SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
A summary of significant accounting policies used in the preparation of the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements follows:
Basis of Presentation: The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements reflect the consolidated operations of the Company and have been prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) as defined by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) within the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC). Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. The assets, liabilities, results of operations and cash flows of all discontinued operations have been separately reported as discontinued operations for all periods presented. Certain reclassifications of amounts reported in prior periods have been made to conform with the current period presentation. The Company has revised its supplemental cash flow information in prior years to properly reflect cash paid during the year for interest.
The Consolidated Financial Statements include all majority-owned subsidiaries of the Company. A noncontrolling interest in a subsidiary is considered an ownership interest in a majority-owned subsidiary that is not attributable to the parent. The Company includes Noncontrolling interest as a component of Total equity in the Consolidated Balance Sheet and the Net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests are presented as an adjustment from Net earnings used to arrive at Net earnings attributable to Ingersoll-Rand plc in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income. Partially-owned equity affiliates represent 20-50% ownership interests in investments where the Company demonstrates significant influence, but does not have a controlling financial interest. Partially-owned equity affiliates are accounted for under the equity method.
Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates are based on several factors including the facts and circumstances available at the time the estimates are made, historical experience, risk of loss, general economic conditions and trends, and the assessment of the probable future outcome. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates and assumptions are reviewed periodically, and the effects of changes, if any, are reflected in the statement of operations in the period that they are determined.
Currency Translation: Assets and liabilities of non-U.S. subsidiaries, where the functional currency is not the U.S. dollar, have been translated at year-end exchange rates, and income and expense accounts have been translated using average exchange rates throughout the year. Adjustments resulting from the process of translating an entity’s financial statements into the U.S. dollar have been recorded in the equity section of the Consolidated Balance Sheet within Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Transactions that are denominated in a currency other than an entity’s functional currency are subject to changes in exchange rates with the resulting gains and losses recorded within Net earnings.
Cash and Cash Equivalents: Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, demand deposits and all highly liquid investments with original maturities at the time of purchase of three months or less. The Company maintains amounts on deposit at various financial institutions, which may at times exceed federally insured limits. However, management periodically evaluates the credit-worthiness of those institutions and has not experienced any losses on such deposits.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts: The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts receivable which represents the best estimate of probable loss inherent in the Company's accounts receivable portfolio. This estimate is based upon a two-step policy that results in the total recorded allowance for doubtful accounts. The first step is to record a portfolio reserve based on the aging of the outstanding accounts receivable portfolio and the Company's historical experience with the Company's end markets, customer base and products. The second step is to create a specific reserve for significant accounts as to which the customer's ability to satisfy their financial obligation to the Company is in doubt due to circumstances such as bankruptcy, deteriorating operating results or financial position. In these circumstances, management uses its judgment to record an allowance based on the best estimate of probable loss, factoring in such considerations as the market value of collateral, if applicable. Actual results could differ from those estimates. These estimates and assumptions are reviewed periodically, and the effects of changes, if any, are reflected in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income in the period that they are determined. The Company reserved $32.7 million and $26.9 million for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Inventories: Depending on the business, U.S. inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method or the lower of cost or market using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. Non-U.S. inventories are primarily stated at the lower of cost or market using the FIFO method. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, approximately 56% and 51%, respectively, of all inventory utilized the LIFO method.
Property, Plant and Equipment: Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Assets placed in service are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset except for leasehold improvements, which are depreciated over the shorter of their economic useful life or their lease term. The range of useful lives used to depreciate property, plant and equipment is as follows:
Machinery and equipment
Major expenditures for replacements and significant improvements that increase asset values and extend useful lives are also capitalized. Capitalized costs are amortized over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. Repairs and maintenance expenditures that do not extend the useful life of the asset are charged to expense as incurred. The carrying amounts of assets that are sold or retired and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts in the year of disposal, and any resulting gain or loss is reflected within current earnings.
Per ASC 360, "Property, Plant, and Equipment," (ASC 360) the Company assesses the recoverability of the carrying value of its property, plant and equipment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset group may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset group to the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset group. If the undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset group, an impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the carrying value of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset group.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets: The Company records as goodwill the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired in a business combination. In accordance with ASC 350, "Intangibles-Goodwill and Other," (ASC 350) goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested and reviewed annually for impairment during the fourth quarter or whenever there is a significant change in events or circumstances that indicate that the fair value of the asset is more likely than not less than the carrying amount of the asset.
Impairment of goodwill is assessed at the reporting unit level and begins with an optional qualitative assessment to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of each reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the goodwill impairment test under ASC 350. For those reporting units that bypass or fail the qualitative assessment, the test compares the carrying amount of the reporting unit to its estimated fair value. If the estimated fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is not impaired. To the extent that the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment loss will be recognized for the amount by which the reporting unit's carrying amount exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill in that reporting unit.
