|Summary of significant accounting policies
||Summary of business and significant accounting policies
GoPro, Inc. and its subsidiaries (GoPro or the Company) helps its consumers capture and share their experiences in immersive and exciting ways. The Company is committed to developing solutions that create an easy, seamless experience for consumers to capture, create and share engaging personal content. To date, the Company’s cameras, mountable and wearable accessories, and subscription services have generated substantially all of its revenue. The Company sells its products globally through retailers, distributors and on gopro.com. The Company’s global corporate headquarters are located in San Mateo, California.
Basis of presentation. The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The Company’s fiscal year ends on December 31, and its fiscal quarters end on March 31, June 30 and September 30.
Principles of consolidation. These consolidated financial statements include all the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant estimates and assumptions made by management include those related to revenue recognition (including sales incentives, sales returns and implied post contract support), stock-based compensation, inventory valuation, product warranty liabilities, the valuation and useful lives of long-lived assets (property and equipment, operating leases, intangible assets and goodwill) and income taxes. The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ materially from management’s estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, future results of operations could be affected.
Comprehensive income (loss). For all periods presented, comprehensive income (loss) approximated net income (loss). Therefore, the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) have been omitted.
Prior period reclassifications. Reclassifications of certain prior period amounts in the consolidated financial statements, including a refinement in methodology for revenue by geography, have been made to conform to the current period presentation.
Cash equivalents and marketable securities. Cash equivalents primarily consist of investments in money market funds with maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase. Marketable securities consist of commercial paper, U.S. treasury securities and corporate debt securities, and are classified as available-for-sale securities. The Company views these securities as available to support current operations and has classified all available-for-sale securities as current assets. Available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses, if any, included in stockholders’ equity. Unrealized losses are charged against other income, net, for declines in fair value below the cost of an individual investment that is deemed to be other than temporary. The Company has not identified any marketable securities as other-than-temporarily impaired for the periods presented. The cost of securities sold is based upon a specific identification method.
Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts. Accounts receivable are stated at invoice value less estimated allowances for doubtful accounts. Allowances are recorded based on the Company’s assessment of various factors, such as: historical experience, credit quality of its customers, age of the accounts receivable balances, geographic related risks, economic conditions and other factors that may affect a customer’s ability to pay. The allowance for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 was $0.8 million and $0.5 million, respectively.
Inventory. Inventory consists of finished goods and component parts, which are purchased directly from contract manufacturers or from suppliers. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company writes down its inventory for estimated obsolescence or excess inventory equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and estimated market value plus the estimated cost to sell. The
Company’s assessment of market value is based upon assumptions around market conditions and estimated future demand for its products within a specified time horizon, generally 12 months. Adjustments to reduce inventory to net realizable value are recognized in cost of revenue.
Point of purchase (POP) displays. The Company provides retailers with POP displays, generally free of charge, in order to facilitate the marketing of the Company’s products within retail stores. The POP displays contain a display that broadcasts video images taken by GoPro cameras along with product placement available for cameras and accessories. POP display costs are capitalized as long-term assets and charged to sales and marketing expense over the expected period of benefit, which generally ranges from 24 to 36 months. Cash outflows and amortization related to POP displays are classified as operating activities in the consolidated statement of cash flows. Amortization was $7.5 million, $13.5 million and $19.2 million in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Property and equipment, net. Property and equipment are stated at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the assets, ranging from one to nine years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease term or their expected useful life. Property and equipment pending installation, configuration or qualification are classified as construction in progress. Costs of maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the lives of the respective assets are expensed as incurred.
Fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the reporting date. The Company estimates and categorizes the fair value of its financial assets by applying the following hierarchy:
Valuations based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to directly access.
Valuations based on quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; valuations for interest-bearing securities based on non-daily quoted prices in active markets; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Valuations based on inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The fair value of Level 2 financial instruments is obtained from an independent pricing service, which may use quoted market prices for identical or comparable instruments or model driven valuations using observable market data or inputs corroborated by observable market data.
