|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
NOTE 2—SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation—The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Walker & Dunlop, Inc., its wholly owned subsidiaries, and its majority owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The Company consolidates entities in which it has a controlling financial interest based on either the variable interest entity (“VIE”) or voting interest model. The Company is required to first apply the VIE model to determine whether it holds a variable interest in an entity, and if so, whether the entity is a VIE. If the Company determines it does not hold a variable interest in a VIE, it then applies the voting interest model. Under the voting interest model, the Company consolidates an entity when it holds a majority voting interest in an entity. If the Company does not have a majority voting interest but has significant influence, it uses the equity method of accounting. In instances where the Company owns less than 100% of the equity interests of an entity but owns a majority of the voting interests or has control over an entity, the Company accounts for the portion of equity not attributable to Walker & Dunlop, Inc. as Noncontrolling interests in the balance sheet and the portion of net income not attributable to Walker & Dunlop, Inc. as Net income from noncontrolling interests in the income statement.
Subsequent Events—The Company has evaluated the effects of all events that have occurred subsequent to December 31, 2019. There have been no material events that would require recognition in the consolidated financial statements. The Company has made certain disclosures in the notes to the consolidated financial statements of events that have occurred subsequent to December 31, 2019. No other material subsequent events have occurred that would require disclosure.
Use of Estimates—The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses, including guaranty obligations, allowance for risk-sharing obligations, capitalized mortgage servicing rights, derivative instruments, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results may vary from these estimates.
Transfers of Financial Assets— Transfers of financial assets are reported as sales when (a) the transferor surrenders control over those assets, (b) the transferred financial assets have been legally isolated from the Company’s creditors, (c) the transferred assets can be pledged or exchanged by the transferee, and (d) consideration other than beneficial interests in the transferred assets is received in exchange. The transferor is considered to have surrendered control over transferred assets if, and only if, certain conditions are met. The Company determined that all loans sold during the periods presented met these specific conditions and accounted for all transfers of loans held for sale as completed sales.
Derivative Assets and Liabilities—Certain loan commitments and forward sales commitments meet the definition of a derivative asset and are recorded at fair value in the Consolidated Balance Sheets upon the executions of the commitment to originate a loan with a borrower and to sell the loan to an investor, with a corresponding amount recognized as revenue in the Consolidated Statements of Income. The estimated fair value of loan commitments includes (i) the fair value of loan origination fees and premiums on anticipated sale of the loan, net of co-broker fees (included in Derivative assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and as a component of Loan origination and debt brokerage fees, net in the Consolidated Income Statements), (ii) the fair value of the expected net cash flows associated with the servicing of the loan, net of any estimated net future cash flows associated with the risk-sharing obligation (included in Derivative assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and in Fair value of expected net cash flows from servicing, net in the Consolidated Income Statements), and (iii) the effects of interest rate movements between the trade date and balance sheet date. The estimated fair value of forward sale commitments includes the effects of interest rate movements between the trade date and balance sheet date. Adjustments to the fair value are reflected as a component of income within Loan origination and debt brokerage fees, net in the Consolidated Statements of Income. The co-broker fees for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 were $20.6 million, $22.8 million and $19.3 million, respectively. The fair value of expected guaranty obligation recognized at commitment for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 were $16.3 million, $16.0 million and $13.8 million, respectively.
In 2019, the Company presents two components of its revenue as Loan origination and debt brokerage fees, net and Fair value of expected net cash flows from servicing, net. Previously, the Company presented these two lines as one line item called Gains from mortgage banking activities and disclosed the breakout of Gains from mortgage banking activities in a footnote to the consolidated financial statements. The footnote disclosure is no longer considered necessary as the breakout is provided on the face of the Consolidated Statements of Income. All prior periods have been adjusted to conform to the current-year presentation.
