NATURE OF BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Business
Diversified Restaurant Holdings, Inc. (“DRH”) is a restaurant company operating a single concept, Buffalo Wild Wings® (“BWW”). As one of the largest franchisee of BWW, we provide a unique guest experience in a casual and inviting environment.
DRH currently operates 65 BWW restaurants (20 in Michigan, 18 in Florida, 15 in Missouri, 7 in Illinois and 5 in Indiana), including the nation’s largest BWW, based on square footage, in downtown Detroit, Michigan.
On December 25, 2016, the Company completed a spin-off of 19 Bagger Dave's entities and certain real estate entities which house the respective Bagger Dave's entities previously owned by DRH into a new independent publicly traded company, Bagger Dave's Burger Tavern, Inc. ("Bagger Dave's"). For additional details refer to Note 2.
DRH and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company”), AMC Group, Inc. (“AMC”), AMC Wings, Inc. (“WINGS”), and AMC Real Estate, Inc. (“REAL ESTATE”) own and operate BWW restaurants located throughout Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Missouri. The following organizational chart outlines the current corporate structure of DRH. A brief textual description of the entities follows the organizational chart. DRH is incorporated in Nevada.
AMC was formed on March 28, 2007 and serves as our operational and administrative center. AMC renders management, operational support, and advertising services to WINGS and REAL ESTATE and their subsidiaries. Services rendered by AMC include marketing, restaurant operations, restaurant management consultation, hiring and training of management and staff, and other management services reasonably required in the ordinary course of restaurant operations.
WINGS was formed on March 12, 2007 and serves as a holding company for our BWW restaurants. We are economically dependent on retaining our franchise rights with BWLD. The franchise agreements have specific initial term expiration dates ranging from December 2020 through June 2037, depending on the date each was executed and the duration of its initial term. The franchise agreements are renewable at the option of the franchisor and are generally renewable if the franchisee has complied with the franchise agreement. When factoring in any applicable renewals, the franchise agreements have specific expiration dates ranging from December 2025 through June 2052. We believe we are in compliance with the terms of these agreements.
REAL ESTATE was formed on March 18, 2013 and serves as the holding company for any real estate properties owned by DRH. Currently, DRH does not own any real estate.
We follow accounting standards set by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB"). The FASB sets generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America ("GAAP") that we follow to ensure we consistently report our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. References to GAAP issued by the FASB in these footnotes are to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC").
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
For Variable Interest Entities ("VIE(s)"), we assess whether we are the primary beneficiary as prescribed by the accounting guidance on the consolidation of VIE. The primary beneficiary of a VIE is the party that has the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the performance of the entity and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits that could potentially be significant to the entity. See Note 3 to the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements for more details.
As of December 31, 2017, the Company has one operating and reportable segment.
The Company utilizes a 52- or 53-week accounting period that ends on the last Sunday in December. Fiscal year 2017 ended on December 31, 2017 and was comprised of 53 weeks. Fiscal year 2016 ended on December 25, 2016 was comprised of 52 weeks.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand and demand deposits in banks. The Company considers all highly-liquid investments purchased with original maturities of three months or less to be cash and cash equivalents. The Company, at times throughout the year, may, in the ordinary course of business, maintain cash balances in excess of federally-insured limits. Management does not believe the Company is exposed to any unusual risks on such deposits.
At December 31, 2017, accounts receivable primarily consist of contractually determined receivables from BWLD for gift card reimbursements. At December 25, 2016, accounts receivable primarily consist of contractually determined receivables from BWLD for local media advertising reimbursements. Accounts receivable are stated at the amount management expects to collect. Balances that are outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off with a corresponding charge to bad debt expense. There was no allowance for doubtful accounts necessary at December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016.
The Company records gift cards under a BWLD system-wide program. Gift cards sold are recorded as a gift card liability. When redeemed, the gift card liability account is offset by recording the transaction as revenue. At times, gift card redemptions can exceed amounts due to BWLD for gift card purchases resulting in an asset balance. Under this centralized system, any breakage would be recorded by Blazin' Wings, Inc., a subsidiary of BWLD, and is subject to the breakage laws in the state of Minnesota, where Blazin' Wings, Inc. is domiciled. The Company's gift card balance was an asset of $0.5 million and liability of $0.1 million as of December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, respectively.