Leases. The Company leases its office space and facilities under cancelable and non-cancelable operating leases. Beginning January 1, 2019, operating leases are presented as operating lease right-of-use (ROU) assets, short-term operating lease liabilities and long-term operating lease liabilities on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. ROU assets represent the Company’s right to control the use of an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease.
Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of future lease payments. The Company determines its incremental borrowing rate based on the approximate rate at which the Company would borrow, on a secured basis, to calculate the present value of future lease payments. Lease expenses are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Certain leases include an option to renew with terms that can extend the lease term from one to five years. The exercise of a lease renewal option is at the Company’s sole discretion and is included in the lease term when the Company is reasonably certain it will exercise the option.
Prior to January 1, 2019, the Company recognized leases under ASC 840, Leases, which had the following differences from the current lease standard, ASC 842, Leases:
Operating leases were previously not recorded on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.
The Company calculated a liability for future costs to be incurred under a lease for its remaining term without economic benefit to the Company upon determination of a cease-use date. The fair value of the liability was determined based on remaining lease payments, estimated sublease income and the effects of any prepaid or deferred items recognized under the lease.
Goodwill and other intangible assets. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired in a business combination. Acquired intangible assets other than goodwill are amortized over their useful lives unless the lives are determined to be indefinite. For intangible assets acquired in a business combination, the estimated fair values of the assets received are used to establish their recorded values. Valuation approaches consistent with the market approach, income approach and/or cost approach are used to measure fair value.
Impairment of goodwill and long-lived assets. The Company performs an annual assessment of its goodwill during the fourth quarter of each calendar year or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist, such as an adverse change in business climate or a decline in the overall industry demand, that would indicate it is more likely than not that the fair value of its single reporting unit is less than its carrying value. There was no impairment of goodwill recorded for any periods presented. For the Company’s annual impairment testing in 2019, the Company did not identify any indicators of potential impairment of its single reporting unit. Other indefinite-lived intangible assets are assessed for impairment at least annually. If their carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value, the difference is recorded as an impairment.
Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment and intangible assets subject to amortization, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset group may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by comparing the carrying amount to the estimated future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset group. If it is determined that an asset group is not recoverable, an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds its fair value. There were no material impairments of long-lived assets for any period presented.
Warranty. The Company records a liability for estimated product warranty costs at the time product revenue is recognized. The Company’s standard warranty obligation to its end-users generally provides a 12-month warranty coverage on all of its products except in the European Union where the Company provides a 2-year warranty. The Company also offers extended warranty programs for a fee. The Company’s estimate of costs to service its warranty obligations is based on its historical experience of repair and replacement of the associated products and expectations of future conditions. The warranty obligation is affected by product failure rates and the related use of materials, labor costs and freight incurred in correcting any product failure.
Revenue recognition. The Company derives substantially all of its revenue from the sale of cameras, mounts and accessories, the related implied post contract support to customers, and subscription services. The Company recognizes revenue when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The transaction price the Company expects to be entitled to is primarily comprised of product revenue, net of returns and variable consideration, including sales incentives provided to customers. For most of the Company’s revenue, revenue is recognized at the time products are delivered and when collection is considered probable. For the Company’s subscription services, revenue is recognized on a ratable basis over the subscription term, with payments received in advance of services being rendered recorded in deferred revenue. For customers who purchase products directly from gopro.com, the Company retains a portion of the risk of loss on these sales during transit, which are accounted for as fulfillment costs. The Company provides sales commissions to internal and external sales representatives which are earned in the period in which revenue is recognized. As a result, the Company expenses such costs as incurred under Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-19 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which was adopted on January 1, 2018. Upon adoption, the Company’s accumulated deficit increased by $2.9 million, of which, $4.9 million related to certain estimated sales incentives which would have been recognized at the time product was shipped in the prior period, partially offset by $2.0 million related to sales from gopro.com that had been shipped but not delivered as of December 31, 2017.