Mortgage Servicing Rights—When a loan is sold, the Company retains the right to service the loan and initially recognizes an individual originated mortgage servicing right (“OMSR”) for the loan sold at fair value. The initial capitalized amount is equal to the estimated fair value of the expected net cash flows associated with servicing the loans, net of the expected net cash flows associated with any guaranty obligations. The following describes the principal assumptions used in estimating the fair value of capitalized OMSRs:
Discount rate—Depending upon loan type, the discount rate used is management's best estimate of market discount rates. The rates used for loans sold were 10% to 15% for each of the periods presented and varied based on loan type.
Estimated Life—The estimated life of the OMSRs is derived based upon the stated term of the prepayment protection provisions of the underlying loan and may be reduced by 6 to 12 months based upon the expiration or reduction of the prepayment and/or lockout provisions prior to that stated maturity date. The Company’s model for OMSRs assumes no prepayment while the prepayment provisions have not expired and full prepayment of the loan at or near the point where the prepayment provisions have expired. The Company’s historical experience is that the prepayment provisions typically do not provide a significant deterrent to a borrower’s paying off the loan within 6 to 12 months of the expiration of the prepayment provisions.
Escrow Earnings—The estimated earnings rate on escrow accounts associated with the servicing of the loans for the life of the OMSR is added to the estimated future cash flows.
Servicing Cost—The estimated future cost to service the loan for the estimated life of the OMSR is subtracted from the estimated future cash flows.
The assumptions used to estimate the fair value of OMSRs at loan sale are based on internal models and are compared to assumptions used by other market participants periodically. When such comparisons indicate that these assumptions have changed significantly, the Company adjusts its assumptions accordingly.
Subsequent to the initial measurement date, OMSRs are amortized using the interest method over the period that servicing income is expected to be received and presented as a component of Amortization and depreciation in the Consolidated Statements of Income. The individual loan-level OMSR is written off through a charge to Amortization and depreciation when a loan prepays, defaults, or is probable of default. The Company evaluates all MSRs for impairment quarterly. The Company tests for impairment on purchased stand-alone servicing portfolios (“PMSRs”) separately from the Company’s OMSRs. OMSRs and PMSRs are tested for impairment at the portfolio level. The Company engages a third party to assist in determining an estimated fair value of our existing and outstanding MSRs on at least a semi-annual basis.
The fair value of PMSRs is equal to the purchase price paid. For PMSRs, the Company records a portfolio-level MSR asset and determines the estimated life of the portfolio based on the prepayment characteristics of the portfolio. The Company subsequently amortizes such PMSRs and tests for impairment quarterly as discussed in more detail above.
For PMSRs, a constant rate of prepayments and defaults is included in the determination of the portfolio’s estimated life (and thus included as a component of the portfolio’s amortization). Accordingly, prepayments and defaults of individual loans do not change the level of amortization expense recorded for the portfolio unless the pattern of actual prepayments and defaults varies significantly from the estimated pattern. When such a significant difference in the pattern of estimated and actual prepayments and defaults occurs, the Company prospectively adjusts the estimated life of the portfolio (and thus future amortization) to approximate the actual pattern observed. The Company has not made any adjustments to the estimated life of any PMSRs.
Guaranty Obligation and Allowance for Risk-sharing Obligations—When a loan is sold under the Fannie Mae Delegated Underwriting and ServicingTM (“DUS”) program, the Company undertakes an obligation to partially guarantee the performance of the loan. Upon loan sale, a liability for the fair value of the obligation undertaken in issuing the guaranty is recognized and presented as Guaranty obligation, net of accumulated amortization on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The recognized guaranty obligation is the greater of the fair value of the Company’s obligation to stand ready to perform over the term of the guaranty (the noncontingent guaranty) and the fair value of the Company’s obligation to make future payments should those triggering events or conditions occur (contingent guaranty).
