Basis of presentation
The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”). Unless otherwise indicated, all financial data presented in these consolidated financial statements are expressed in US dollars.
Basis of consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries. Subsidiaries are consolidated if the Company has a controlling financial interest, which may exist based on ownership of a majority of the voting interest, or based on the Company’s determination that it is the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity (“VIE”). The Company did not have any material interests in VIEs during the years presented in these consolidated financial statements. All intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions affecting the amounts reported and disclosed in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
Recently issued and adopted accounting pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (Topic 606). On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the new Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers and all the related amendments (“new revenue standard”) to all contracts using the modified retrospective method. The Company recognized the cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12 “Derivatives and Hedging” (Topic 815) - “Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities.” The ASU better aligns hedge accounting with the Company’s risk management activities, simplifies the application of hedge accounting, and improves transparency as to the scope and results of hedging programs. The Company early adopted the new pronouncement effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective approach by recognizing the cumulative effect of initially applying the new pronouncement as an adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods.
The cumulative effect of the changes made to the January 1, 2018 consolidated balance sheet for the adoption of ASU 2014-09 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (Topic 606) and ASU 2017-12 “Derivatives and Hedging” (Topic 815) - “Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities” is as follows:
Balance at December 31, 2017
Adjustments due to ASU 2014-09
Adjustments due to ASU 2017-12
Balance at January 1, 2018
Trade accounts receivable, net
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
Trade accounts payable
Other accrued expenses
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
The following tables summarize the impact of adopting the new revenue standard upon the Company’s consolidated balance sheet and statement of operations as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018:
Year ended December 31, 2018
Balances without adoption of ASC 606
Effect of change higher/(lower)
Cost of goods sold (exclusive of depreciation)
Income tax expense
December 31, 2018
Balances without adoption of ASC 606
Effect of change higher/(lower)
Trade accounts receivable, net
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
Trade accounts payable
Other accrued expenses
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07 “Compensation - Retirement Benefits” (Topic 715) - “Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost.” On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the amendments to ASC Topic 715 that improves the presentation of net periodic pension and postretirement benefit costs, by separating the presentation of service costs from other components of net periodic costs. The interest cost, expected return on assets, and amortization of prior service costs have been reclassified from warehousing, selling, and administrative expenses to other expense, net. The mark to market, curtailment, and settlement expenses have been reclassified from other operating expenses, net to other expense, net.
Adoption of ASU 2017-07 resulted in a retrospective presentation change to the net periodic cost for the defined benefit pension and other postretirement employee benefits (“OPEB”) plans within the consolidated income statement as follows:
Year ended December 31, 2017
Effect of change higher/(lower)
Warehousing, selling and administrative
Other operating expenses, net
Other expense, net
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15 “Statement of Cash Flows” (Topic 230) - “Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments.” The ASU clarifies and provides specific guidance on eight cash flow classification issues that were not addressed within the previous guidance. The Company adopted the ASU as of January 1, 2018 and accordingly restated the consolidated statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2017 to conform with the current period presentation under this new guidance. As a result of the adoption, the Company reclassified $3.7 million of cash outflows previously reported as operating activities to financing activities within the consolidated statement of cash flows related to contingent consideration payments for the year ended December 31, 2017.
The Company also adopted the following standards during 2018, none of which had a material impact to the financial statements or financial statement disclosures:
Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718) - Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting
July 1, 2018
Compensation - Stock Compensation - Scope of Modification Accounting
January 1, 2018
Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment
January 1, 2018
Business Combinations - Clarifying the Definition of a Business
January 1, 2018
Statement of Cash Flows - Restricted Cash
January 1, 2018
Income Taxes - Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory
January 1, 2018
Financial Instrument - Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
January 1, 2018
Accounting pronouncements issued but not yet adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02 “Leases” (Topic 842), which supersedes the lease recognition requirements in ASC Topic 840, “Leases.” The core principal of the guidance is that an entity should recognize assets and liabilities arising from a lease for both financing and operating leases, along with additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures. The standard will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within such fiscal years. The guidance is to be applied using a modified retrospective transition method with the option to elect a package of practical expedients. The Company has established a project team to evaluate and implement the standard. The project team is in the final stages of implementing the standard to meet the ASU’s reporting and disclosure requirements.
