Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The significant accounting policies used in preparing these consolidated financial statements are consistent with the accounting policies described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for 2017, except as described below.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted tax legislation referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”). The Tax Act makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code that will impact our fiscal year ended September 30, 2018 including, but not limited to (a) reducing the U.S. federal corporate tax rate, (b) requiring a one-time transition tax on certain unrepatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries (“Transition Tax”), and (c) accelerating expensing of certain capital expenditures. The Tax Act reduced the federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%. The Internal Revenue Code stipulates that our fiscal year ending September 30, 2018 will have a blended corporate tax rate of 24.5%, which is based on a proration of the applicable tax rates before and after the effective date of the Tax Act. The statutory tax rate of 21% will apply to future years.
We establish deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined in part based on the differences between the accounting treatment of tax assets and liabilities under GAAP and the tax basis of assets and liabilities using statutory tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in statutory tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in net income in the period that includes the enactment date. We continue to assert that the majority of the cash at our foreign subsidiaries represents earnings considered to be permanently reinvested for which deferred taxes have not been provided for in our financial statements, as we do not intend, nor do we foresee a need, to repatriate these funds. However, with the enactment of the Tax Act, we are evaluating our future cash deployment and may change our permanent reinvestment assertion in future periods.
We have a variety of deferred income tax assets in numerous tax jurisdictions. The recoverability of these deferred income tax assets is assessed periodically and valuation allowances are recognized if it is determined that it is more likely than not that the benefits will not be realized. When performing this assessment, we consider future taxable income, the reversal of existing temporary differences, and tax planning strategies. We account for accrued interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. ASU 2017-04 eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test and modifies the concept of impairment from the condition that exists when the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value to the condition that exists when the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value. We early adopted this standard for fiscal year 2018. See Note 5 of Part I and Critical Accounting Estimates, of this Form 10-Q for further information on the impact this adoption had on our consolidated results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-09 requires entities to recognize revenue in a way that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The FASB has also issued several updates to ASU 2014-09. The new standard supersedes U.S. GAAP guidance on revenue recognition and requires the use of more estimates and judgments than the present standards. It also requires significant disclosures sufficient to enable users to understand the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers, including qualitative and quantitative disclosures about contracts with customers, significant judgments and changes in judgments, and assets recognized from the costs to obtain or fulfill a contract. ASU 2014-09 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2018, including interim periods within that reporting period, and allows for either full retrospective adoption or modified retrospective adoption.
Based on our initial assessment, which included a comparison of our existing accounting policies and practices against the new standard and a review of contracts, we believe the key areas of consideration for our financial statements include percentage-of-completion accounting, separate performance obligations, and related revenue recognized over time. We are actively executing our implementation plan and have developed new accounting policies and created draft disclosures under the new standard. We are also evaluating changes in our internal controls over revenue recognition and continue to implement system changes and enhancements to facilitate the collection of data required for disclosures under the new standard. As previously disclosed, we expect to adopt this new standard using the modified retrospective method, which would result in a cumulative effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. We currently believe the most significant impact of the adoption of this standard relates to the increased financial statement disclosures. We currently do not expect the adoption of ASU 2014-09 to have a material impact on our consolidated results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases. ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize a right of use asset and related lease liability for leases that have terms of more than twelve months. For income statement purposes, the FASB retained a dual model, requiring leases to be classified as either operating or finance, with the classifications based on criteria that are similar to those applied under the current lease guidance, without the explicit bright lines. ASU 2016-02 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-02 will have on our existing accounting policies and consolidated financial statements, and expect that there will be increases in assets and liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet upon adoption, due to the recording of right-of-use assets and corresponding lease liabilities.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Statements. ASU 2016-13 replaces the current incurred loss impairment model with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to determine credit loss estimates. ASU 2016-13 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2019. We are currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-13 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows: Restricted Cash. ASU 2016-18 requires that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-18 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We expect the adoption of ASU 2016-18 to have a financial statement presentation and disclosure impact only.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business. ASU 2017-01 assists entities in determining whether a transaction involves an asset or a business. Specifically, it states that when substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (or disposed of) is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not a business. If this initial test is not met, a set cannot be considered a business unless it includes an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create output. ASU 2017-01 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating ASU 2017-01, but do not expect it to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost. ASU 2017-07 states that an employer must report the service cost component in the same line item or items as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by the pertinent employees during the period and present the other components of net benefit cost (as defined in paragraphs 715-30-35-4 and 715-60-35-9) in the income statement separately from the service cost component and outside a subtotal of income from operations (if one is presented). In addition, ASU 2017-07 limits the capitalization of compensation costs to the service cost component only (if capitalization is appropriate). ASU 2017-07 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2017-07 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. ASU 2017-09 clarifies when changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award must be accounted for as modifications (in accordance with Topic 718). The new guidance will provide relief to entities that make non-substantive changes to share-based payment awards. ASU 2017-09 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The update would be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. We do not expect ASU 2017-09 to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. ASU 2017-12 intends to better align an entity's risk management activities and financial reporting for hedging relationships through changes to both the designation and measurement guidance for qualifying hedging relationships and the presentation of hedge results. The amendments expand and refine hedge accounting for both nonfinancial and financial risk components, and align the recognition and presentation of the effects of the hedging instrument and the hedged item in the financial statements. In addition, this ASU makes certain targeted improvements to simplify the application of hedge accounting guidance. ASU 2017-12 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The amendment would be applied to hedging relationships existing on the date of adoption and the effect of adoption would be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption (that is, the initial application date). We are currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2017-12 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. ASU 2018-02 allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Act. The amendments in this ASU also require certain disclosures about stranded tax effects. The amendments eliminate the stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Act and will improve the usefulness of information reported to financial statement users. However, because the amendments only relate to the reclassification of the income tax effects of the Tax Act, the underlying guidance that requires that the effect of a change in tax laws or rates be included in income from continuing operations is not affected. ASU 2018-02 will be effective for our fiscal year beginning on October 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2018-02 will have on our consolidated financial statements.