SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
A summary of significant accounting policies used in the preparation of the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements follows:
Basis of Presentation: The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements reflect the consolidated operations of the Company and have been prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) as defined by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) within the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC). Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. The assets, liabilities, results of operations and cash flows of all discontinued operations have been separately reported as discontinued operations for all periods presented. Certain reclassifications of amounts reported in prior periods have been made to conform with the current period presentation.
The Consolidated Financial Statements include all majority-owned subsidiaries of the Company. A noncontrolling interest in a subsidiary is considered an ownership interest in a majority-owned subsidiary that is not attributable to the parent. The Company includes Noncontrolling interest as a component of Total equity in the Consolidated Balance Sheet and the Net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests are presented as an adjustment from Net earnings used to arrive at Net earnings attributable to Ingersoll-Rand plc in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income. Partially-owned equity affiliates represent 20-50% ownership interests in investments where the Company demonstrates significant influence, but does not have a controlling financial interest. Partially-owned equity affiliates are accounted for under the equity method.
Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates are based on several factors including the facts and circumstances available at the time the estimates are made, historical experience, risk of loss, general economic conditions and trends, and the assessment of the probable future outcome. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates and assumptions are reviewed periodically, and the effects of changes, if any, are reflected in the statement of operations in the period that they are determined.
Currency Translation: Assets and liabilities of non-U.S. subsidiaries, where the functional currency is not the U.S. dollar, have been translated at year-end exchange rates, and income and expense accounts have been translated using average exchange rates throughout the year. Adjustments resulting from the process of translating an entity’s financial statements into the U.S. dollar have been recorded in the equity section of the Consolidated Balance Sheet within Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Transactions that are denominated in a currency other than an entity’s functional currency are subject to changes in exchange rates with the resulting gains and losses recorded within Net earnings.
Cash and Cash Equivalents: Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, demand deposits and all highly liquid investments with original maturities at the time of purchase of three months or less. The Company maintains amounts on deposit at various financial institutions, which may at times exceed federally insured limits. However, management periodically evaluates the credit-worthiness of those institutions and has not experienced any losses on such deposits.
Inventories: Depending on the business, U.S. inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method or the lower of cost or market using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. Non-U.S. inventories are primarily stated at the lower of cost or market using the FIFO method. At both December 31, 2017 and 2016, approximately 51% of all inventory utilized the LIFO method.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts: The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts receivable which represents the best estimate of probable loss inherent in the Company's accounts receivable portfolio. This estimate is based upon a two-step policy that results in the total recorded allowance for doubtful accounts. The first step is to record a portfolio reserve based on the aging of the outstanding accounts receivable portfolio and the Company's historical experience with the Company's end markets, customer base and products. The second step is to create a specific reserve for significant accounts as to which the customer's ability to satisfy their financial obligation to the Company is in doubt due to circumstances such as bankruptcy, deteriorating operating results or financial position. In these circumstances, management uses its judgment to record an allowance based on the best estimate of probable loss, factoring in such considerations as the market value of collateral, if applicable. Actual results could differ from those estimates. These estimates and assumptions are reviewed periodically, and the effects of changes, if any, are reflected in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income in the period that they are determined. The Company reserved $26.9 million and $26.0 million for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Property, Plant and Equipment: Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Assets placed in service are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset except for leasehold improvements, which are depreciated over the shorter of their economic useful life or their lease term. The range of useful lives used to depreciate property, plant and equipment is as follows:
Machinery and equipment
Major expenditures for replacements and significant improvements that increase asset values and extend useful lives are also capitalized. Capitalized costs are amortized over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. Repairs and maintenance expenditures that do not extend the useful life of the asset are charged to expense as incurred. The carrying amounts of assets that are sold or retired and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts in the year of disposal, and any resulting gain or loss is reflected within current earnings.
Per ASC 360, "Property, Plant, and Equipment," (ASC 360) the Company assesses the recoverability of the carrying value of its property, plant and equipment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset group may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset group to the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset group. If the undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset group, an impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the carrying value of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset group.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets: The Company records as goodwill the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired. In accordance with ASC 350, "Intangibles-Goodwill and Other," (ASC 350) goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested and reviewed annually for impairment during the fourth quarter or whenever there is a significant change in events or circumstances that indicate that the fair value of the asset is more likely than not less than the carrying amount of the asset.
