|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
(a)Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Therefore, these condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019 (“Annual Report”).
The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018, included herein, was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but may not include all disclosures including certain notes required by U.S. GAAP on an annual reporting basis.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive loss and cash flows for the interim periods, but are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated for the full year 2019 or any future period.
(b)Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
(c)Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates are used for, but not limited to, revenue allowances and sales credit reserves; recoverability of long-lived and intangible assets; capitalization and useful life of the Company’s capitalized internal-use software development costs; fair value of acquired intangible assets and goodwill; accruals and contingencies. Estimates are based on historical experience and on various assumptions that the Company believes are reasonable under current circumstances. However, future events are subject to change and best estimates and judgments may require further adjustments; therefore, actual results could differ materially from those estimates. Management periodically evaluates such estimates and they are adjusted prospectively based upon such periodic evaluation.
(d)Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to a concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities and accounts receivable. The Company maintains cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities with financial institutions that management believes are financially sound and have minimal credit risk exposure although the balances will exceed insured limits.
The Company sells its services to a wide variety of customers. If the financial condition or results of operations of any significant customers deteriorate substantially, operating results could be adversely affected. To reduce credit risk, management performs credit evaluations of the financial condition of significant customers. The Company does not require collateral from its credit customers and maintains reserves for estimated credit losses on customer accounts when considered necessary. Actual credit losses may differ from the Company’s estimates. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively, no customer organization accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s total revenue.
As of September 30, 2019, and December 31, 2018, no customer organization represented more than 10% of the Company’s gross accounts receivable.
(e)Deferred Revenue and Customer Deposits
Deferred revenue is recorded when cash payments are received in advance of future usage on non-cancelable contracts. Customer refundable prepayments are recorded as customer deposits. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, the Company recognized $2.3 million and $17.7 million of revenue, respectively, and during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company recognized $3.9 million and $11.1 million of revenue, respectively, that was included in the deferred revenue and customer deposits balance as of the beginning of the year.
(f)Deferred Sales Commissions
The Company records an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer, for example, sales commissions that are earned upon execution of contracts. The Company uses the portfolio of data method to determine the estimated period of benefit of capitalized commissions which is determined to be five years. Amortization expense related to these capitalized costs related to initial contracts, upsells and renewals, is recognized on a straight line basis over the estimated period of benefit of the capitalized commissions. Total net capitalized costs as of September 30, 2019, and December 31, 2018, were $23.6 million and $9.4 million, respectively, and are included in prepaid expenses and other current and long‑term assets in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. Amortization of these assets was $1.3 million and $2.9 million in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, respectively, and $0.4 million and $0.9 million in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively, and is included in sales and marketing expense in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.
(g) Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)", which was further clarified in July 2018 by ASU 2018‑10, “Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases”, and ASU 2018‑11, “Leases-Targeted Improvements”. ASU 2018-10 provides narrow amendments to clarify how to apply certain aspects of the new lease standard. ASU 2018-11 addresses implementation issues related to the new lease standard. The standard is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Under the new standard, lessees are required to recognize in the balance sheet the right-of-use ("ROU") assets and lease liabilities that arise from operating leases. The Company adopted the standard using the optional alternative method on a prospective basis with an effective date as of the beginning of the Company’s fiscal year, January 1, 2019, and applied it to the operating leases that existed on that date. Prior year comparative financial information was not recast under the new standard and continues to be presented under ASC 840. The Company elected to utilize the package of practical expedients available for expired or existing contracts which allowed the Company to carryforward historical assessments of (a) whether contracts are or contain leases, (b) lease classification, and (c) initial direct costs. The Company elected the use of hindsight practical expedient in determining the lease term and assessing the likelihood that lease renewal, termination or purchase option will be exercised. The Company also elected to apply the short-term lease exception for all leases. Under the short-term lease exception, the Company will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities for leases that, at the acquisition date, have a remaining lease term of 12 months or less.
As a result of implementing this guidance, the Company recognized a $123.5 million net operating ROU asset and a $132.0 million operating lease liability in its condensed consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019. The ROU asset was presented net of deferred rent of $9.0 million as of January 1, 2019, in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance
sheet. In addition, on February 1, 2019, the Company acquired through its business combination with SendGrid approximately $33.7 million in operating ROU assets, $32.6 million in operating lease liability, $14.2 million in finance ROU assets and $13.6 million in finance lease liability.
The Company measured the lease liability at the present value of the future lease payments as of January 1, 2019. The Company used its incremental borrowing rate to discount the lease payments. The Company derived the discount rate, adjusted for differences in the term and payment patterns, from the information available at the adoption date. The right-of-use asset is valued at the amount of the lease liability adjusted for the remaining December 31, 2018, balance of unamortized lease incentives, prepaid rent and deferred rent. The lease liability is subsequently measured at the present value of unpaid future lease payments as of the reporting date with a corresponding adjustment to the right-of-use asset. Absent a lease modification, the Company will continue to utilize the January 1, 2019, incremental borrowing rate.
The Company recognizes operating lease costs on a straight-line basis and presents these costs as operating expenses within the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Within the consolidated statements of cash flows the Company presents the lease payments made on the operating leases within the cash flows from operations and principal payments made on the finance leases as part of financing activities.
The financial results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, are presented under the new standard, while the comparative periods presented are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the Company’s historical accounting policy.
See Note 5, “Right-of-use Assets and Lease Liabilities” for further information.
In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-01, “Codification Improvements” to Leases (Topic 842). This pronouncement did not have a material impact on the Company's financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018‑13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement”. The amendments under ASU 2018‑13 remove, add and modify certain disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in ASC 820. The amendments are effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company early adopted this guidance effective April 1, 2019. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-09, "Codification Improvements ", which does not prescribe any new accounting guidance, but instead makes minor improvements and clarifications of several topics. Certain updates are applicable immediately while others provide for a transition period to adopt as part of the next fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company adopted this guidance effective April 1, 2019. The adoptions of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017‑04, “Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment”, which removes the second step of the goodwill impairment test that requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation. A goodwill impairment will now be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. This guidance is effective prospectively for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company early adopted this guidance effective April 1, 2019. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
(h) Recently Issued Accounting Guidance, Not yet Adopted
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018‑15, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal‑Use Software (Subtopic 350‑40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract”. This standard aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal‑use software. The standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company is evaluating the impact of the adoption of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016‑13, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments”, which changes the impairment model for most financial assets. The new model uses a forward‑looking expected loss method, which will generally result in earlier recognition of allowances for losses. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018‑19, “Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit
Losses”, which clarifies that receivables arising from operating leases are not within the scope of Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses. Instead, impairment of receivables arising from operating leases should be accounted for in accordance with Topic 842, Leases. In April 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-04, "Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and Topic 825, Financial Instruments," which clarifies treatment of certain credit losses. In May 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-05, "Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326): Targeted Transition Relief", which permits an entity, upon adoption of ASU 2016-13, to irrevocably elect the fair value option (on an instrument-by-instrument basis) for eligible financial assets measured at amortized cost basis. These ASUs are effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is evaluating the impact of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements.