|THE COMPANY AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Synacor, Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company” or “Synacor”), is a digital technology company that provides email and collaboration software, cloud-based identity management platforms, managed web and mobile portals, and advertising solutions. The Company’s customers include communications providers, media companies, government entities and enterprises. Synacor is a trusted partner for enterprise software platforms and monetization solutions that Synacor delivers through public and private cloud software-as-a-service, software licensing, and professional services. Synacor enables clients to deepen their engagement with their consumers and users.
Basis of Presentation —The consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
During the first quarter of 2019, the Company made a change to its segment reporting structure which resulted in two segments: 1) Software & Services and 2) Portal & Advertising. As a result, certain prior year amounts have been restated to conform to current year’s presentation. Historical Amounts in Note 1 – The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, Note 2 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers and Note 7 – Segment Information have been restated to reflect these changes in reportable segments.
Additionally, the Company has reclassified certain costs and expenses in the consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 amounting to $0.8 million, from technology and development to cost of revenue to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on previously reported total costs and operating expenses and net loss. Historical Amounts in Note 1 – The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies have been restated to reflect this reclassification.
Foreign Currency— The assets and liabilities of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at the rate of exchange in effect at the balance sheet date. Income and expense items are translated at the average exchange rates prevailing during the period.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash—The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents that are contractually restricted from operating use are classified as restricted cash and cash equivalents. The Company had no restricted cash as of the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Accounts Receivable —The Company records accounts receivable at the invoiced amount and does not charge interest on past due invoices. An allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained to reserve for potentially uncollectible accounts receivable. The Company reviews its accounts receivable from customers that are past due to identify specific accounts with known disputes or collectability issues. In determining the amount of the reserve, the Company makes judgments about the creditworthiness of customers based on ongoing credit evaluations.
Property and Equipment —Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
|Computer software||3 years|
|Furniture and fixtures||7 years|
Computer hardware under finance leases and leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the assets.
Long-Lived Assets —The Company reviews the carrying value of its long-lived assets, exclusive of goodwill, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable. For purposes of evaluating and measuring impairment, the Company groups a long-lived asset or assets with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of the assets to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. If such assets are considered impaired, the impairment is measured and recognized as the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. See Note 3 - Property and Equipment —Net further details.
Software Development Costs —The Company capitalizes certain costs incurred for the development of internal use software, as well as the costs of developing software for sale or license to customers. Internal use software includes the Company’s proprietary portal software and related applications, Cloud ID authentication software, and various applications used in the management of the Company’s portals. Software for sale or license to customers includes the Company’s proprietary Email/Collaboration offerings. Costs incurred during the preliminary project stage for internal software programs are expensed as incurred. External and internal costs incurred during the application development stage (subsequent to the achievement of technological feasibility on software to be sold or licensed) of new software development, as well as for upgrades and enhancements for software programs that result in additional functionality are capitalized. Software development costs capitalized for sale or license to customers and cost capitalized for the development of internal use software are amortized over the estimated useful life of the applicable software. Impairment charges are taken as a result of circumstances that indicate that the carrying values of the assets were not fully recoverable. The Company utilizes the discounted cash flow method to determine the fair value of the capitalized software assets. Impairment charges for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 are included in general and administrative expense in the consolidated statement of operations.
Leases — The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease and classifies that lease as either an operating or finance lease at inception. Right-of-use (ROU) assets and liabilities are recognized at lease commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the reasonably certain lease term. For this purpose, only payments that are fixed and determinable at the time of commencement are considered. As many of the leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The incremental borrowing rate is a hypothetical rate based on factors including the Company’s credit rating. The ROU asset also includes any lease payments made prior to commencement and is recorded net of any lease incentives received. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the options will be exercised.
Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use assets, and current and long-term operating lease liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in property and equipment-net, and on the current and long-term portion of debt and finance leases in our consolidated balance sheets.
Other Intangible Assets —Other intangible assets consist of customer relationships, trademarks, and purchased technology. Definite-lived intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis. The Company reviews its definite-lived intangible assets for impairment when impairment indicators exist. The Company uses undiscounted cash flow to determine whether impairment exists and measures any impairment losses using discounted cash flow.