Upon the January 1, 2019 adoption of this standard, the consolidated balance sheet will include a right of use asset and liability related to certain operating lease arrangements. The Company has elected to apply the transition requirements at the January 1, 2019, effective date rather than at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented. This approach allows for a cumulative effect adjustment in the period of adoption, and prior periods will not be restated. The Company will elect the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which among other things, allows us to carryforward the historical lease classification. The Company will make an accounting policy election to keep leases with an initial term of 12 months or less off of the balance sheet. The Company will recognize those lease payments in the consolidated statements of operations on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company estimates the impact of the additional lease assets and liabilities to range from $140 million to $190 million.
In January 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02 “Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income” (Topic 220) “Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income” (“AOCI”), which gives entities the option to reclassify certain tax effects, that the FASB refers to as having been stranded, resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act from AOCI to retained earnings. The new guidance may be applied retrospectively to each period in which the effect of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act is recognized, or in the period of adoption. The Company must adopt this guidance for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company expects to record an adjustment to the accumulated deficit and accumulated other comprehensive loss financial statement line items in the range of $3.0 million to $4.0 million on the January 1, 2019 adoption of the ASU.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13 “Fair Value Measurement” (Topic 820) - “Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement.” The ASU amends the requirements related to fair value disclosures to include new disclosure requirements and eliminates or modifies certain historic disclosures. The ASU amendment was part of the FASB’s disclosure framework project that is designed to increase the effectiveness of companies’ disclosures to the users of the financial statements and footnotes. This guidance will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within such fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently determining the impact to the Company’s disclosure requirements, which will be reflected in the footnote disclosures subsequent to the ASU adoption on January 1, 2020.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-14 “Compensation - Retirement Benefits - Defined Benefit Plans - General” (Subtopic 715-20) - “Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans.” The ASU amends the requirements related to defined benefit pension and other postretirement plan disclosures to include new disclosure requirements and eliminates or clarifies certain historic disclosures. The ASU amendment was part of the FASB’s disclosure framework project that is designed to increase the effectiveness of companies’ disclosures to the users of the financial statements and footnotes. This guidance will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently determining the impact to the Company’s disclosure requirements, which will be reflected in the footnote disclosures subsequent to the ASU adoption on January 1, 2021.
The Company has not yet adopted the following standards, none of which is expected to have a material impact to the financial statements or financial statement disclosures:
Expected adoption date
Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808) - Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606
January 1, 2020
Consolidation (Topic 810) - Targeted Improvements to Related Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entities
January 1, 2020
Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Inclusion of the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) Overnight Index Swap (OIS) Rate as a Benchmark Interest Rate for Hedge Accounting Purposes
January 1, 2019
Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force)
January 1, 2020
Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments
January 1, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include highly-liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash. Cash at banks earn interest at floating rates based on daily bank deposit rates.
Trade accounts receivable, net
Trade accounts receivable are stated at the invoiced amount, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts.
In the normal course of business, the Company provides credit to its customers, performs ongoing credit evaluations of these customers and maintains reserves for potential credit losses. In certain situations, the Company will require up-front cash payment, collateral and/or personal guarantees based on the credit worthiness of the customer.
The allowance for doubtful accounts was $11.2 million and $13.0 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The allowance for doubtful accounts is estimated based on an individual assessment of collectability based on factors that include current ability to pay, bankruptcy and payment history, as well as a general reserve related to prior experience.
Inventories consist primarily of products purchased for resale and are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Inventory cost is determined based on the weighted average cost method. Inventory cost includes purchase price from producers net of rebates received, inbound freight and handling, and direct labor and other costs incurred to blend and repackage product and excludes depreciation expense. The Company recognized $1.9 million, $3.3 million and $6.6 million of lower of cost or net realizable value adjustments to certain of its inventories in the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The expense related to these adjustments is included in cost of goods sold in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company has arrangements with certain producers that provide discounts when certain measures are achieved, generally related to purchasing volume. Volume rebates are generally earned and realized when the related products are purchased during the year. The reduction in cost of goods sold is recorded when the related products, on which the rebate was earned, are sold. As the right to receive discount incentives is contingent on purchases during the entire year, the Company's accounting estimates for producer incentives is dependent on the ability to accurately forecast annual purchases. Discretionary rebates are recorded when received. The unpaid portion of rebates from producers is recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the consolidated balance sheets.
Property, plant and equipment, net
Property, plant and equipment are carried at historical cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Expenditures for improvements that add functionality and/or extend useful life are capitalized. The Company capitalizes interest costs on significant capital projects, as an increase to property, plant and equipment. Repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is recorded on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of each asset from the time the asset is ready for its intended purpose, with consideration of expected residual values. Depreciation expense is recorded to depreciation within the consolidated statement of operations.
The estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment are as follows:
Main components of tank farms
Machinery and equipment
Furniture, fixtures and others
The Company evaluates the useful life and carrying value of property, plant and equipment for impairment if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. If an asset is tested for possible impairment, the Company compares the carrying amount of the related asset group to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by that asset group. If the carrying amount of the asset group is not recoverable on an undiscounted cash flow basis, an impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds its estimated fair value.
Leasehold improvements are capitalized and amortized over the lesser of the term of the applicable lease, including renewable periods if reasonably assured, or the useful life of the improvement.
Assets under capital leases where ownership transfers to the Company at the end of the lease term or the lease agreement contains a bargain purchase option are depreciated over the useful life of the asset. For remaining assets under capital leases, the assets are depreciated over the lesser of the term of the applicable lease, including renewable periods if reasonably assured, or the useful life of the asset with consideration of any expected residual value.
Refer to “Note 12: Property, plant and equipment, net” for further information.
Goodwill and intangible assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the aggregate purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired in business combinations.
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually on October 1, or between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. Goodwill is tested for impairment at a reporting unit level using either a qualitative assessment, commonly referred to as a “step zero” test, or a quantitative assessment, commonly referred to as a “step one” test. For each of the reporting units, the Company has the option to perform either the step zero or the step one test. The Company’s reporting units are identical to the identified four operating segments: USA, Canada, EMEA, and Rest of World.
The Company elected the step one test to evaluate goodwill for impairment for each of the reporting units during 2018 and the step zero test in 2017. The step one goodwill impairment test compares the estimated fair value of each reporting unit with the reporting unit’s carrying value (including goodwill). If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, the reporting unit will recognize an impairment for the lesser of either the amount by which the reporting unit's carrying amount exceeds the fair value of the reporting unit or the reporting unit’s goodwill carrying value.
The step zero goodwill impairment test utilizes qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting units is less than its carrying value. Qualitative factors include: macroeconomic conditions; legal and regulatory environment; industry and market considerations; overall financial performance and cost factors to determine whether a reporting unit is at risk for goodwill impairment. In the event a reporting unit fails the step zero goodwill impairment test, it is necessary to perform the step one goodwill impairment test.
Intangible assets consist of customer and producer relationships and contracts, intellectual property trademarks, trade names, non-compete agreements and exclusive distribution rights. Intangible assets have finite lives and are amortized over their respective useful lives of 2 to 20 years. Amortization of intangible assets is based on the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible assets are consumed or otherwise used up; which is based on the undiscounted cash flows, or when not reliably determined, on a straight-line basis. Intangible assets are tested for impairment if an event occurs or circumstances change that indicates the carrying value may not be recoverable. Refer to “Note 14: Impairment charges” for further information.
Customer relationship intangible assets represent the fair value allocated in purchase price accounting for the ongoing relationships with an existing customer base acquired in a business combination. The fair value of customer relationships is determined using the excess earnings methodology, an income based approach. The excess earnings methodology provides an estimate of the fair value of customer relationship assets by deducting economic costs, including operating expenses and contributory asset charges, from revenue expected to be generated by the assets. These estimated cash flows are then discounted to the present value equivalent.
Refer to “Note 13: Goodwill and intangible assets” for further information.
Short-term financing includes bank overdrafts and short-term lines of credit. Refer to “Note 16: Debt” for further information.
Long-term debt consists of loans with original maturities greater than one year. Fees paid in connection with the execution of line-of-credit arrangements are included in other assets and fees paid in connection with the execution of a recognized debt liability as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability. These fees are amortized using the effective interest method over the term of the related debt or expiration of the line-of-credit arrangement. Refer to “Note 16: Debt” for further information.
The Company is subject to income taxes in the US and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment in the forecasting of taxable income using historical and projected future operating results is required in determining the Company’s provision for income taxes and the related assets and liabilities. The provision for income taxes includes income taxes paid, currently payable or receivable and those deferred.