Historically, the fair value of underlying multifamily collateral for the contingent guaranty at inception has been de minimis; therefore, the fair value of the noncontingent guaranty has been recognized. In determining the fair value of the guaranty obligation, the Company considers the risk profile of the collateral, historical loss experience, and various market indicators. Generally, the estimated fair value of the guaranty obligation is based on the present value of the cash flows expected to be paid under the guaranty over the estimated life of the loan discounted using a rate consistent with what is used for the calculation of the OMSR for each loan. The estimated life of the guaranty obligation is the estimated period over which the Company believes it will be required to stand ready under the guaranty. Subsequent to the initial
measurement date, the liability is amortized over the life of the guaranty period using the straight-line method as a component of and reduction to Amortization and depreciation in the Consolidated Statements of Income, unless, as discussed more fully below, the loan defaults, or management determines that the loan’s risk profile is such that amortization should cease.
The Company monitors the performance of each risk-sharing loan for events or conditions which may signal a potential default. The Company’s process for identifying which risk-sharing loans may be probable of loss consists of an assessment of several qualitative and quantitative factors including payment status, property financial performance, local real estate market conditions, loan-to-value ratio, debt-service-coverage ratio, and property condition. Historically, initial loss recognition occurs at or before a loan becomes 60 days delinquent. In instances where payment under the guaranty on a specific loan is determined to be probable and estimable (as the loan is probable of foreclosure or in foreclosure), the Company records a liability for the estimated allowance for risk-sharing (a “specific reserve”) through a charge to the provision for risk-sharing obligations, which is a component of Provision (benefit) for credit losses in the Consolidated Statements of Income, along with a write-off of the associated loan-specific OMSR.
The amount of the allowance considers the Company’s assessment of the likelihood of repayment by the borrower or key principal(s), the risk characteristics of the loan, the loan’s risk rating, historical loss experience, adverse situations affecting individual loans, the estimated disposition value of the underlying collateral, and the level of risk sharing. The estimate of property fair value at initial recognition of the allowance for risk-sharing obligations is based on appraisals, broker opinions of value, or net operating income and market capitalization rates, depending on the facts and circumstances associated with the loan. The Company regularly monitors the specific reserves on all applicable loans and updates loss estimates as current information is received. The settlement with Fannie Mae is based on the actual sales price of the property and selling and property preservation costs and considers the Fannie Mae loss-sharing requirements. The maximum amount of the loss the Company absorbs at the time of default is generally 20% of the origination unpaid principal balance of the loan.
In addition to the specific reserves discussed above, the Company also records an allowance for risk-sharing obligations related to risk-sharing loans on its watch list (“general reserves”). Such loans are not probable of foreclosure but are probable of loss as the characteristics of these loans indicate that it is probable that these loans include some losses even though the loss cannot be attributed to a specific loan. For all other risk-sharing loans not on the Company’s watch list, the Company continues to carry a guaranty obligation. The Company calculates the general reserves based on a migration analysis of the loans on its historical watch lists, adjusted for qualitative factors. When the Company places a risk-sharing loan on its watch list, the Company transfers the remaining unamortized balance of the guaranty obligation to the general reserves. The Company recognizes a provision for risk-sharing obligations to the extent the calculated general reserve exceeds the remaining unamortized guaranty obligation. If a risk-sharing loan is subsequently removed from the watch list due to improved financial performance or other factors, the Company transfers the unamortized balance of the guaranty obligation back to the guaranty obligation classification on the balance sheet and amortizes the remaining unamortized balance evenly over the remaining estimated life.
For each loan for which it has a risk-sharing obligation, the Company records one of the following liabilities associated with that loan as discussed above: guaranty obligation, general reserve, or specific reserve. Although the liability type may change over the life of the loan, at any particular point in time, only one such liability is associated with a loan for which the Company has a risk-sharing obligation. The total of the specific reserves and general reserves is presented as Allowance for risk-sharing obligations in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Loans Held for Investment, net—Loans held for investment are multifamily loans originated by the Company through the Interim Program for properties that currently do not qualify for permanent GSE or HUD (collectively, the “Agencies”) financing. These loans have terms of up to three years and are all interest-only, multifamily loans with similar risk characteristics and no geographic concentration. The loans are carried at their unpaid principal balances, adjusted for net unamortized loan fees and costs, and net of any allowance for loan losses. Interest income is accrued based on the actual coupon rate, adjusted for the level-yield amortization of net deferred fees and costs, and is recognized as revenue when earned and deemed collectible.