The components and original estimated economic lives of our amortizable intangible assets were as follows as of December 31, 2019 and 2018:
|(Dollars in thousands)|
|Gross amortizable intangible assets:|
|Customer and publisher relationships||10 years||$||14,780 || ||$||14,780 || |
|Technology||5 years||2,330 || ||2,330 || |
|Trademark||5 years||300 || ||300 || |
|Total gross amortizable intangible assets||17,410 || ||17,410 || |
|Customer and publisher relationships||(6,809)|| ||(5,193)|| |
|Technology||(257)|| ||(197)|| |
|Trademark||(1,933)|| ||(1,467)|| |
|Total accumulated amortization||(8,999)|| ||(6,857)|| |
|Amortizable intangible assets, net||$||8,411 || ||$||10,553 || |
Amortization of intangible assets was $2.1 million in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. Future amortization expense of amortizable intangible assets will be as follows: $2.0 million in the year ending December 31, 2020, $1.4 million in the year ending December 31, 2021, $1.3 million in the year ending December 31, 2022, and 2023, $0.4 million in the year ending December 31, 2024, and $1.9 million thereafter.
Goodwill —The Company evaluates goodwill for impairment for each of its reporting units at least annually on October 1st, and whenever events occur or circumstances change, such as changes in the business climate, poor indicators of operating performance or the sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit. The Company is required to evaluate goodwill for impairment when there is a change in reporting units. During the first quarter of 2019, the Company made changes to its segment reporting structure that resulted in two reportable segments: 1) Software & Services and 2) Portal & Advertising. Previously the Company concluded that it had one reportable segment. This change resulted in two reporting units for the purpose of impairment analysis for goodwill.
Companies may perform a qualitative assessment as the initial step in the annual goodwill impairment testing process for all or selected reporting units. Companies are also allowed to bypass the qualitative analysis and perform a quantitative analysis if desired. Economic uncertainties and the length of time from the calculation of a baseline fair value are factors that we consider in determining whether to perform a quantitative test.
When the Company evaluates the potential for goodwill impairment using a qualitative assessment, the Company considers factors including, but not limited to, macroeconomic conditions, industry conditions, the competitive environment, changes in the market for our products and services, regulatory and political developments, entity specific factors such as strategy and changes in key personnel and overall financial performance. If, after completing this assessment, it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we proceed to a quantitative test.
Quantitative testing requires a comparison of the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. The fair value of each reporting unit is determined using a combination of an income approach and a market approach. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, goodwill is considered impaired and any loss is measured as the difference between the carrying value and fair value of the reporting unit.
The income approach uses a discounted cash flow method to estimate the fair value of our reporting units. The discounted cash flow method incorporates various assumptions, the most significant being projected revenue growth rates, operating margins and cash flows, the terminal growth rate and the discount rate. The Company projects revenue growth rates, operating margins and cash flows based on each reporting unit's current business, expected developments and operational strategies typically over a five-year period.
The market approach determines fair value based on available market pricing for comparable assets. Valuation multiples were calculated utilizing actual transaction prices and revenue or EBITDA data from target companies deemed similar to the reporting unit. Valuation multiples were then applied to certain operating statistics such as revenue or EBITDA, and an estimated control premium was applied.
If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value as determined using the two valuation methodologies described above, an impairment loss is recognized in the amount by which the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds the fair value of the reporting unit. The determination of our assumptions is subjective and requires significant estimates. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the results of our reviews for impairment of goodwill.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, in addition to the annual assessment done as of October 1st, we performed a quantitative test as of the first quarter for both reporting units due to change in segment reporting, as discussed above, and both reporting units fair value exceeded carrying value.
Furthermore, in accordance with ASC 350-20-35, the Company assesses goodwill of an entity (or a reporting unit) for impairment if an event occurs or circumstances change that indicate that the fair value of the entity (or the reporting unit) may be below its carrying amount (a triggering event). As a result of the such assessment of relevant events and circumstances, the Company performed a quantitative test for the Portal & Advertising segment as of June 30, 2019 for which the fair value exceeded the carrying value.
There were no impairment losses were recorded for goodwill during the years ended December 31, 2019, and 2018.