On December 22, 2017, the President of the United States signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”). The legislation significantly changes US tax law by, among other things, lowering corporate income tax rates, implementing a territorial tax system and imposing a repatriation tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries. The Tax Act permanently reduces the US corporate income tax rate from a maximum of 35% to a flat 21% rate, effective January 1, 2018. The SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”) to address the application of US GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Act. The SAB 118 measurement period ends when a company has obtained, prepared, and analyzed the information needed to complete the accounting requirements under ASC 740, "Income Taxes", but no later than one year from the enactment date of December 22, 2017. In 2017 and the first nine months of 2018, the Company recorded provisional amounts for certain enactment-date effects of the Act by applying the guidance in SAB 118 because the Company had not yet completed its enactment-date accounting for these effects. At December 31, 2018, the Company has now completed its accounting for all the enactment-date income tax effects of the Act. As further discussed in “Note 7: Income taxes”, during 2018 the Company recognized adjustments of $6.8 million to the provisional amounts recorded at December 31, 2017 and included these adjustments as a component of income tax expense from continuing operations.
Effective in 2018, the Company is subject to global intangible low tax income (“GILTI”) which is a tax on foreign income in excess of a deemed return on tangible assets of foreign corporations. Due to the complexity of the GILTI tax rules, companies are allowed to make an accounting policy choice of either (1) treating taxes due on future US inclusions in taxable income related to GILTI as a current-period expense when incurred or (2) factoring such amounts into a company’s measurement of its deferred taxes. The Company is electing to treat taxes due on future US inclusions in taxable income related to GILTI as a current-period expense when incurred and, therefore, there is no impact to the deferred tax rate in 2018.
In the event that the actual outcome of future tax consequences differs from the Company’s estimates and assumptions due to changes or future events such as tax legislation, geographic mix of the earnings, completion of tax audits or earnings repatriation plans, the resulting change to the provision for income taxes could have a material effect on the consolidated statement of operations and consolidated balance sheets.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences reverse. Deferred tax assets are also recognized for the estimated future effects of tax loss carryforwards. The effect on deferred taxes of changes in tax rates is recognized in the period in which the revised tax rate is enacted.
The Company records valuation allowances to reduce deferred tax assets to the extent it believes it is more likely than not that a portion of such assets will not be realized. In making such determinations, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and the ability to carry back losses to prior years. Realization is dependent upon generating sufficient taxable income prior to expiration of tax attribute carryforwards. Although realization is not assured, management believes it is more likely than not that all of the deferred tax assets will be realized, or if not, a valuation allowance has been recorded. The Company continues to monitor the value of its deferred tax assets, as the amount of the deferred tax assets considered realizable, could be reduced in the near term if estimates of future taxable income during the carryforward periods are reduced, or current tax planning strategies are not implemented.
US GAAP prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the accounting and financial statement disclosure of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The evaluation of a tax position is a two-step process. The first step requires the Company to determine whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination based on the technical merits of the position. The second step requires the Company to recognize in the financial statements each tax position that meets the more likely than not criteria, measured at the amount of benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized.
The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within interest expense and warehousing, selling and administrative, respectively, in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Accrued interest and penalties are included within either other accrued expenses or other long-term liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.
Refer to “Note 7: Income taxes” for further information.
Pension and other postretirement benefit plans
The Company sponsors several defined benefit and defined contribution plans. The Company’s contributions to defined contribution plans are charged to income during the period of the employee’s service.
The benefit obligation and cost of defined benefit pension plans and other postretirement benefits are calculated based on actuarial valuations, which involves making assumptions about discount rates, expected rates of return on assets, future salary increases, future health care costs, mortality rates and future pension increases. Due to the long-term nature of these plans, such estimates are subject to significant uncertainty.
The projected benefit obligation is calculated separately for each plan based on the estimated future benefit employees have earned in return for their service based on the employee’s expected date of retirement. Those benefits are discounted to determine the present value of the benefit obligations using the projected unit-credit method. A liability is recognized on the balance sheet for each plan to the extent the projected benefit obligation is in excess of the fair value of plan assets. An asset is recorded for each plan to the extent the fair value of plan assets is in excess of the projected benefit obligation.
The Company recognizes actuarial gains or losses, known as “mark to market” adjustments, at each December 31. The mark to market adjustments primarily include gains and losses resulting from changes in discount rates and the difference between the expected rate of return on plan assets and actual plan asset returns. Curtailment losses must be recognized in the statement of operations when it is probable that a curtailment will occur and its effects are reasonably estimable. However, a curtailment gain is recognized in the statement of operations when the related employees terminate or the plan suspension or amendment is adopted, whichever is applicable. Settlement gains and losses are recognized in the period in which the settlement occurs, regardless of how probable it is at an earlier date that the settlement will occur and despite the fact that the probable gain or loss may be reasonably estimable before the settlement actually takes place. The Company recognizes prior service costs or credits in other comprehensive loss during the period of occurrence, and subsequently amortizes these items over the remaining service period as components of net periodic benefit cost within other expense, net in the consolidated statement of operations.