The Company's standard terms and conditions of sale for non-web based sales do not allow for product returns other than under warranty. However, the Company grants limited rights of return, primarily to certain large
retailers. The Company reduces revenue and cost of sales for the estimated returns based on analyses of historical return trends by customer class and other factors. An estimated return liability along with a right to recover assets are recorded for future product returns. Return trends are influenced by product life cycles, new product introductions, market acceptance of products, product sell-through, the type of customer, seasonality and other factors. Return rates may fluctuate over time but are sufficiently predictable to allow the Company to estimate expected future product returns.
The Company’s camera sales contain multiple performance obligations that generally include the following three separate obligations: a) a hardware component (camera) and the embedded firmware essential to the functionality of the hardware component delivered at the time of sale, b) the implicit right to the Company's downloadable free apps and software solutions, and c) the implied right for the customer to receive support after the initial sale (post contract support or PCS). The Company’s PCS includes the right to receive on a when and if available basis, future unspecified firmware upgrades and features as well as bug fixes, and email and telephone support. The Company allocates a portion of the transaction price to the PCS performance obligation based on a cost-plus methodology. The transaction price is allocated to the remaining performance obligations on a residual value methodology. The Company’s process to allocate the transaction price considers multiple factors that may vary over time depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each deliverable, including: the level of support provided to customers, estimated costs to provide the Company’s support, the amount of time and cost that is allocated to the Company’s efforts to develop the undelivered elements and market trends in the pricing for similar offerings.
The transaction prices allocated to the delivered hardware, related embedded firmware and free software solutions are recognized as revenue at the time of sale, provided the conditions for recognition of revenue have been met. The transaction price allocated to PCS is deferred and recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the estimated term of the support period, which is estimated to be 15 months based on historical experience. Deferred revenue as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 also included immaterial amounts related to the Company’s GoPro Care and GoPro Plus fee-based service offerings. The Company’s short-term and long-term deferred revenue balances totaled $16.6 million and $16.1 million as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and the Company recognized $15.0 million and $17.3 million of related revenue during the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Prior to January 1, 2018, the Company recognized revenue under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 605, Revenue Recognition. ASC 605 is materially similar to ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, with the following differences:
The Company recognized revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement existed, delivery had occurred, the sales price was fixed and determinable and collectability was reasonably assured.
The Company allocated the transaction price based on its best estimate of the selling price (BESP). The Company’s process for determining BESP was materially the same as its’ current allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligations.
Sales incentives were recorded as a reduction to revenue in the period the incentives were offered to customers ore the related revenue was recognized, whichever was later.
Additionally, the Company allocated the transaction price based on its best estimate of the selling price (BESP). The Company’s process for determining BESP was materially the same as its’ current allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation. Lastly, sales incentives were recorded as a reduction to revenue in the period the incentives were offered to customers or the related revenue was recognized, whichever was later.
Sales incentives. The Company offers sales incentives through various programs, including cooperative advertising, price protection, marketing development funds and other incentives. Sales incentives are considered to be variable consideration, which the Company estimates and records as a reduction to revenue at the date of sale. The Company estimates sales incentives based on historical experience, product sell-through and other factors.
Shipping costs. Amounts billed to customers for shipping and handling are classified as revenue, and the Company’s related shipping and handling costs incurred are classified as cost of revenue.
Sales taxes. Sales taxes collected from customers and remitted to respective governmental authorities are recorded as liabilities and are not included in revenue.
Advertising costs. Advertising costs consist of costs associated with print, television and e-commerce media advertisements and are expensed as incurred. The Company incurs promotional expenses resulting from payments under event, resort and athlete sponsorship contracts. These sponsorship arrangements are considered to be executory contracts and, as such, the costs are expensed as performance under the contract is received. The costs associated with the preparation of sponsorship activities, including the supply of GoPro products, media team support, and activation fees are expensed as incurred. Prepayments made under sponsorship agreements are included in prepaid expenses or other long-term assets depending on the period to which the prepayment applies. Advertising costs were $67.3 million, $73.0 million and $61.3 million in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Stock-based compensation. Stock-based awards granted to qualified employees, non-employee directors and consultants are measured at fair value and recognized as an expense. The Company primarily issues restricted stock units and accounts for forfeitures as they occur. For service-based awards, stock-based compensation is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. For performance and market-based awards which also require a service period, the Company uses graded vesting over the longer of the derived service period or when the performance or market condition is satisfied.