During the third quarter of 2018, the Company transferred a portfolio of participating interests in loans held for investment to a third party that is scheduled to mature in the third quarter of 2021. The Company accounted for the transfer as a secured borrowing. The aggregate unpaid principal balance of the loans of $78.3 million is presented as a component of Loans held for investment, net in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2019, and the secured borrowing of $70.5 million is included within Other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2019. The Company does not have credit risk related to the $70.5 million of loans that were transferred.
As of December 31, 2019, Loans held for investment, net consisted of 22 loans with an aggregate $546.6 million of unpaid principal balance less $2.0 million of net unamortized deferred fees and costs and $1.1 million of allowance for loan losses. As of December 31, 2018, Loans held for investment, net consisted of 14 loans with an aggregate $503.5 million of unpaid principal balance less $6.0 million of net unamortized deferred fees and costs and $0.2 million of allowance for loan losses. Included within the Loans held for investment, net balance as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 is a participation in a subordinated note with a large institutional investor in multifamily loans that was fully funded with corporate cash. The unpaid principal balance of the participation was $7.8 million as of December 31, 2019 and $150.0 million as of December 31, 2018.
The allowance for loan losses is the Company’s estimate of credit losses inherent in the loan portfolio at the balance sheet date. The allowance for loan losses is estimated collectively for loans with similar characteristics and for which there is no evidence of impairment. The collective allowance is based on recent historical loss probability and historical loss rates incurred in our risk-sharing portfolio, because the nature of the underlying collateral is the same adjusted as needed for current market conditions. The Company uses the loss experience from its risk-sharing portfolio as a proxy for losses incurred in its loans held for investment portfolio since (i) the Company has not experienced any charge offs related to its loans held for investment to date and (ii) the loans in the loans-held-for-investment portfolio have similar characteristics to loans held in the risk-sharing portfolio.
One for investment with an unpaid principal balance of $14.7 million was delinquent, , and on status as of December 31, 2019. The Company expects to complete a restructuring of the loan later in 2020. In connection with the restructuring, the Company expects to lose an immaterial amount of default interest under the terms of the loan. None of the for investment was , , or on status as of December 31, 2018. Prior to 2019, the Company had not experienced any delinquencies related to loans held for investment. The Company has never charged off any loan held for investment. The allowance for loan losses recorded as of December 31, 2019 consisted primarily of the specific reserve on the impaired loan, while the allowance for loan losses as of December 31, 2018 was based on the Company’s collective assessment of the portfolio.
Provision (Benefit) for Credit Losses—The Company records the income statement impact of the changes in the allowance for loan losses and the allowance for risk-sharing obligations within Provision (benefit) for credit losses in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Provision (benefit) for credit losses consisted of the following activity for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017:
Components of Provision (benefit) for Credit Losses (in thousands)
Provision (benefit) for loan losses
Provision (benefit) for risk-sharing obligations
Provision (benefit) for credit losses
Business Combinations—The Company accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting, under which the purchase price of the acquisition is allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed using the fair values determined by management as of the acquisition date. The Company recognizes identifiable assets acquired and liabilities (both specific and contingent) assumed at their fair values at the acquisition date. Furthermore, acquisition-related costs, such as due diligence, legal and accounting fees, are not capitalized or applied in determining the fair value of the acquired assets. The excess of the purchase price over the assets acquired, identifiable intangible assets and liabilities assumed is recognized as goodwill. During the measurement period, the Company records adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with corresponding adjustments to goodwill in the reporting period in which
the adjustment is identified. After the measurement period, which could be up to one year after the transaction date, subsequent adjustments are recorded to the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Income.