As noted above, in 2019, we changed our segment reporting structure which resulted in two reportable segments: 1) Software & Services and 2) Portal & Advertising.. As a result, all prior period balances for those segments were restated to reflect this change. The change in goodwill is as follows for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 (in thousands):
|Software & Services||Portal & Advertising||Total|
|Balance as of Balance as of January 1, 2018||$||11,811 || ||$||4,144 || ||$||15,955 || |
|Balance as of Effect of foreign currency translation||(14)|| ||— || ||(14)|| |
|Balance as of December 31, 2018||$||11,797 || ||$||4,144 || ||$||15,941 || |
|Effect of foreign currency translation||7 || ||— || ||7 || |
|Balance as of December 31, 2019||$||11,804 || ||$||4,144 || ||$||15,948 || |
Revenue Recognition — The Company recognize revenues when we transfer control of promised goods or services to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. See Note 2, Revenue from Customers for further discussion on Revenue.
Cost of Revenue —Cost of revenue consists primarily of revenue sharing, content acquisition costs, co-location facility costs, royalty costs and product support costs. Revenue sharing consists of amounts accrued and paid to customers for the internet traffic on Managed Portals where the Company is the primary obligor, resulting in the generation of search and digital advertising revenue. The revenue-sharing agreements with customers are primarily variable payments based on a percentage of the search and digital advertising revenue.
Content-acquisition agreements may be based on a fixed payment schedule, on the number of subscribers per month, or a combination of both. Fixed-payment agreements are expensed on a straight-line basis over the term defined in the agreement. Agreements based on the number of subscribers are expensed on a monthly basis. Co-location facility costs consist of rent and operating costs for the Company’s data center facilities. Royalty costs consist of amounts due to third parties for the license of their applications or technology sold with or embedded in our email software. Product support costs consist of employee and operating costs directly related to the Company’s maintenance and professional services support.
Concentrations of Risk — As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had concentrations equal to or exceeding 10% of the Company’s accounts receivable as follows:
|Portal & Advertising Customer A||14 ||%||15 ||%|
For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had concentrations equal to or exceeding 10% of the Company’s revenue as follows:
|Google search||* || ||13 ||%|
|Google advertising affiliate||* || ||11 ||%|
|Portal & Advertising Customer A||13 ||%||* || |
|* - Less than 10%|
For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the following customers received revenue-share payments equal to or exceeding 10% of the Company’s cost of revenue.
|Cost of Revenue|
|Portal & Advertising Customer B||19 ||%||29 ||%|
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. The Company places its cash primarily in checking and money market accounts with high credit quality financial institutions, which, at times, have exceeded federally insured limits of $0.25 million. Although the Company maintains balances that exceed the federally insured limit, it has not experienced any losses related to these balances and believes credit risk to be minimal.
Technology and Development —Technology and development expenses consist primarily of compensation-related expenses incurred for the research and development of, enhancements to, and maintenance and operation of the Company’s products, equipment and related infrastructure.
Sales and Marketing —Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of compensation-related expenses to the Company’s direct sales and marketing personnel, as well as costs related to advertising, industry conferences, promotional materials, and other sales and marketing programs. Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising costs totaled $0.4 million in 2019, and 2018 respectively.
General and Administrative —General and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation related expenses for executive management, finance, accounting, human resources, legal, and Corporate IT as well as professional fees and facilities costs.
Earnings (Loss) Per Share —Basic earnings (loss) per share (“EPS”) is calculated in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) ASC 260, Earnings per Share, using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Diluted EPS assumes the conversion, exercise or issuance of all potential common stock equivalents unless the effect is to reduce a loss or increase the income per share. For purposes of this calculation, stock options, warrants, performance based stock units ("PSUs"), and restricted stock units (“RSUs”) are considered to be potential common shares and are only included in the calculation of diluted earnings (loss) per share when their effect is dilutive.
Stock-Based Compensation —The Company records compensation costs related to stock-based awards in accordance with FASB ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation. Under the fair value recognition provisions of ASC 718, the Company measures stock-based compensation cost at the grant date based on the estimated fair value of the award. Compensation cost is recognized ratably over the requisite service period of the award. The Company utilizes the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock options granted. The amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized during a period is based on the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest. The Company estimates pre-vesting forfeitures at the time of grant by analyzing historical data and revises those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The total expense recognized over the vesting period will only be for those awards that ultimately vest.