Service costs are recognized within warehousing, selling, and administrative expenses in the consolidated statement of operations. All other components of net periodic benefit cost are classified as other expense, net.
The fair value of plan assets is used to calculate the expected return on assets component of the net periodic benefit cost.
Refer to “Note 9: Employee benefit plans” for further information.
All leases that are determined not to meet any of the capital lease criteria are classified as operating leases. Operating lease costs are recognized as an expense in the statement of operations on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company leases certain vehicles and equipment that qualify for capital lease classification. Assets under capital leases are carried at historical cost, net of accumulated depreciation and are included in property, plant and equipment, net in the consolidated balance sheets. Depreciation expense related to the capital lease assets is included in depreciation expense in the consolidated statement of operations. Refer to “Note 12: Property, plant and equipment, net” for further information.
The present value of minimum lease payments under a capital lease is included in current portion of long-term debt and long-term debt in the consolidated balance sheets. The capital lease obligation is accreted utilizing the effective interest method and interest expense related to the capital lease obligation is included in interest expense in the consolidated statement of operations. Refer to “Note 20: Commitments and contingencies” for further information.
A loss contingency is recorded if it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company evaluates, among other factors, the degree of probability of an unfavorable outcome and the ability to make a reasonable estimate of the amount of the ultimate loss. Changes in these factors and related estimates could materially affect the Company’s financial position and results of operations. Legal expenses are recorded as legal services are provided. Refer to “Note 20: Commitments and contingencies” for further information.
Environmental contingencies are recognized for probable and reasonably estimable losses associated with environmental remediation. Incremental direct costs of the investigation, remediation effort and post-remediation monitoring are included in the estimated environmental contingencies. Expected cash outflows related to environmental remediation for the next 12 months and amounts for which the timing is uncertain are reported as current within other accrued expenses in the consolidated balance sheets. The long-term portion of environmental liabilities is reported within other long-term liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets on an undiscounted basis, except for sites for which the amount and timing of future cash payments are fixed or reliably determinable. Environmental remediation expenses are included within warehousing, selling and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations, unless associated with disposed operations, in which case such expenses are included in other operating expenses, net.
Environmental costs are capitalized if the costs extend the life of the property, increase its capacity and/or mitigate or prevent contamination from future operations.
Refer to “Note 20: Commitments and contingencies” for further information.
Revenue is recognized when performance obligations under the terms of the contract are satisfied, which generally occurs when goods are transferred to a customer or as services are provided to a customer. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services to customers. Net sales includes product sales, billings for freight and handling charges and fees earned for services provided, net of discounts, expected returns, customer rebates, variable consideration and sales or other revenue-based taxes. The Company recognizes product sales and billings for freight and handling charges when products are considered delivered to the customer under the terms of the sale.
Refer to “Note 3: Revenue” for further information.
Foreign currency translation
The functional currency of the Company’s subsidiaries is the local currency, unless the primary economic environment requires the use of another currency. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded in the functional currency of each subsidiary at the rate of exchange on the date of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are remeasured into the functional currency of each subsidiary at period-end exchange rates. These foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recognized in other (expense) income, net in the consolidated statements of operations.
Foreign currency gains and losses relating to intercompany borrowings that are considered a part of the Company’s investment in a foreign subsidiary are reflected as a component of currency translation within accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders’ equity. The following table provides information pertaining to total foreign currency gains or losses related to such intercompany borrowings:
Foreign Currency Gains / (Losses)
Year ended December 31, 2018
Year ended December 31, 2017
Year ended December 31, 2016
Assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries are translated into US dollars at period-end exchange rates. Income and expense accounts of foreign subsidiaries are translated into US dollars at the average exchange rates for the period. The net exchange gains and losses arising on this translation are reflected as a component of currency translation within accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders’ equity. Refer to “Note 11: Accumulated other comprehensive loss” for further information.
Stock-based compensation plans
The Company measures the total amount of employee stock-based compensation expense for a grant based on the grant date fair value of each award and recognizes the stock-based compensation expense for each separately vesting tranche of an award on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. Stock-based compensation is based on unvested outstanding awards. The Company has elected to recognize forfeitures when realized. Stock-based compensation expense is classified within other operating expenses, net in the consolidated statements of operations. Refer to “Note 10: Stock-based compensation” for further information.