Impairment of goodwill is assessed at the reporting unit level and begins with an optional qualitative assessment to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of each reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the goodwill impairment test under ASC 350. For those reporting units that bypass or fail the qualitative assessment, the test compares the carrying amount of the reporting unit to its estimated fair value. If the estimated fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is not impaired. To the extent that the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment loss will be recognized for the amount by which the reporting unit's carrying amount exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill in that reporting unit.
Intangible assets such as patents, customer-related intangible assets and other intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated economic lives. The weighted-average useful lives approximate the following:
The Company assesses the recoverability of the carrying value of its intangible assets with finite useful lives whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset group may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset group to the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset group. If the undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset group, an impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the carrying value of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset group.
Income Taxes: Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on temporary differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, applying enacted tax rates expected to be in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company recognizes future tax benefits, such as net operating losses and non-U.S. tax credits, to the extent that realizing these benefits is considered in its judgment to be more likely than not. The Company regularly reviews the recoverability of its deferred tax assets considering its historic profitability, projected future taxable income, timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences and the feasibility of its tax planning strategies. Where appropriate, the Company records a valuation allowance with respect to a future tax benefit.
Product Warranties: Standard product warranty accruals are recorded at the time of sale and are estimated based upon product warranty terms and historical experience. The Company assesses the adequacy of its liabilities and will make adjustments as necessary based on known or anticipated warranty claims, or as new information becomes available. The Company's extended warranty liability represents the deferred revenue associated with its extended warranty contracts and is amortized into Revenue on a straight-line basis over the life of the contract, unless another method is more representative of the costs incurred. The Company assesses the adequacy of its liability by evaluating the expected costs under its existing contracts to ensure these expected costs do not exceed the extended warranty liability.
Treasury Stock: The Parent Company has repurchased its common shares from time to time as authorized by the Board of Directors. These repurchases are at the discretion of management subject to market conditions, regulatory requirements and other considerations. Amounts are recorded at cost and included within the Equity section of the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Revenue Recognition: Revenue is recognized and earned when all of the following criteria are satisfied: (a) persuasive evidence of a sales arrangement exists; (b) the price is fixed or determinable; (c) collectability is reasonably assured; and (d) delivery has occurred or service has been rendered. Delivery generally occurs when the title and the risks and rewards of ownership have substantially transferred to the customer. Both the persuasive evidence of a sales arrangement and fixed or determinable price criteria are deemed to be satisfied upon receipt of an executed and legally binding sales agreement or contract that clearly defines the terms and conditions of the transaction including the respective obligations of the parties. If the defined terms and conditions allow variability in all or a component of the price, revenue is not recognized until such time that the price becomes fixed or determinable. At the point of sale, the Company validates that existence of an enforceable claim that requires payment within a reasonable amount of time and assesses the collectability of that claim. If collectability is not deemed to be reasonably assured, then revenue recognition is deferred until such time that collectability becomes probable or cash is received. Delivery is not considered to have occurred until the customer has taken title and assumed the risks and rewards of ownership. Service and installation revenue are recognized when earned. In some instances, customer acceptance provisions are included in sales arrangements to give the buyer the ability to ensure the delivered product or service meets the criteria established in the order. In these instances, revenue recognition is deferred until the acceptance terms specified in the arrangement are fulfilled through customer acceptance or a demonstration that established criteria have been satisfied. If uncertainty exists about customer acceptance, revenue is not recognized until acceptance has occurred.