Intangible assets such as patents, customer-related intangible assets and other intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated economic lives. The weighted-average useful lives approximate the following:
The Company assesses the recoverability of the carrying value of its intangible assets with finite useful lives whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset group may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset group to the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset group. If the undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset group, an impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the carrying value of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset group.
Employee Benefit Plans: The Company provides a range of benefits, including pensions, postretirement and postemployment benefits to eligible current and former employees. Determining the cost associated with such benefits is dependent on various actuarial assumptions, including discount rates, expected return on plan assets, compensation increases, mortality, turnover rates, and healthcare cost trend rates. Actuaries perform the required calculations to determine expense in accordance with GAAP. Actual results may differ from the actuarial assumptions and are generally accumulated into Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and amortized into Net earnings over future periods. The Company reviews its actuarial assumptions at each measurement date and makes modifications to the assumptions based on current rates and trends, if appropriate.
Loss Contingencies: Liabilities are recorded for various contingencies arising in the normal course of business, including litigation and administrative proceedings, environmental matters, product liability, product warranty, worker’s compensation and other claims. The Company has recorded reserves in the financial statements related to these matters, which are developed using input derived from actuarial estimates and historical and anticipated experience data depending on the nature of the reserve, and in certain instances with consultation of legal counsel, internal and external consultants and engineers. Subject to the uncertainties inherent in estimating future costs for these types of liabilities, the Company believes its estimated reserves are reasonable and does not believe the final determination of the liabilities with respect to these matters would have a material effect on the financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows of the Company for any year.
Environmental Costs: The Company is subject to laws and regulations relating to protecting the environment. Environmental expenditures relating to current operations are expensed or capitalized as appropriate. Expenditures relating to existing conditions caused by past operations, which do not contribute to current or future revenues, are expensed. Liabilities for remediation costs are recorded when they are probable and can be reasonably estimated, generally no later than the completion of feasibility studies or the Company’s commitment to a plan of action. The assessment of this liability, which is calculated based on existing technology, does not reflect any offset for possible recoveries from insurance companies, and is not discounted.
Asbestos Matters: Certain of the Company's wholly-owned subsidiaries and former companies are named as defendants in asbestos-related lawsuits in state and federal courts. The Company records a liability for actual and anticipated future claims as well as an asset for anticipated insurance settlements. Asbestos-related defense costs are excluded from the asbestos claims liability and are recorded separately as services are incurred. None of the Company's existing or previously-owned businesses were a producer or manufacturer of asbestos. The Company records certain income and expenses associated with asbestos liabilities and corresponding insurance recoveries within discontinued operations, net of tax, as they relate to previously divested businesses, except for amounts associated with Trane U.S. Inc.’s asbestos liabilities and corresponding insurance recoveries which are recorded within continuing operations.
Product Warranties: Standard product warranty accruals are recorded at the time of sale and are estimated based upon product warranty terms and historical experience. The Company assesses the adequacy of its liabilities and will make adjustments as necessary based on known or anticipated warranty claims, or as new information becomes available. The Company's extended warranty liability represents the deferred revenue associated with its extended warranty contracts and is amortized into Revenue on a straight-line basis over the life of the contract, unless another method is more representative of the costs incurred. The Company assesses the adequacy of its liability by evaluating the expected costs under its existing contracts to ensure these expected costs do not exceed the extended warranty liability.
Income Taxes: Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on temporary differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, applying enacted tax rates expected to be in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company recognizes future tax benefits, such as net operating losses and tax credits, to the extent that realizing these benefits is considered in its judgment to be more likely than not. The Company regularly reviews the recoverability of its deferred tax assets considering its historic profitability, projected future taxable income, timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences and the feasibility of its tax planning strategies. Where appropriate, the Company records a valuation allowance with respect to a future tax benefit.
Revenue Recognition: Revenue is recognized when control of a good or service promised in a contract (i.e., performance obligation) is transferred to a customer. Control is obtained when a customer has the ability to direct the use of and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from that good or service. A majority of the Company's revenues are recognized at a point-in-time as control is transferred at a distinct point in time per the terms of a contract. However, a portion of the Company's revenues are recognized over time as the customer simultaneously receives control as the Company performs work under a contract. See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding revenue recognition.