The Company does not hold any treasury shares, as all shares of common stock are retired upon repurchase. Furthermore, when share repurchases occur and the common stock is retired, the excess of the repurchase price over par is allocated between additional paid-in capital and accumulated deficit such that the portion allocated to additional paid-in-capital is limited to the additional paid-in-capital created from that particular share issuance (i.e. the book value of those shares) plus any resulting leftover additional paid-in-capital from previous share repurchases in instances where the repurchase price was lower than the original issuance price.
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. US GAAP specifies a hierarchy of valuation techniques based on whether the inputs to those valuation techniques are observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect the Company’s market assumptions. These two types of inputs have created the following fair-value hierarchy:
Quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets.
Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuation in which all significant inputs and significant value drivers are observable in active markets.
Valuations derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs or significant value drivers are unobservable.
When available, the Company uses quoted market prices to determine fair value and classifies such items as Level 1. In cases where a market price is not available, the Company will make use of observable market-based inputs to calculate fair value, in which case the items are classified as Level 2. If quoted or observable market prices are not available, fair value is based on internally developed valuation techniques that use, where possible, current market-based or independently sourced market information. Items valued using internally generated valuation techniques are classified according to the lowest level input that is significant to the valuation, and may be classified as Level 3 even though there may be significant inputs that are readily observable. Refer to “Note 17: Fair value measurements” for further information.
Certain financial instruments, such as derivative financial instruments, are required to be measured at fair value on a recurring basis. Other financial instruments, such as the Company’s own debt, are not required to be measured at fair value on a recurring basis. The Company elected to not make an irrevocable election to measure financial instruments and certain other items at fair value.
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as foreign currency contracts, interest rate swaps and interest rate caps, to manage its risks associated with foreign currency and interest rate fluctuations. Derivative financial instruments are recorded in either prepaid expenses and other current assets, other assets, other accrued expenses or other long-term liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets at fair value. The fair value of forward currency contracts is calculated by reference to current forward exchange rates for contracts with similar maturity profiles. The fair value of interest rate swaps is determined by estimating the net present value of amounts to be paid under the agreement offset by the net present value of the expected cash inflows based on market rates and associated yield curves. For derivative contracts with the same counterparty where the Company has a master netting arrangement with the counterparty, the fair value of the asset/liability is presented on a net basis within the consolidated balance sheets. Refer to “Note 17: Fair value measurements” for additional information relating to the gross and net balances of derivative contracts. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations, unless specific hedge accounting criteria are met. Cash flows associated with derivative financial instruments are recognized in the operating section of the consolidated statements of cash flows.
For the purpose of hedge accounting, derivatives are classified as either fair value hedges, where the instrument hedges the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognized asset or liability; or cash flow hedges, where the instrument hedges the exposure to variability in cash flows that are either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecasted transaction. Gains and losses on derivatives that meet the conditions for fair value hedge accounting are recognized immediately in the consolidated statements of operations, along with the offsetting gain or loss on the related hedged item. For derivatives that meet the conditions for cash flow hedge accounting, the effective and ineffective portion of the gain or loss on the derivative is recognized in accumulated other comprehensive loss on the consolidated balance sheets. Amounts in accumulated other comprehensive loss are reclassified to the consolidated statement of operations in the same period in which the hedged transactions affect earnings. For both fair value hedges and cash flow hedges, the gains and losses related to the derivative instruments are recognized within the same financial statement line item within the consolidated statement of operations as the gains and losses associated with the hedged items.
For derivative instruments designated as hedges, the Company formally documents the hedging relationship to the hedged item and its risk management strategy. The Company assesses the effectiveness of its hedging instruments at inception and on an ongoing basis. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument is sold, expired, terminated or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting.
Refer to “Note 18: Derivatives” for further information.
Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during each period, which excludes non-vested restricted stock units, non-vested restricted stock and stock options. Diluted earnings per share is based on the weighted average number of common shares and dilutive common share equivalents outstanding during each period. The Company reflects common share equivalents relating to stock options, non-vested restricted stock and non-vested restricted stock units in its computation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding, unless the effect of inclusion is anti-dilutive. The effect of dilutive securities is calculated using the treasury stock method.
The Company has issued certain restricted stock awards, which are unvested stock-based payment awards that contain non-forfeitable rights to dividends or dividend equivalents. These restricted shares are considered participating securities. Accordingly, the Company calculates net income applicable to common stock using the two-class method, whereby net income is allocated between common stock and participating securities.
Refer to “Note 8: Earnings per share” for further information.