Inventory consists mainly of food and beverage products and is accounted for at the lower of cost or market using the first in, first out method of inventory valuation. Cash flows related to inventory sales are classified in net cash provided by operating activities in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Prepaids and Other Long-Term Assets
Prepaid assets consist principally of prepaid insurance and contracts and are recognized ratably as operating expense over the period of future benefit. Other assets consist primarily of security deposits for operating leases and utilities.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Equipment and furniture and fixtures are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to seven years. Leasehold improvements, which include the cost of improvements funded by landlord incentives or allowances, are amortized using the straight-line method over the lesser of the term of the lease, without consideration of renewal options, or the estimated useful lives of the assets, which is typically five - 15 years. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Upon retirement or disposal of assets, the cost and accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the respective accounts and the related gains or losses are credited or charged to earnings.
The Company capitalizes items associated with construction but not yet placed into service, known as construction in progress (“CIP”). Items capitalized include fees associated with the design, build out, furnishing of the restaurants, leasehold improvements, construction period interest (when applicable), equipment, and furniture and fixtures. Restaurant CIP is not amortized or depreciated until the related assets are placed into service. Items are placed into service according to their asset category when the restaurant is open for service.
Amortizable intangible assets consist of franchise fees, trademarks, non-compete agreements, favorable and unfavorable operating leases, and loan fees and are stated at cost, less accumulated amortization. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life, as follows: Franchise fees- 10 – 20 years, Trademarks- 15 years, Non-compete- 3 years, Favorable and unfavorable leases - over the term of the respective leases and Loan fees - over the term of the respective loan.
Liquor licenses, if transferable, are deemed to have an indefinite life and are carried at the lower of fair value or cost. We identify potential impairments for liquor licenses by comparing the fair value with its carrying amount. If the fair value exceeds the carrying amount, the liquor licenses are not impaired. If the fair value of the asset is less than the carrying amount, an impairment charge is recorded. No impairments were recognized in fiscal years ended December 25, 2017 and December 27, 2016.
Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets
We review long-lived assets quarterly to determine if triggering events have occurred which would require a test to determine if the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable based on estimated future cash flows. Assets are reviewed at the lowest level for which cash flows can be identified, which is at the individual restaurant level. In the absence of extraordinary circumstances, restaurants are included in the impairment analysis after they have been open for two years. We evaluate the recoverability of a restaurant’s long-lived assets, including intangibles, leasehold improvements, furniture, fixtures, and equipment over the remaining life of the primary asset in the asset group, after considering the potential impact of planned operational improvements, marketing programs, and anticipated changes in the trade area. In determining future cash flows, significant estimates are made by management with respect to future operating results for each restaurant over the remaining life of the primary asset in the asset group. If assets are determined to be impaired, the impairment charge is measured by calculating the amount by which the asset carrying amount exceeds its fair value based on our estimate of discounted future cash flows. The determination of asset fair value is also subject to significant judgment. During the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, there were no impairments of long-lived assets pertaining to continuing operations.
We account for exit or disposal activities, including restaurant closures, in accordance with ASC Topic 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations. Such costs include the cost of disposing of the assets as well as other facility-related expenses from previously closed restaurants. These costs are generally expensed as incurred. Additionally, at the date we cease using a property under an operating lease, we record a liability for the net present value of any remaining lease obligations, net of estimated sublease income. Any subsequent adjustments to that liability as a result of lease termination or changes in estimates of sublease income are recorded in the period incurred.
Goodwill is not amortized and represents the excess of cost over the fair value of identified net assets of businesses acquired. Goodwill is subject to an annual impairment analysis or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist. At both December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, we had goodwill of $50.1 million. The goodwill is assigned to the Company's Buffalo Wild Wings reporting unit, which, due to the Spin-Off of Bagger Dave's on December 25, 2016, represents the Company's only reporting unit.
The Company assesses goodwill for impairment on an annual basis during the fourth quarter, or more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount. The Company’s assessment first reviews relevant qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not (a likelihood of more than 50%) that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. In evaluating whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, we assess relevant events and circumstances. If, after assessing the totality of events and circumstances, we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test would be necessary. Conversely, if it is not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, further action would not be required.
We early adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017-04, Topic 350: Intangibles - Goodwill and Other: Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment ("ASU 2017-04") as of September 25, 2017, the beginning of our fourth quarter. ASU 2017-04 requires goodwill impairment to be measured as the excess of the carrying value over the fair value of the reporting unit, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. Previously goodwill impairment was measured as the excess of carrying value over the implied fair value of goodwill. The carrying value of our reporting unit as of September 25, 2017 was negative, and therefore goodwill was not impaired as of December 31, 2017. As a result of our qualitative assessment as of December 25, 2016, we determined it was not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit was below the carrying value and therefore no impairment was calculated.
Certain operating leases provide for minimum annual payments that increase over the life of the lease. Typically, our operating leases contain renewal options under which we may extend the initial lease terms for periods of five to 10 years. The aggregate minimum annual payments are expensed on a straight-line basis commencing at the start of our construction period and extending over the term of the related lease, including option renewals as deemed reasonably assured. The amount by which straight-line rent exceeds actual lease payment requirements in the early years of the lease is accrued as deferred rent liability and reduced in later years when the actual cash payment requirements exceed the straight-line expense. The Company also accounts, in its straight-line computation, for the effect of any "rental holidays", "free rent periods", and "landlord incentives or allowances".
Deferred gains from sale leaseback transactions are recognized into income over the life of the related operating lease agreements.
Revenues from food, beverage and merchandise sales are recognized and generally collected at the point of sale. All sales taxes are presented on a net basis and are excluded from revenue.
Advertising expenses associated with contributions to the BWLD advertising fund and regional cooperatives (between 3.15% and 3.50% of total net sales) are recorded as operating expenses as contributed, while all other advertising expenses are recorded in general and administrative expenses as incurred. Advertising and co-op expenses of continuing operations of $5.4 million and $5.6 million are included in other operating costs in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and advertising expense of $0.8 million and $1.1 million are included in general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, respectively. Advertising expenses in discontinued operations of $0 and $1.1 million are presented as such in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, respectively.
Pre-opening costs are those costs associated with opening new restaurants and will vary based on the number of new locations opening and under construction. Pre-opening costs typically consist of manager salaries, relocation costs, supplies, recruiting expenses, certain marketing costs and costs associated with team member training. The Company also reclassifies labor costs that exceed the historical average for the first three months of restaurant operations that are attributable to training. These costs are expensed as incurred. Pre-opening costs in continuing operations were $0.4 million and $0.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, respectively. Excess labor cost incurred after restaurant opening and included in pre-opening cost were approximately $0.1 million and $0.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, respectively.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are computed for differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future, based on enacted tax laws and rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. Income tax expense is the tax payable or refundable for the period plus or minus the change during the period in deferred tax assets and liabilities.
The Company applies the provisions of ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, regarding the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes. The Company classifies all interest and penalties as income tax expense. There are no accrued interest amounts or penalties related to uncertain tax positions as of December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016.
Earnings Per Common Share
Earnings per share are calculated under the provisions of FASB ASC 260, Earnings per Share, which requires a dual presentation of "basic" and "diluted" earnings per share on the face of the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Basic earnings per common share excludes dilution and is computed by dividing the net earnings available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per common share include dilutive common stock equivalents consisting of stock options determined by the treasury stock method. Restricted stock awards contain non-forfeitable rights to dividends, making such awards participating securities. The calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share uses an earnings allocation method to consider the impact of restricted stock.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock option awards utilizing the Black-Scholes pricing model. The fair value of the awards is amortized as compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is generally the vesting period. The fair value of restricted shares is equal to the number of restricted shares issued times the Company’s stock price on the date of grant and is amortized as compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the service period of the award.
Approximately 76.9% and 77.4% of the Company's continuing revenues for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, respectively, were generated from food and beverage sales from restaurants located in the Midwest region. The remaining 23.1% and 22.6% of the Company's continuing revenues for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, respectively, were generated from food and beverage sales from restaurants located in Florida.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Interest Rate Swap Agreements
The Company utilizes interest rate swap agreements with Citizens Bank, N.A. (“Citizens”) and other banks to fix interest rates on a portion of the Company’s portfolio of variable rate debt, which reduces exposure to interest rate fluctuations. Our derivative financial instruments are recorded at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives which qualify for hedge accounting is recorded in other comprehensive income and is recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations when the hedged item affects earnings. Ineffective portion of the change in fair value of a hedge would be recognized in income immediately. The Company does not use any other types of derivative financial instruments to hedge such exposures, nor does it use derivatives for speculative purposes.
The interest rate swap agreements associated with the Company’s current debt agreements qualify for hedge accounting. As such, the Company records the change in the fair value of its swap agreements as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax. The Company records the fair value of its interest swaps on the Consolidated Balance Sheets in other long-term assets or other liabilities depending on the fair value of the swaps. See Note 7 and Note 14 for additional information on the interest rate swap agreements.