Goodwill—The Company evaluates goodwill for impairment annually. In addition to the annual impairment evaluation, the Company evaluates at least quarterly whether events or circumstances have occurred in the period subsequent to the annual impairment testing which indicate that it is more likely than not an impairment loss has occurred. The Company currently has only one reporting unit; therefore, all goodwill is allocated to that one reporting unit. The Company performs its impairment testing annually as of October 1. The annual impairment analysis begins by comparing the Company’s market capitalization to its net assets. If the market capitalization exceeds the net asset value, further analysis is not required, and goodwill is not considered impaired. As of the date of our latest annual impairment test, October 1, 2019, the Company’s market capitalization exceeded its net asset value by $703.1 million, or 71.0%. As of December 31, 2019, there have been no events subsequent to that analysis that are indicative of an impairment loss.
Loans Held for Sale—Loans held for sale represent originated loans that are generally transferred or sold within 60 days from the date that a mortgage loan is funded. The Company elects to measure all originated loans at fair value, unless the Company documents at the time the loan is originated that it will measure the specific loan at the lower of cost or fair value for the life of the loan. Electing to use fair value allows a better offset of the change in fair value of the loan and the change in fair value of the derivative instruments used as economic hedges. During the period prior to its sale, interest income on a loan held for sale is calculated in accordance with the terms of the individual loan. There were no loans held for sale that were valued at the lower of or fair value or on a non-accrual status at December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Share-Based Payment—The Company recognizes compensation costs for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors, including restricted stock, restricted stock units, and employee stock options based on the grant date fair value. Restricted stock awards are granted without cost to the Company’s officers, employees, and non-employee directors, for which the fair value of the award is calculated as the fair value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant.
Stock option awards were granted to executive officers, with an exercise price equal to the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of the grant, and were granted with a ten-year exercise period, vesting ratably over three years dependent solely on continued employment. To estimate the grant-date fair value of stock options, the Company used the Black-Scholes pricing model. The Black-Scholes model estimates the per share fair value of an option on its date of grant based on the following inputs: the option’s exercise price, the price of the underlying stock on the date of the grant, the estimated option life, the estimated dividend yield, a “risk-free” interest rate, and the expected volatility. For the 2017 option awards, the Company used the simplified method to estimate the expected term of the options as the Company did not have sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis for estimating the expected term. The Company used an estimated dividend yield of zero as the Company’s stock options were not dividend eligible and at the time of grant there was no expectation that the Company would pay a dividend. For the “risk-free” rate, the Company used a U.S. Treasury Note due in a number of years equal to the option’s expected term. For the 2017 option awards, the expected volatility was calculated based on the Company’s historical common stock volatility. The Company issues new shares from the pool of authorized but not yet issued shares when an employee exercises stock options. The Company did not grant any stock option awards in 2018 or 2019 and does not expect to issue stock options for the foreseeable future.
Generally, the Company’s stock option and stock awards for its officers and employees vest ratably over a three-year period based solely on continued employment. Restricted stock awards for non-employee directors fully vest after one year. Some of the Company’s restricted stock awards vest over a period of up to eight years.
With the exception of 2015, the Company offered a performance share plan (“PSP”) for the Company’s executives and certain other members of senior management for each of the years from 2014 to 2019. The for each is full calendar beginning on January 1 of the grant year. Participants in the PSP receive restricted stock units (“RSUs”) on the grant date for the PSP in an amount equal to achievement of all performance targets at a maximum level. If the performance targets are met at the end of the performance period and the participant remains employed by the Company, the participant fully vests in the RSUs, which immediately convert to unrestricted shares of common stock. If the performance targets are not met at the maximum level, the participant forfeits a portion of the RSUs.
If the participant is no longer employed by the Company, the participant forfeits all of the RSUs. The performance targets for the 2017, 2018, and 2019 PSPs are based on meeting diluted earnings per share, return on equity, and total revenues goals. The Company records compensation expense for the PSP based on the grant-date fair value in an amount proportionate to the service time rendered by the participant when it is probable that the achievement of the goals will be met.