Research and Development Costs: The Company conducts research and development activities for the purpose of developing and improving new products and services. These expenditures are expensed when incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, these expenditures amounted to $228.7 million, $210.8 million and $207.9 million, respectively.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The FASB ASC is the sole source of authoritative GAAP other than the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued rules and regulations that apply only to SEC registrants. The FASB issues an Accounting Standards Update (ASU) to communicate changes to the codification. The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASU's. ASU's not listed below were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, "Derivatives and hedging (Topic 815): Targeted improvements to accounting for hedging activities" (ASU 2017-12). This standard more closely aligns the results of cash flow and fair value hedge accounting with risk management activities through changes to both the designation and measurement guidance for qualifying hedging relationships and the presentation of hedge results in the financial statements. This standard also addresses specific limitations in current GAAP by expanding hedge accounting for both nonfinancial and financial risk components and by refining the measurement of hedge results to better reflect an entity’s hedging strategies. Additionally, by aligning the timing of recognition of hedge results with the earnings effect of the hedged item for cash flow and net investment hedges, and by including the earnings effect of the hedging instrument in the same income statement line item in which the earnings effect of the hedged item is presented, the results of an entity’s hedging program and the cost of executing that program will be more visible to users of financial statements. ASU 2017-12 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this standard on October 1, 2018 with no material impact to the financial statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory” (ASU 2016-16) which removed the prohibition in Topic 740 against the immediate recognition of the current and deferred income tax effects of intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory. As a result, the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of assets other than inventory will be recognized in the current period income statement rather than being deferred until the assets leave the consolidated group. The Company applied ASU 2016-16 on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment which reduced Retained earnings by $9.1 million as of January 1, 2018.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" (ASC 606), which created a comprehensive, five-step model for revenue recognition that requires a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. Under ASC 606, a company will be required to use more judgment and make more estimates when considering contract terms as well as relevant facts and circumstances when identifying performance obligations, estimating the amount of variable consideration in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective approach and recorded a cumulative effect adjustment to increase Retained earnings by $2.4 million with related amounts not materially impacting the Balance Sheet. Refer to Note 11, “Revenue,” for a further discussion on the adoption of ASC 606.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, "Compensation-Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost" (ASU 2017-07) which changes the way employers that sponsor defined benefit pension and/or postretirement benefit plans reflect net periodic benefit costs in the income statement. Under the previous standard, the multiple components of net periodic benefit costs are aggregated and reported within the operating section of the income statement or capitalized into assets when appropriate. The new standard requires a company to present the service cost component of net periodic benefit cost in the same income statement line as other employee compensation costs with the remaining components of net periodic benefit cost presented separately from the service cost component and outside of any subtotal of operating income, if one is presented. In addition, only the service cost component will be eligible for capitalization in assets. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2017 applying the presentation requirements retrospectively.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting" (ASU 2016-09) which simplifies several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions. The standard makes several modifications to the accounting for forfeitures, employer tax withholding on share-based compensation and the financial statement presentation of excess tax benefits or deficiencies. In addition, ASU 2016-09 clarifies the statement of cash flows presentation for certain components of share-based awards. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2017 and prospectively presented any excess tax benefits or deficiencies in the income statement as a component of Provision for income taxes rather than in the Equity section of the Balance Sheet. As part of the adoption, the Company reclassified $15.1 million of excess tax benefits previously unrecognized on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to increase Retained earnings as of January 1, 2017. In addition, the statement of cash flows for the twelve months ended December 31, 2016 was retrospectively adjusted to present $21.7 million of excess tax benefits as an operating activity rather than a financing activity.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, "Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that is a Service Contract" (ASU 2018-15), which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs in a cloud-computing arrangement service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. In addition, the guidance also clarifies the presentation requirements for reporting such costs in the financial statements. ASU 2018-15 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019 with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the ASU on its financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, "Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income" (ASU 2018-02), which allows companies to reclassify stranded tax effects in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) that have been caused by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the Act) to Retained earnings for each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate is recorded. ASU 2018-02 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted. However, the FASB has made the reclassification optional. As a result, the Company assessed the impact of the ASU on its financial statements and will not exercise the option to reclassify the stranded tax effects caused by the Act.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases" (ASU 2016-02), which requires the lease rights and obligations arising from lease contracts, including existing and new arrangements, to be recognized as assets and liabilities on the balance sheet. The standard also requires additional disclosures by lessees and contains targeted changes to accounting by lessors. ASU 2016-02 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. The FASB allows the option to adopt the standard using a modified retrospective approach through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings applied either to the beginning of the earliest period presented or the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company will adopt the new guidance effective January 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective approach through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company expects the estimated right-of-use asset and related lease liability recognized on the Balance Sheet to approximate $500 million. However, the Company does not expect the adoption to have a material impact to its Statement of Cash Flows or Statement of Comprehensive Income.