|Overview and Basis of Presentation
Company and Background
Zendesk was founded in Denmark in 2007 and reincorporated in Delaware in April 2009.
We are a software development company that provides software as a service, or SaaS, solutions that are intended to help organizations and their customers build better experiences. Our customer experience solutions are built upon a modern architecture that enables us and our customers to rapidly innovate, adapt our technology in novel ways, and easily integrate with other products and applications. With our origins in customer service, we have evolved our offerings over time to product and platform solutions that work together to help organizations understand the broader customer journey, improve communications across all channels, and engage where and when it’s needed most.
References to Zendesk, the “Company,” “our,” or “we” in these notes refer to Zendesk, Inc. and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis.
Basis of Presentation
These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Therefore, these condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 13, 2020. There have been no changes to our significant accounting policies described in the Annual Report on Form 10-K that have had a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes.
The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2019 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly our financial position, results of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders' equity, and cash flows for the interim periods, but are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated for the full year ending December 31, 2020.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates, judgments, and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reported periods.
Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include:
•the estimate of variable consideration related to revenue recognition;
•the estimate of credit losses for accounts receivable and marketable securities;
•the fair value and useful lives of acquired intangible assets;
•the capitalization and useful life of capitalized costs to obtain customer contracts;
•the valuation of strategic investments;
•the useful lives of property and equipment;
•the capitalization and useful lives of internal-use software;
•the lease term and incremental borrowing rate for lease liabilities;
•the fair value of our convertible senior notes;
•the fair value of asset retirement obligations;
•the fair value and expense recognition for certain share-based awards;
•the preparation of financial forecasts used in currency hedging;
•the recognition and measurement of legal contingencies; and
•the recognition of tax benefits and forecasts used to determine our effective tax rate.
In December 2019, the novel coronavirus and resulting disease (“COVID-19”) was reported and in March 2020 the World Health Organization declared it a pandemic. The extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our operational and financial performance will depend on certain developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak, impact on our customers and our sales cycles, and impact on our employees, as discussed in more detail the Overview section. During the quarter, this uncertainty resulted in a higher level of judgment related to our estimates and assumptions concerning variable consideration related to revenue recognition, the estimate of credit losses for accounts receivable, and impairment of strategic investments. As of the date of issuance of the financial statements, we are not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require us to update our estimates, judgments, or revise the carrying value of our assets or liabilities. These estimates may change, as new events occur and additional information is obtained, and are recognized in the consolidated financial statements as soon as they become known. Actual results could differ from those estimates and any such differences may be material to our financial statements.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, net of allowance for doubtful accounts. The allowance is based upon historical loss patterns, the age of each past due invoice, and an evaluation of the potential risk of loss associated with delinquent accounts. The allowance also reflects current market conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions. As of March 31, 2020, our allowance reflects increased collectibility concerns stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic and may increase in future periods as we ascertain further impacts to our customers and business. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $6 million and $3 million as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
Accounts receivable deemed uncollectable are charged against the allowance for doubtful accounts when identified. The balance of accounts receivable also includes contract assets, which are recorded when revenue is recognized in advance of invoicing.
Concentrations of Risk
As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, no customers represented 10% or greater of our total accounts receivable balance. There were no customers that individually exceeded 10% of our revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2020 or 2019.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, regarding ASC Topic 740 “Income Taxes,” which simplifies certain aspects of accounting for income taxes. The guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within that reporting period. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this standard on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued ASU 2016-13, including subsequent amendments, regarding ASC Topic 326 “Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which modifies the accounting methodology for most financial instruments. The guidance establishes a new “expected loss model” that requires entities to estimate current expected credit losses on financial instruments by using all practical and relevant information. Additionally, any expected credit losses are to be reflected as allowances rather than reductions in the amortized cost of available-for-sale debt securities. We adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2020. The adoption did not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In connection with the adoption, for purposes of identifying and measuring impairment, the policy election was made to exclude accrued interest from both the fair value and amortized cost basis of our available-for-sale debt securities. Such accrued interest is recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, regarding ASC Topic 350 “Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment,” which simplifies the required methodology to calculate an impairment charge for goodwill. We adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2020. The adoption did not have an effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, regarding ASC Topic 820 “Fair Value Measurement,” which modifies the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements for certain types of investments. We adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2020. The adoption did not have an effect on our consolidated financial statements.