Compensation expense for restricted shares and stock options is adjusted for actual forfeitures and is recognized on a straight-line basis, for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award were in substance multiple awards, over the requisite service period of the award. Share-based compensation is recognized within the income statement as Personnel, the same expense line as the cash compensation paid to the respective employees.
Net Warehouse Interest Income—The Company presents warehouse interest income net of warehouse interest expense. Warehouse interest income is the interest earned from loans held for sale and loans held for investment. For the periods presented in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, all loans that were held for sale were financed with matched borrowings under our warehouse facilities incurred to fund a specific loan held for sale. Generally, a portion of loans that are held for investment is financed with matched borrowings under our warehouse facilities. The portion of loans held for investment not funded with matched borrowings is financed with the Company’s own cash. Warehouse interest expense is incurred on borrowings used to fund loans solely while they are held for sale or for investment. Warehouse interest income and expense are earned or incurred on loans held for sale after a loan is closed and before a loan is sold. Warehouse interest income and expense are earned or incurred on loans held for investment after a loan is closed and before a loan is repaid. Included in Net warehouse interest income for the three years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and 2017 are the following components:
Components of Net Warehouse Interest Income (in thousands)
Warehouse interest income - loans held for sale
Warehouse interest expense - loans held for sale
Net warehouse interest income - loans held for sale
Warehouse interest income - loans held for investment
Warehouse interest expense - loans held for investment
Warehouse interest income - secured borrowings
Warehouse interest expense - secured borrowings
Net warehouse interest income - loans held for investment
Statement of Cash Flows—The Company records the fair value of premiums and origination fees as a component of the fair value of derivative assets on the loan commitment date and records the related income within Loan origination and debt brokerage fees, net within the Consolidated Statements of Income. The cash for the origination fee is received upon closing of the loan, and the cash for the premium is received upon loan sale, resulting in a mismatch of the recognition of income and the receipt of cash in a given period when the derivative or loan held for sale remains outstanding at period end.
The Company accounts for this mismatch by recording an adjustment called Change in the fair value of premiums and origination fees within the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. The amount of the adjustment reflects a reduction to cash provided by or used in operations for the amount of income recognized upon rate lock (i.e., non-cash income) for derivatives and loans held for sale outstanding at period end and an increase to cash provided by or used in operations for cash received upon loan origination or sale for derivatives and loans held for sale that were outstanding at prior period end. When income recognized upon rate lock is greater than cash received upon loan origination or sale, the adjustment is a negative amount. When income recognized upon rate lock is less than cash received upon loan origination or loan sale, the adjustment is a positive amount.
For presentation in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, the Company considers pledged cash and cash equivalents (as detailed in NOTE 9) to be restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents. The following table presents a reconciliation of the total of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and restricted cash equivalents as presented in the
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows to the related captions in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016.
Cash and cash equivalents
Pledged cash and cash equivalents (NOTE 9)
Total cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and restricted cash equivalents
Income Taxes—The Company files income tax returns in the applicable U.S. federal, state, and local jurisdictions and generally is subject to examination by the respective jurisdictions for three years from the filing of a tax return. The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities from a change in tax rates is recognized in earnings in the period when the new rate is enacted.
Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is more likely than not that they will be realizable based on consideration of available evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, and tax planning strategies.
The Company had no accruals for uncertain tax positions as of December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Pledged Securities—As collateral against its Fannie Mae risk-sharing obligations (NOTES 4 and 9), certain securities have been pledged to the benefit of Fannie Mae to secure the Company's risk-sharing obligations. Substantially all of the balance of Pledged securities, at fair value within the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 was pledged against Fannie Mae risk-sharing obligations. The balance not pledged against Fannie Mae risk-sharing obligations consists of an immaterial amount of cash pledged as collateral against an immaterial amount of risk-sharing obligations with Freddie Mac. The Company’s investments included within Pledged securities, at fair value consist primarily of money market funds and Agency debt securities. The investments in Agency debt securities consist of multifamily Agency mortgage-backed securities (“Agency MBS”) and are all accounted for as available-for-sale (“AFS”) securities. When the fair value of AFS Agency MBS are materially lower than the carrying value, the Company performs an analysis to determine whether an other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”) exists. The Company has never recorded an OTTI related to AFS Agency MBS.