The Company offers various sales incentive programs to customers, dealers, and distributors. Sales incentive programs do not preclude revenue recognition, but do require an accrual for the Company's best estimate of expected activity. Examples of the sales incentives that are accrued for as a contra receivable and sales deduction at the point of sale include, but are not limited to, discounts (i.e., net 30 type), coupons, and rebates where the customer does not have to provide any additional requirements to receive the discount. Sales returns and customer disputes involving a question of quantity or price are also accounted for as a reduction in revenue and a contra receivable. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company had a customer claim accrual (contra receivable) of $3.2 million and $3.7 million, respectively. All other incentives or incentive programs where the customer is required to reach a certain sales level, remain a customer for a certain period of time, provide a rebate form or is subject to additional requirements are accounted for as a reduction of revenue and establishment of a liability. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company had a sales incentive accrual of $107.3 million and $87.5 million, respectively. Each of these accruals represents the best estimate the Company expects to pay related to previously sold units. These estimates are reviewed regularly for appropriateness. If updated information or actual amounts are different from previous estimates, the revisions are included in the results for the period in which they become known. Historically, the aggregate differences, if any, between the Company's estimates and actual amounts in any year have not had a material impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company enters into maintenance and extended warranty contracts with customers. Revenue related to these services is recognized on a straight-line basis over the life of the contract, unless sufficient historical evidence indicates that the cost of providing these services is incurred on an other than straight-line basis. In these circumstances, revenue is recognized over the contract period in proportion to the costs expected to be incurred in performing the service.
The Company, primarily through its Climate segment, enters into construction-type contracts to design, deliver and build integrated HVAC solutions to meet customer specifications. The term of these types of contracts is typically less than one year, but can be as long as three years. Revenues related to these contracts are recognized using the percentage-of-completion method in accordance with GAAP. This measure of progress toward completion, utilized to recognize sales and profits, is based on the proportion of actual cost incurred to date as compared to the total estimate of contract costs at completion. The timing of revenue recognition often differs from the invoicing schedule to the customer, with revenue recognition in advance of customer invoicing recorded to unbilled accounts receivable and invoicing in advance of revenue recognition recorded to deferred revenue. At December 31, 2017, all recorded receivables (billed and unbilled) are due within one year. The Company re-evaluates its contract estimates periodically and reflects changes in estimates in the current period using the cumulative catch-up method. These periodic reviews have not historically resulted in significant adjustments. If estimated contract costs are in excess of contract revenues, then the excess costs are accrued.
The Company enters into sales arrangements that contain multiple elements, such as equipment, installation and service revenue. For multiple element arrangements, each element is evaluated to determine the separate units of accounting. The total arrangement consideration is then allocated to the separate units of accounting based on their relative selling price at the inception of the arrangement. The relative selling price is determined using vendor specific objective evidence (VSOE) of selling price, if it exists; otherwise, third-party evidence (TPE) of selling price is used. If neither VSOE nor TPE of selling price exists for a deliverable, a best estimate of the selling price is developed for that deliverable. The Company primarily utilizes VSOE to determine its relative selling price. The Company recognizes revenue for delivered elements when the delivered item has stand-alone value to the customer, the basic revenue recognition criteria have been met, and only customary refund or return rights related to the delivered elements exist.
Environmental Costs: The Company is subject to laws and regulations relating to protecting the environment. Environmental expenditures relating to current operations are expensed or capitalized as appropriate. Expenditures relating to existing conditions caused by past operations, which do not contribute to current or future revenues, are expensed. Liabilities for remediation costs are recorded when they are probable and can be reasonably estimated, generally no later than the completion of feasibility studies or the Company’s commitment to a plan of action. The assessment of this liability, which is calculated based on existing technology, does not reflect any offset for possible recoveries from insurance companies, and is not discounted.
Asbestos Matters: Certain of the Company's wholly-owned subsidiaries and former companies are named as defendants in asbestos-related lawsuits in state and federal courts. The Company records a liability for actual and anticipated future claims as well as an asset for anticipated insurance settlements. Asbestos related defense costs are excluded from the asbestos claims liability and are recorded separately as services are incurred. None of the Company's existing or previously-owned businesses were a producer or manufacturer of asbestos. The Company records certain income and expenses associated with asbestos liabilities and corresponding insurance recoveries within discontinued operations, net of tax, as they relate to previously divested businesses, except for amounts associated with Trane U.S. Inc.’s asbestos liabilities and corresponding insurance recoveries which are recorded within continuing operations.
Research and Development Costs: The Company conducts research and development activities for the purpose of developing and improving new products and services. These expenditures are expensed when incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, these expenditures amounted to approximately $210.8 million, $207.9 million and $205.9 million, respectively.
Software Costs: The Company capitalizes certain qualified internal-use software costs during the application development stage and subsequently amortizes those costs over the software's useful life, which ranges from 2 to 7 years. The Company capitalizes costs, including interest, incurred to develop or acquire internal-use software. These costs are capitalized subsequent to the preliminary project stage once specific criteria are met. Costs incurred in the preliminary project planning stage are expensed. Other costs, such as maintenance and training, are also expensed as incurred. Capitalized costs are amortized over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method.