Foreign currency. The U.S. dollar is the functional currency of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries. The Company remeasures monetary assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar using exchange rates prevailing on the balance sheet date, and non-monetary assets and liabilities at historical rates. Foreign currency remeasurement and transaction gains and losses are included in other income, net and have not been material for any periods presented.
Income taxes. The Company utilizes the asset and liability method for computing its income tax provision, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates. Management makes estimates, assumptions and judgments to determine the Company’s provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets. The Company assesses the likelihood that its deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income and, to the extent the Company believes recovery is not likely, establishes a valuation allowance. On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2016-16 Income Taxes - Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory which required the Company to recognize the income tax consequence of intra-entity asset transfers when transfers occur. Upon adoption, the net impact to equity was an increase in the accumulated deficit of $15.0 million. Prior to January 1, 2018, the Company recognized the income tax consequence of intra-entity asset transfers when the asset was sold to an outside party or otherwise recovered through use.
The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are recognized within income tax expense.
Segment information. The Company operates as one operating segment as it only reports financial information on an aggregate and consolidated basis to its Chief Executive Officer, who is the Company’s chief operating decision maker.
Recent accounting standards
Company’s date of adoption
Effect on the consolidated financial statements or other significant matters
Standards that were adopted
2018-11, 2019-01, (ASC 842)
This standard replaces existing lease guidance for lessees and requires operating leases to be recognized on the balance sheet. Under the new standard, lessees recognize a lease liability for the present value of future lease payments and a corresponding right-to-use asset.
January 1, 2019
The new standard was applied using a modified retrospective approach. Prior periods were not retrospectively adjusted.
The Company completed its analysis of the impact of the standard by reviewing its lease agreements to identify changes resulting from applying the requirements of the new standard. The Company elected to utilize a package of practical expedients, which among other things, allowed the Company to maintain its existing classification of its current leases. The Company also elected the hindsight practical expedient to determine a reasonably certain lease term for existing leases. Additionally, the Company made a policy election to maintain its previous lease accounting for leases with an initial term of 12 months or less. Furthermore, the Company made the policy election to not separate non-lease components from lease components. The Company’s analysis of its lease agreements under the new standard resulted in the recognition of lease liabilities of $88.4 million and lease assets of $60.1 million on its consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019. The new standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated income statement and consolidated statement of cash flows.
The cumulative effect of the changes made to the Company’s consolidated January 1, 2019 balance sheet for the adoption of ASC 842, Leases were as follows:
December 31, 2018
Adjustment due to ASC 842
January 1, 2019
Operating lease right-of-use assets
Property and equipment, net (1)
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities (2)
Short-term operating lease liabilities
Long-term operating lease liabilities
Other long-term liabilities (2)
Represents the reclassification of leasehold acquisition costs to operating lease right-of-use assets.
Represents the reclassification of deferred rent, tenant incentives and accrued cease-use charges to operating lease right-of-use assets.
Expected date of adoption
Effect on the consolidated financial statements or other significant matters
Standards not yet adopted
Intangible - Goodwill and Other
ASU No. 2017-04 (Topic 350)
This standard simplifies the accounting for goodwill and removes Step 2 of the annual goodwill impairment test. Upon adoption, goodwill impairment will be determined based on the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017, and requires use of a prospective transition method.
January 1, 2020
The Company does not expect that the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments
ASU No. 2016-13
The standard changes the impairment model for most financial assets and replaces the existing incurred loss model with a current expected credit loss (CECL) model. The standard should be applied on a modified retrospective approach.
January 1, 2020
The Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts and valuation of available-for-sale securities are subject to this standard. The Company has finalized its analysis of adopting this standard and concluded the standard will not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Although there are several other new accounting standards issued or proposed by the FASB, which the Company has adopted or will adopt, as applicable, the Company does not believe any of these accounting pronouncements has had or will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.