Contracts with Customers—Substantially all of the Company’s revenues are derived from the following sources, all of which are excluded from the accounting provisions applicable to contracts with customers: (i) financial instruments, (ii) transfers and servicing, (iii) derivative transactions, and (iv) investments in debt securities/equity-method investments. The remaining portion of revenues is not significant and derived from contracts with customers. The Company’s contracts with customers do not require significant judgment or material estimates that affect the determination of the transaction price (including the assessment of variable consideration), the allocation of the transaction price to performance obligations, and the determination of the timing of the satisfaction of performance obligations. Additionally, the earnings process for the Company’s contracts with customers is not complicated and is generally completed in a short period of
time. The Company had no contract assets or as of December 31, 2019 and 2018. The following table presents information about the Company’s contracts with customers for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017:
Description (in thousands)
Statement of income line item
Certain loan origination fees
Loan origination and debt brokerage fees, net
Property sales broker fees, investment management fees, assumption fees, application fees, and other
Total revenues derived from contracts with customers
Cash and Cash Equivalents—The term cash and cash equivalents, as used in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, includes currency on hand, demand deposits with financial institutions, and short-term, highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less. The Company had no cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Restricted Cash—Restricted cash represents primarily good faith deposits from borrowers. The Company records a corresponding liability for these good faith deposits from borrowers within Performance deposits from borrowers within the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Receivables, Net—Receivables, net represents amounts currently due to the Company pursuant to contractual servicing agreements, investor good faith deposits held in escrow by others, general accounts receivable, and advances of principal and interest payments and tax and insurance escrow amounts if the borrower is delinquent in making loan payments, to the extent such amounts are determined to be reimbursable and recoverable.
Concentrations of Credit Risk—Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, loans held for sale, and derivative financial instruments.
The Company places the cash and temporary investments with high-credit-quality financial institutions and believes no significant credit risk exists. The counterparties to the loans held for sale and funding commitments are owners of residential multifamily properties located throughout the United States. Mortgage loans are generally transferred or sold within 60 days from the date that a mortgage loan is funded. There is no material residual counterparty risk with respect to the Company's funding commitments as each potential borrower must make a non-refundable good faith deposit when the funding commitment is executed. The counterparty to the forward sale is Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or a broker-dealer that has been determined to be a credit-worthy counterparty by us and our warehouse lenders. There is a risk that the purchase price agreed to by the investor will be reduced in the event of a late delivery. The risk for non-delivery of a loan primarily results from the risk that a borrower does not close on the funding commitment in a timely manner. This risk is generally mitigated by the non-refundable good faith deposit.
Leases—In the normal course of business, the Company enters into lease arrangements for all of its office space. All such lease arrangements are accounted for as operating leases. The Company initially recognizes a lease liability for the obligation to make lease payments and a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset for the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. The lease liability is measured at the present value of the lease payments over the lease term. The ROU asset is measured at the lease liability amount, adjusted for lease prepayments, accrued rent, lease incentives received, and the lessee’s initial direct costs. Lease expense is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
These operating leases do not provide an implicit discount rate; therefore, the Company uses the incremental borrowing rate of its note payable at lease commencement to calculate lease liabilities as the terms on this debt most closely resemble the terms on the Company’s largest leases. The Company’s lease agreements often include options to extend or terminate the lease. Single lease cost related to these lease agreements is recognized on the straight-line basis over the term of the lease, which includes options to extend when it is reasonably certain that such options will be exercised and the Company knows what the lease payments will be during the optional periods.