Employee Benefit Plans: The Company provides a range of benefits, including pensions, postretirement and postemployment benefits to eligible current and former employees. Determining the cost associated with such benefits is dependent on various actuarial assumptions, including discount rates, expected return on plan assets, compensation increases, mortality, turnover rates, and healthcare cost trend rates. Actuaries perform the required calculations to determine expense in accordance with GAAP. Actual results may differ from the actuarial assumptions and are generally accumulated into Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and amortized into Net earnings over future periods. The Company reviews its actuarial assumptions at each measurement date and makes modifications to the assumptions based on current rates and trends, if appropriate.
Loss Contingencies: Liabilities are recorded for various contingencies arising in the normal course of business, including litigation and administrative proceedings, environmental matters, product liability, product warranty, worker’s compensation and other claims. The Company has recorded reserves in the financial statements related to these matters, which are developed using input derived from actuarial estimates and historical and anticipated experience data depending on the nature of the reserve, and in certain instances with consultation of legal counsel, internal and external consultants and engineers. Subject to the uncertainties inherent in estimating future costs for these types of liabilities, the Company believes its estimated reserves are reasonable and does not believe the final determination of the liabilities with respect to these matters would have a material effect on the financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows of the Company for any year.
Derivative Instruments: The Company periodically enters into cash flow and other derivative transactions to specifically hedge exposure to various risks related to interest rates and currency rates. The Company recognizes all derivatives on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at their fair value as either assets or liabilities. For cash flow designated hedges, the effective portion of the changes in fair value of the derivative contract are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes, and are recognized in Net earnings at the time earnings are affected by the hedged transaction. For other derivative transactions, the changes in the fair value of the derivative contract are immediately recognized in Net earnings.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The FASB ASC is the sole source of authoritative GAAP other than the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued rules and regulations that apply only to SEC registrants. The FASB issues an Accounting Standards Update (ASU) to communicate changes to the codification. The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASU's. ASU's not listed below were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, "Compensation-Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost" (ASU 2017-07) which changes the way employers that sponsor defined benefit pension and/or postretirement benefit plans reflect net periodic benefit costs in the income statement. Under the previous standard, the multiple components of net periodic benefit costs are aggregated and reported within the operating section of the income statement or capitalized into assets when appropriate. The new standard requires a company to present the service cost component of net periodic benefit cost in the same income statement line as other employee compensation costs with the remaining components of net periodic benefit cost presented separately from the service cost component and outside of any subtotal of operating income, if one is presented. In addition, only the service cost component will be eligible for capitalization in assets. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2017 applying the presentation requirements retrospectively. Refer to Note 10, "Pensions and Postretirement Benefits Other than Pensions" and Note 14, "Other Income/ (Expense), net" for additional information.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment” (ASU 2017-04) which simplifies the accounting for goodwill impairment by eliminating Step 2 of the current goodwill impairment test which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation to measure goodwill impairment. Under the new standard, a company will record an impairment charge based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value. ASU 2017-04 does not change the guidance on completing Step 1 of the goodwill impairment test and still allows a company to perform the optional qualitative goodwill impairment assessment before determining whether to proceed to Step 1. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2017 and will apply its guidance on future impairment assessments.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, "Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash" (ASU 2016-18). This standard requires restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents to be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period amounts shown on the statements of cash flows. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature of restrictions on cash balances and how the statement of cash flows reconciles to the balance sheet in any situation in which the balance sheet includes more that one line item of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash. The Company adopted this standard on October 1, 2017 with no impact to its financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments” (ASU 2016-15). This standard clarifies how certain cash receipts and cash payments are classified on the statement of cash flows. The following eight specific cash flow issues are addressed: debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs; settlement of zero-coupon debt instruments or other debt instruments with coupon interest rates that are insignificant in relation to the effective interest rate of the borrowing; contingent consideration payments made after a business combination; proceeds from the settlement of insurance claims; proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies (including bank-owned life insurance policies); distributions received from equity method investees; beneficial interests in securitization transactions and separately identifiable cash flows. In addition, the standard clarifies how the predominance principle should be applied when cash receipts and cash payments have aspects of more than one class of cash flows. The Company adopted this standard on October 1, 2017 with no impact to its financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting" (ASU 2016-09) which simplifies several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions. The standard makes several modifications to the accounting for forfeitures, employer tax withholding on share-based compensation and the financial statement presentation of excess tax benefits or deficiencies. In addition, ASU 2016-09 clarifies the statement of cash flows presentation for certain components of share-based awards. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2017 and prospectively presented any excess tax benefits or deficiencies in the income statement as a component of Provision for income taxes rather than in the Equity section of the Balance Sheet. As part of the adoption, the Company reclassified $15.1 million of excess tax benefits previously unrecognized on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to increase Retained earnings as of January 1, 2017. In addition, the statement of cash flows for the twelve months ended December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 was retrospectively adjusted to present $21.7 million and $37.3 million, respectively, of excess tax benefits as an operating activity rather than a financing activity.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, "Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted improvements to accounting for hedging activities" (ASU 2017-12). This standard more closely aligns the results of cash flow and fair value hedge accounting with risk management activities through changes to both the designation and measurement guidance for qualifying hedging relationships and the presentation of hedge results in the financial statements. This standard also addresses specific limitations in current GAAP by expanding hedge accounting for both nonfinancial and financial risk components and by refining the measurement of hedge results to better reflect an entity’s hedging strategies. Additionally, by aligning the timing of recognition of hedge results with the earnings effect of the hedged item for cash flow and net investment hedges, and by including the earnings effect of the hedging instrument in the same income statement line item in which the earnings effect of the hedged item is presented, the results of an entity’s hedging program and the cost of executing that program will be more visible to users of financial statements. ASU 2017-12 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of this ASU on its financial statements and does not expect its adoption to have a material impact.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory” (ASU 2016-16) which removes the prohibition in Topic 740 against the immediate recognition of the current and deferred income tax effects of intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory. ASU 2016-16 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. The amendments are to be applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to Retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2018 and expects to record approximately $10 million as a cumulative-effect adjustment.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases" (ASU 2016-02) which requires the lease rights and obligations arising from lease contracts, including existing and new arrangements, to be recognized as assets and liabilities on the balance sheet. The standard also requires additional disclosures by lessees and contains targeted changes to accounting by lessors. ASU 2016-02 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. The standard is required to be adopted at the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. The Company is currently developing an implementation plan and gathering data to further assess the impact of the ASU on its financial statements. The adoption on January 1, 2019 is anticipated to have a material impact on assets and liabilities due to the recognition of lease rights and obligations on the Balance Sheet. However, the Company does not expect the adoption to have a material impact to its Statements of Cash Flows or Statements of Comprehensive Income beginning in 2019.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" (ASC 606), which creates a comprehensive, five-step model for revenue recognition that requires a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. Under the new standard, a company will be required to use more judgment and make more estimates when considering contract terms as well as relevant facts and circumstances when identifying performance obligations, estimating the amount of variable consideration in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. In addition, ASC 606 enhances disclosures about revenue, provides guidance for transactions that were not previously addressed comprehensively and improves guidance for multiple-element arrangements. ASC 606 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and is required to be applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying it recognized at the date of initial application. Early adoption is permitted, but not before the original effective date of the standard.
In 2014, the Company began to assess the impact of adopting ASC 606 on its revenue recognition practices. Utilizing working sessions and document reviews with each of its reporting units as well as with appropriate functions such as legal and tax, the Company identified potential differences that would result from applying the requirements of the new standard to the Company's revenue contracts. During 2015, the Company drafted preliminary accounting positions addressing identified potential differences and later determined that certain highly engineered products sold to customers within the Industrial segment for which revenue is currently recognized at a point in time, would meet the criteria of a performance obligation satisfied over time under the new standard. The Company will apply the guidance by recognizing the cumulative effect of initially applying the standard as an opening balance sheet adjustment to retained earnings in the period of initial adoption. The Company refined the estimate of the cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings to be recognized on January 1, 2018 and determined the impact to be approximately $2 million with related amounts not materially impacting Net revenues, Operating income or the Balance Sheet.