Employee Benefit Plan —The Company sponsors a 401(k) profit sharing plan that covers substantially all employees. Under the plan, eligible employees are permitted to contribute a portion of gross compensation not to exceed standard limitations provided by the Internal Revenue Service. The Company maintains the right to match employee contributions, and contributed $0.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, and 2018.
Income Taxes — Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on temporary differences between the financial statement and income tax bases of assets and liabilities and net operating loss (“NOL”) and credit carryforwards using enacted income tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is established to the extent necessary to reduce deferred income tax assets to amounts that more likely than not will be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions using a more-likely-than-not recognition threshold based on the technical merits of the tax position taken. Tax benefits that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold should be measured as the largest amount of tax benefits, determined on a cumulative probability basis, which is more likely than not to be realized upon ultimate settlement in the financial statements. It is the Company’s policy to recognize interest and penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, accrued interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions was insignificant.
Accounting Estimates —The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the financial statements and the accompanying notes. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results may differ from estimated amounts.
Fair Value Measurements —Fair value measurement standards apply to certain financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis at each reporting period. The fair value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities approximates their carrying value due to their short-term nature.
The provisions of FASB ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures , establishes a framework for measuring the fair value in accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. and establishes a hierarchy that categorizes and prioritizes the sources to be used to estimate fair value as follows:
Level 1 —Level 1 inputs are defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets.
Level 2 —Level 2 inputs include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability (interest rates, yield curves, etc.), and inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means (market corroborated inputs).
Level 3 —Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs that reflect the Company’s determination of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. These inputs are developed based on the best information available, including the Company’s own data.
Applicable Recent Accounting Pronouncements —
Not Yet Adopted
In August 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2018-15, Customer’s Accounting For Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract (“ASU 2018-15”), which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred for an internal-use software license. Adoption of this guidance is required for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those fiscal years and early adoption is permitted. Entities are permitted to choose to adopt the new guidance (1) prospectively for eligible costs incurred on or after the date this guidance is first applied or (2) retrospectively. The Company is evaluating the impact of this new accounting standard on its financial statements.
On January 1, 2019 the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-2, Leases (Topic 842) (ASU 2016-2), as amended, which generally requires lessees to recognize operating and financing lease liabilities and corresponding right-of-use (ROU) assets on the balance sheet and to provide enhanced disclosures surrounding the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leasing arrangements. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842), Targeted Improvements, which provides an additional, optional transition method with which to adopt the new leases standard. This additional transition method allows for a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption, rather than in the earliest period presented in the financial statements, as originally required by ASU 2016-2. The Company adopted the standard using the additional transition method introduced by ASU 2018-11. The most significant impact was the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities for operating leases, while our accounting for finance leases remained substantially unchanged. For information regarding the impact of Topic 842 adoption, see Significant Accounting Policies - Leases and Note 9 — Leases. Results and disclosure requirements for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2019 are presented under Topic 842, while prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historical accounting under Topic 840.
The Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance, which allowed for the carryforward of historical lease classification, on whether a contract was or contains a lease, and of the assessment of initial direct costs for any leases that existed prior to January 1, 2019. The Company also elected to combine lease and non-lease components and to keep leases with an initial term of 12 months or less off the balance sheet and recognize the associated lease payments in the consolidated statements of income on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
On January 1, 2019, the Company recognized ROU assets of $10.2 million, with corresponding lease liabilities of $10.4 million on the consolidated balance sheet. The difference between the lease liability and the ROU asset represents the existing deferred rent liabilities balances before adoption, resulting from historical straight-lining of rent expense, which was reclassified upon adoption to reduce the measurement of the initial ROU asset. This was in addition to the $3.4 million of finance lease ROU assets previously reported in property and equipment, net as capital leases. The adoption did not impact our beginning stockholders’ equity, and did not have a material impact on the condensed statement of operations and statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2019.
The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs. ASUs not listed above were assessed and determined to be either not applicable, or had or are expected to have minimal impact on the Company’s financial statements and related disclosures.