Litigation—In the ordinary course of business, the Company may be party to various claims and litigation, none of which the Company believes is material. The Company cannot predict the outcome of any pending litigation and may be
subject to consequences that could include fines, penalties, and other costs, and the Company’s reputation and business may be impacted. The Company believes that any liability that could be imposed on the Company in connection with the disposition of any pending lawsuits would not have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations, liquidity, or financial condition.
Recently Adopted and Recently Announced Accounting Pronouncements— In the first quarter of 2016, Accounting Standards Update 2016-02 (“ASU 2016-02”), Leases (Topic 842) was issued. ASU 2016-02 represents a significant reform to the accounting for leases. Lessees initially recognize a lease liability for the obligation to make lease payments and a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset for the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term.
The Company adopted the standard as required on January 1, 2019 and elected the available practical expedients that were applicable to the Company and the prospective adoption approach. There was no change to the classification of the Company’s leases, which are all currently classified as operating leases. NOTE 14 contains additional detail about the impact ASU 2016-02 had on the Company’s financial position as of December 31, 2019 and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019.
The Company elected the practical that allowed the Company to not reassess (i) whether any existing agreement are or contain leases, (ii) lease classification of any existing agreements, and (iii) initial direct costs. The Company also elected the practical expedient to determine the lease term for all of its leases. In conjunction with the election of the hindsight practical expedient, the Company recorded a $1.0 million cumulative-effect adjustment, net of tax to reduce retained earnings as of January 1, 2019.
In the third quarter of 2018, Accounting Standards Update 2018-15 (“ASU 2018-15”), Intangibles — Goodwill and Other — Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract was issued. ASU 2018-15 requires a customer in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract to follow the internal-use software guidance to determine which implementation costs to capitalize as assets. Capitalized implementation costs are amortized over the term of the hosting arrangement once the hosting arrangement is placed in service, and the amortization expense related to the capitalized implementation costs is recorded in the same line in the financial statements as the cloud service cost. The Company early-adopted ASU 2018-15 on January 1, 2019, using the prospective approach. During 2019, the Company capitalized $6.2 million of implementation costs. Amortization of these costs has not begun as the Company has not placed the hosting arrangements into service.
In the second quarter of 2016, Accounting Standards Update 2016-13 (“ASU 2016-13”), Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments was issued. ASU 2016-13 ("the Standard") represents a significant change to the incurred loss model currently used to account for credit losses. The Standard requires an entity to estimate the credit losses expected over the life of the credit exposure upon initial recognition of that exposure. The expected credit losses consider historical information, current information, and reasonable and supportable forecasts, including estimates of prepayments. Exposures with similar risk characteristics are required to be grouped together when estimating expected credit losses. The initial estimate and subsequent changes to the estimated credit losses are required to be reported in current earnings in the income statement and through an allowance in the balance sheet. ASU 2016-13 is applicable to financial assets subject to credit losses and measured at amortized cost and certain off-balance-sheet credit exposures. The Standard will modify the way the Company estimates its allowance for risk-sharing obligations and its allowance for loan losses and the way it assesses impairment on its pledged AFS securities. ASU 2016-13 requires modified retrospective application to all outstanding, in-scope instruments, with a cumulative-effect adjustment recorded to opening retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption.
The Company is adopting the standard as required on January 1, 2020. The Company expects to recognize an increase of between $30 and $35 million in the allowance for risk-sharing obligations with a cumulative-effect adjustment, net of tax recorded to opening retained earnings of between $25 and $30 million. The Company is in the final stages of refining its calculations, establishing certain aspects of the accounting policy for the Standard, and implementing internal controls over financial reporting. The adjustment to the allowance for loan losses for the Company’s portfolio of 22 loans held for investment is expected to be de minimis. There will be no impact to AFS securities because the portfolio consists
of agency-backed securities that inherently have an immaterial risk of loss. The Company has analyzed the disclosures that will be required for the new standard and will implement those disclosures during the first quarter of 2020.
There were no other accounting pronouncements issued during 2020 or 2019 that have the potential to impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Reclassifications—The Company has made other immaterial reclassifications to prior-year balances to conform to current-year presentation.