current liabilities approximate their current fair value due to the relatively short-term nature of these accounts. Based on borrowing rates available to us, the carrying value of our finance leases and Convertible Senior Notes approximate their fair values.
We recognize revenue when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. All revenues are generated from contracts with customers.
Test revenue is generated primarily from the sale of tests that provide analysis and associated interpretation of the sequencing of parts of the genome.
Other revenue consists primarily of revenue from genome network subscription services which is recognized on a straight-line basis over the subscription term, and revenue from collaboration agreements.
Cost of revenue
Cost of revenue reflects the aggregate costs incurred in delivering the genetic testing results to clinicians and patients and includes expenses for personnel-related costs including stock-based compensation, materials and supplies, equipment and infrastructure expenses associated with testing and allocated overhead including rent, equipment depreciation, amortization of acquired intangibles and utilities.
We measure stock-based payment awards made to employees and directors based on the estimated fair values of the awards and recognize the compensation expense over the requisite service period. We use the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock option awards and employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”) purchases. The fair value of restricted stock unit (“RSU”) awards with time-based vesting terms is based on the grant date share price. We grant performance-based restricted stock unit (“PRSU”) awards to certain employees which vest upon the achievement of certain performance conditions, subject to the employees’ continued service relationship with us. The probability of vesting is assessed at each reporting period and compensation cost is adjusted based on this probability assessment. We recognize such compensation expense on an accelerated vesting method.
Stock-based compensation expense for awards without a performance condition is recognized using the straight-line method. Stock-based compensation expense is based on the value of the portion of stock-based payment awards that is ultimately expected to vest. As such, our stock-based compensation is reduced for estimated forfeitures at the date of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.
We account for stock issued in connection with business combinations based on the fair value of our common stock on the date of issuance.
Net loss per share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration of common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common share equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury stock method. Potentially dilutive securities, consisting of convertible preferred stock, options to purchase common stock, common stock warrants, Convertible Senior Notes, RSUs and PRSUs, are considered to be common stock equivalents and were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would be antidilutive for all periods presented.
Prior period reclassifications
Statement of cash flow amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with current period presentation, which includes $0.6 million of remeasurement of liabilities associated with business combinations in other adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash used in operating activities during the nine months ended September 30, 2018.
Recent accounting pronouncements
We evaluate all Accounting Standards Updates (“ASUs”) issued by the FASB for consideration of their applicability. ASUs not included in the disclosures in this report were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
In June 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), which requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets. This guidance will become effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2020 and must be adopted using a modified retrospective approach, with certain exceptions. We are currently evaluating the effect that adoption of this ASU will have on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements – Leases
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) and in July 2018 issued ASU 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases,l and ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements (the foregoing ASUs collectively referred to as “Topic 842”). Under this guidance, lessees are required to recognize a lease liability and a right-of-use asset for all leases at the commencement date and also make expanded disclosures about leasing arrangements.
On January 1, 2019, we adopted Topic 842 using the modified retrospective approach in accordance with Topic 842. Adoption of Topic 842 had a material impact on our consolidated balance sheets, but did not have an impact on our consolidated statements of operations. Prior period amounts were not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting under previous lease guidance, ASC 840: Leases. We elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance which, among other things, allowed us to carry forward the historical classification of leases in place as of January 1, 2019.
The effect of the adoption of Topic 842 on our consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019 was as follows (in thousands):
December 31, 2018
Adjustments Due to the Adoption of Topic 842
January 1, 2019
Property and equipment, net
Operating lease assets
Operating lease obligations
Operating lease obligations, net of current portion
Other long-term liabilities
The adjustments due to the adoption of Topic 842 primarily relate to the recognition of operating and finance lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities. Finance lease assets are recorded within other assets on our consolidated balance sheet and were $5.2 million as of implementation of Topic 842 on January 1, 2019 and $4.0 million as of September 30, 2019.
Under Topic 842, we determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception primarily based on the determination of the party responsible for directing the use of an underlying asset within a contract. Operating leases are included in operating lease assets and operating lease obligations in our consolidated balance sheets. Lease assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. In determining the present value of lease payments, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information
available at the lease commencement date which includes significant assumptions made by us including our estimated credit rating. Operating lease right-of-use assets also include any lease payments made prior to the lease commencement date and exclude any lease incentives paid or payable at the lease commencement date. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise any such options. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the expected lease term.
As allowed under Topic 842, we elected to not apply the recognition requirements of Topic 842 to short-term leases, that is, leases with terms of 12 months or less which do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that we are reasonably certain to exercise. For short-term leases, we recognize lease payments as operating expenses on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
As a result of our election of the package of practical expedients permitted under the Topic 842 transition guidance, for assets related to facilities leases we elected to account for lease and non-lease components, such as common area maintenance charges, as a single lease component.We did not identify any material embedded leases with the adoption of Topic 842 and therefore the implementation of Topic 842 primarily focused on the treatment of our previously identified leases.