|RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Our significant accounting policies are detailed in Part IV, Item 15, "Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedule—Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements" within the 2019 Form 10-K. Upon adoption of Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13 ("ASU 2016-13"), Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, our accounting policies have been updated as follows:
Debt and Equity Securities—Excluding equity method investments, debt and equity securities consist of various investments:
•Equity securities consist of interest-bearing money market funds, mutual funds, common shares, and preferred shares. Equity securities with a readily determinable fair value are recorded at fair value on our condensed consolidated balance sheets based on listed market prices or dealer quotations where available. Equity securities without a readily determinable fair value are recorded at cost less any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or similar investment of the same issuer. Net gains and losses, both realized and unrealized, and impairment charges on equity securities are recognized in other income (loss), net on our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss).
•Debt securities include preferred shares, time deposits, and fixed income securities, including U.S. government obligations, obligations of other government agencies, corporate debt, mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities, and municipal and provincial notes and bonds. Debt securities are classified as trading, available-for-sale ("AFS"), or held-to-maturity.
•Trading securities—recorded at fair value based on listed market prices or dealer price quotations, where available. Net gains and losses, both realized and unrealized, on trading securities are recognized in net gains and interest income from marketable securities held to fund rabbi trusts or other income (loss), net, depending on the nature of the investment, on our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss).
•AFS securities—recorded at fair value based on listed market prices or dealer price quotations, where available. Unrealized gains and losses on AFS debt securities are recognized in accumulated other comprehensive loss on our condensed consolidated balance sheets. Realized gains and losses on AFS debt securities are recognized in other income (loss), net on our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss). AFS securities are assessed quarterly for expected credit losses which are recognized in other income (loss), net on our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss). In determining the reserve for credit losses, we evaluate AFS securities at the individual security level and consider our investment strategy, current market conditions, financial strength of the underlying investments, term to maturity, credit rating, and our intent and ability to sell the securities.
•HTM securities—investments that we have the intent and ability to hold until maturity are recorded at amortized cost, net of expected credit losses. HTM securities are assessed for expected credit losses quarterly, and credit losses are recognized in other income (loss), net on our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss). We evaluate HTM securities individually when determining the reserve for credit losses due to the unique risks associated with each security. In determining the reserve for credit losses, we consider the financial strength of the underlying assets including the current and forecasted performance of the property, term to maturity, credit quality of the owner, and current market conditions.
We classify debt securities as current or long-term, based on their contractual maturity dates and our intent and ability to hold.
Our preferred shares earn a return that is recognized as interest income in other income (loss), net.
For additional information about debt and equity securities, see Note 5.
Financing Receivables—Financing receivables represent contractual rights to receive money either on demand or on fixed or determinable dates and are recorded on our condensed consolidated balance sheets at
amortized cost, net of expected credit losses. We recognize interest as earned and include accrued interest in the amortized cost basis of the asset.
Our financing receivables are composed of individual, unsecured loans and other types of unsecured financing arrangements provided to hotel owners. These financing receivables generally have stated maturities and interest rates, but the repayment terms vary and may be dependent on future cash flows of the hotel. We individually assess all financing receivables for credit losses quarterly and establish a reserve to reflect the net amount expected to be collected. We estimate credit losses based on an analysis of several factors, including current economic conditions, industry trends, and specific risk characteristics of the financing receivable, including capital structure, loan performance, market factors, and the underlying hotel performance. Adjustments to credit losses on financing receivables are recognized in other income (loss), net on our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss).
We evaluate accrued interest allowances separately from the financing receivable assets. On an ongoing basis, we monitor the credit quality of our financing receivables based on historical and expected future payment activity. We determine our financing to hotel owners to be non-performing if interest or principal is greater than 90 days past due based on the contractual terms of the individual financing receivables or if an allowance has been established for our other financing arrangements with that borrower. If we consider a financing receivable to be non-performing, we place the financing receivable on non-accrual status.
For financing receivables on non-accrual status, we recognize interest income in other income (loss), net in our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss) when cash is received. Accrual of interest income is resumed and potential reversal of any associated allowance for credit loss occurs when the receivable becomes contractually current and collection doubts are removed.