Blazin' Rewards® Loyalty Program
In 2017, the Company completed the implementation of a customer loyalty program, Blazin' Rewards®. The program allows members to earn points when they make purchases at our restaurants. The Company developed an estimate for the value of each point based on historical data. We record the fair value, net of estimated breakage, of the points as a reduction of restaurant sales and establish a liability within deferred revenue as the points are earned. Breakage is the percentage of points earned that are not expected to be redeemed. The revenue associated with the points is recognized upon the redemption of the points. Points generally expire after six months of inactivity.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities (ASU 2017-12. The amendment expands an entity’s ability to hedge accounting to non-financial and financial risk components and requires changes in fair value of hedging instruments to be presented in the same income statement line as the hedged item. The ASU also amends the presentation and disclosure requirements for the effect of hedge accounting. The ASU must be adopted using a modified retrospective approach with a cumulative effect adjustment recorded to the opening balance of retained earnings as of the initial application date. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is in the process of assessing the impact of this ASU on its consolidated results of operations, cash flows, financial position and disclosures.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation: Scope of Modification Accounting. ASU 2017-09 provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting. The updated guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and early adoption is permitted. We do not believe the updated requirements will materially impact our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Topic 230: Statement of Cash Flows: Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments ("ASU 2016-15"). ASU 2016-15 clarifies current GAAP that is either unclear or does not include specific guidance on a number of specific issues. The amendments set forth are an improvement to GAAP because they provide guidance for each issue and reduce the current and potential future diversity in practice. ASU 2016-15 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. We are currently evaluating the pending adoption of ASU 2016-15 and the impact it will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases. ASU 2016-02 requires that lease arrangements longer than 12 months result in a lessee recognizing a lease asset and liability. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The updated guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and early adoption is permitted. We have analyzed the impact of the new standard and concluded that the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will materially impact our consolidated financial statements by significantly increasing our non-current assets and non-current liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets in order to record the right of use assets and related lease liabilities for our existing operating leases. Operating leases comprise the majority of our current lease portfolio. With respect to implementation, we are currently reviewing the accounting standard and are not yet able to estimate the impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09 Revenue with Contracts from Customers (Topic 606). ASU 2014-09 supersedes the current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The guidance introduces a five-step model to achieve its core principal of the entity recognizing revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-04, Liabilities - Extinguishments of Liabilities: Recognition of Breakage for Certain Prepaid Stored-Value Products. ASU 2016-04 provides specific guidance for the de-recognition of prepaid stored-value product liabilities. In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net). ASU 2016-08 provides specific guidance to determine whether an entity is providing a specified good or service itself or is arranging for the good or service to be provided by another party. In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-10, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing." ASU 2016-10 provides clarification on the subjects of identifying performance obligations and licensing implementation guidance.
The requirements for these standards relating to Topic 606 will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company will adopt these standards upon their effective date. The Company has substantially completed its evaluation of the standard, and our assessment concludes that the new revenue recognition standard will not materially impact the recognition of restaurant sales, our primary source of revenue, or any other revenue stream. Additionally, this guidance will require us to enhance our disclosures, including disclosing performance obligations to customers arising from certain promotional activity, such as our customer loyalty program which is not material as of December 31, 2017. The Company is finalizing our conclusion of the disclosures surrounding disaggregated revenue, and will complete the assessment prior to filing our first quarter Form 10-Q in 2018. With respect to the transition method for adoption, we will adopt this standard using the modified retrospective approach.
We reviewed all other significant newly-issued accounting pronouncements and concluded that they either are not applicable to our operations or that no material effect is expected on our consolidated financial statements as a result of future adoption.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017-04, Topic 350: Intangibles - Goodwill and Other: Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment ("ASU 2017-04"). ASU 2017-04 simplified wording and removes step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. A goodwill impairment will now be the amount by which a reporting units carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. ASU 2017-04 is effective for annual or interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company adopted the standard as of the first day of the fourth quarter, September 25, 2017.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Topic 718: Compensation - Stock Compensation: Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting ("ASU 2016-09"). ASU 2016-09 simplifies several aspects of accounting for share-based payment award transactions, including income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-09 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted. Beginning in fiscal 2017, the tax effects of awards will be recognized in the statement of operations. In addition, the Company will account for forfeitures as they occur.
Effective December 26, 2016, the Company adopted the accounting guidance contained within ASU 2016-09. As a result, the Company recorded a deferred tax asset and retained earnings increase of $268,000 to recognize the Company's excess tax benefits that existed as of December 25, 2016, on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.