After an allowance for credit losses has been established, we may determine the receivable balance is uncollectible when all commercially reasonable means of recovering the receivable balance have been exhausted. We write off uncollectible balances by reversing the financing receivable and the related allowance for credit losses. For additional information about financing receivables, see Note 6.
Accounts Receivables—Our accounts receivables primarily consist of trade receivables due from guests for services rendered at our owned and leased properties and from hotel owners with whom we have management and franchise agreements for services rendered and for reimbursements of costs incurred on behalf of managed and franchised properties. We assess all accounts receivables for credit losses quarterly and establish a reserve to reflect the net amount expected to be collected. The credit loss reserve is based on an assessment of historical collection activity, the nature of the receivable, geographic considerations, and the current business environment. The allowance for credit losses is recognized in owned and leased hotels expense or selling, general, and administrative expenses on our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss), based on the nature of the receivable.
Guarantees—We enter into performance guarantees related to certain hotels we manage. We also enter into debt repayment and other guarantees with respect to unconsolidated hospitality ventures, certain managed hotels, and other properties. We record a liability for the fair value of these guarantees at their inception date. In order to estimate the fair value, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to model the probability of possible outcomes. The valuation methodology requires that we make certain assumptions and judgments regarding discount rates, volatility, hotel operating results, and hotel property sales prices. The fair value is not re-valued due to future changes in assumptions. The corresponding offset depends on the circumstances in which the guarantee was issued and is recorded to equity method investments, other assets, or expenses. We amortize the liability for the fair value of a guarantee into income over the term of the guarantee using a systematic and rational, risk-based approach. Guarantees related to our managed hotels and other properties are amortized into income in other income (loss), net in our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss). Guarantees related to our unconsolidated hospitality ventures are amortized into equity earnings (losses) from unconsolidated hospitality ventures in our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss).
•Performance and other guarantees—On a quarterly basis, we evaluate the likelihood of funding under a guarantee. To the extent we determine an obligation to fund is both probable and estimable based on performance during the period, we record a separate contingent liability with the offset recognized in other income (loss), net.
•Debt repayment guarantees—At inception of the guarantee and on a quarterly basis, we evaluate the risk of funding under a guarantee. We assess credit risk based on the current and forecasted performance of the underlying property, whether the property owner is current on debt service, the historical performance of the
underlying property, and the current market, and we record a separate liability with an offset recognized in other income (loss), net or equity earnings (losses) from unconsolidated hospitality ventures as necessary.
For additional information about guarantees, see Note 13.
Adopted Accounting Standards
Financial Instruments—Credit Losses—In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") released ASU 2016-13. ASU 2016-13 replaces the existing impairment model for most financial assets from an incurred loss model to a current expected credit loss model, which requires an entity to recognize allowances for credit losses equal to its current estimate of all contractual cash flows the entity does not expect to collect. ASU 2016-13 also requires credit losses relating to AFS debt securities to be recognized through an allowance for credit losses. We adopted on January 1, 2020 utilizing the modified retrospective approach. Upon adoption, we recorded an adjustment of $1 million, net of tax, to opening retained earnings related to our credit loss for accounts receivables, a $12 million increase to our HTM debt securities, and a corresponding $12 million credit loss allowance on our condensed consolidated balance sheets. The adoption of ASU 2016-03 did not materially affect our condensed consolidated statements of income (loss) or our condensed consolidated statements of cash flows, and the adoption adjustments do not reflect the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, see Note 2.
Future Adoption of Accounting Standards
Reference Rate Reform—In March 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2020-04 ("ASU 2020-04"), Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. ASU 2020-04 provides optional expedients and exceptions that we can elect to adopt, subject to meeting certain criteria, regarding contract modifications, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference the London interbank offered rate for deposits of U.S. dollars ("LIBOR") or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. The relief provided in ASU 2020-04 is applicable to all entities, but is only available through December 31, 2022. We are still assessing the impact of adopting ASU 2020-04.