2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). Certain changes in presentation were made in the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, to conform to the presentation for the year ended December 31, 2018.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, its wholly-owned subsidiaries and its majority-owned subsidiary, MVI Health Inc. (“MVI”). On August 31, 2018, the Company acquired a controlling interest in MVI. The portion of equity not attributable to the Company is considered non-controlling interest and was recorded at fair value as of the acquisition date. The amounts attributable to non-controlling interest are classified separately in the consolidated financial statements. Any subsequent changes in the Company’s ownership interest while the Company retains its controlling interest in MVI will be accounted for as equity transactions. Refer to Note “3. Investments and Fair Value of Financial Instruments” for more information on the asset acquisition of MVI. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and equity accounts; disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements; and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates, including those related to marketable investments, provisions for doubtful accounts, the amount of variable consideration included in the transaction price, warranty reserve, valuation of inventories, useful lives of property and equipment, income taxes, contingent consideration and other contingencies, among others. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other data. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The Company determined its operating segment on the same basis that it uses to evaluate its performance internally. The Company has one business activity: the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of innovative medical devices, and operates as one operating segment. The Company’s chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”), its Chief Executive Officer, reviews its consolidated operating results for the purpose of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. The Company’s entity-wide disclosures are included in Note “14. Revenues.”
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements are prepared in United States Dollars (“USD”). Its foreign subsidiaries use their local currency as their functional currency and maintain their records in the local currency. Accordingly, the assets and liabilities of these subsidiaries are translated into USD using the current exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date and equity accounts are translated into USD using historical rates. Revenues and expenses are translated using the average exchange rates in effect for the year involved. The resulting foreign currency translation adjustments are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated balance sheets. Transactions denominated in currencies other than the respective functional currencies are translated at exchange rates as of the date of transaction with foreign currency gains and losses recorded in other expense, net in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company realized net foreign currency transaction losses of $0.9 million, $1.0 million and $0.7 million during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
As the Company’s international operations grow, its risks associated with fluctuation in currency rates will become greater, and the Company will continue to reassess its approach to managing this risk. In addition, currency fluctuations or a weakening USD can increase the costs of the Company’s international expansion. To date, the Company has not entered into any foreign currency hedging contracts.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to a concentration of credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents, marketable investments (as described in greater detail in this footnote under the header “Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Investments” below) and accounts receivable. The majority of the Company’s cash is held by one financial institution in the U. S. in excess of federally insured limits. The Company maintained investments in money market funds that were not federally insured during the year ended December 31, 2018 and held cash in foreign entities of approximately $23.4 million and $15.0 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, which was not federally insured.
The Company’s revenue has been derived from sales of its products in the United States and international markets. The Company uses both its own salesforce and independent distributors to sell its products. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable are limited due to the large number of entities comprising the Company’s customer base. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers, including its distributors, does not require collateral, and maintains allowances for potential credit losses on customer accounts when deemed necessary.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, no customer accounted for greater than 10% of the Company’s revenue. During December 31, 2017 and 2016, one customer, a distributor, accounted for 10.1% and 11.5%, respectively, of the Company’s revenue. No customer accounted for greater than 10% of the Company’s accounts receivable balance as of December 31, 2018 or 2017.
Significant Risks and Uncertainties
The Company is subject to risks common to medical device companies including, but not limited to, new technological innovations, dependence on key personnel, protection of proprietary technology, compliance with government regulations, product liability, uncertainty of market acceptance of products and the potential need to obtain additional financing. The Company is dependent on third party suppliers, in some cases single-source suppliers.
There can be no assurance that the Company’s products will continue to be accepted in the marketplace, nor can there be any assurance that any future products can be developed or manufactured at an acceptable cost and with appropriate performance characteristics, or that such products will be successfully marketed, if at all.
The Company’s products require approval or clearance from the FDA prior to commencing commercial sales in the United States. There can be no assurance that the Company’s products will receive all of the required approvals or clearances. Approvals or clearances are also required in foreign jurisdictions in which the Company sells its products. If the Company is denied such approvals or clearances or such approvals or clearances are delayed, it may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial position and liquidity.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Carrying amounts of certain of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash equivalents, accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, approximate fair value due to their relatively short maturities.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Investments
The Company invests its cash primarily in highly liquid corporate debt securities, debt instruments of U.S. federal and municipal governments, and their agencies, and in money market funds. All highly liquid investments with stated maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase are classified as cash equivalents; all highly liquid investments with stated maturities of greater than three months are classified as marketable investments. The majority of the Company’s cash and investments are held in U.S. banks.
The Company determines the appropriate classification of its investments in marketable investments at the time of purchase and re-evaluates such designation at each balance sheet date. The Company’s marketable investments have been classified and accounted for as available-for-sale. Investments with remaining maturities of more than one year are viewed by the Company as available to support current operations and are classified as current assets under the caption marketable investments in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Investments in marketable investments are carried at fair value, with the unrealized gains and losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Any realized gains or losses on the sale of marketable investments are determined on a specific identification method, and such gains and losses are reflected as a component of other income (expense), net.
Impairment of Marketable Investments
After determining the fair value of available-for-sale debt instruments, unrealized gains or losses on these securities are recorded to accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until either the security is sold or the Company determines that the decline in value is other-than-temporary. The primary differentiating factors that the Company considers in classifying impairments as either temporary or other-than-temporary impairments is the intent and ability to retain the investment in the issuer for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value, the length of the time and the extent to which the market value of the investment has been less than cost, the financial condition, and near-term prospects of the issuer. There were no other-than-temporary impairments for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 or 2016.
Non-Marketable Equity Investments
Entities in which the Company has at least a 20%, but not more than a 50%, interest are accounted for under the equity method unless it is determined that the Company has a controlling financial interest in the entity, in which case the entity would be consolidated. Non-marketable equity investments are classified as long-term investments on the consolidated balance sheet. The Company’s proportionate share of the operating results of its non-marketable equity method investments are recorded as profit or loss and presented in equity in losses of unconsolidated investee, in the consolidated statements of operations. See Note “3. Investments and Fair Value of Financial Instruments” for further details.
Accounts receivable are stated at invoice value less estimated allowances for doubtful accounts. The Company continually monitors customer payments and maintains a reserve for estimated losses resulting from its customers’ inability to make required payments. The Company considers factors such as historical experience, credit quality, age of the accounts receivable balances, geographic related risks and economic conditions that may affect a customer’s ability to pay. In cases where there are circumstances that may impair a specific customer’s ability to meet its financial obligations, a specific allowance is recorded against amounts due, and thereby reduces the net recognized receivable to the amount reasonably believed to be collectible.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (determined under the first-in first-out method) or net realizable value. Write-downs are provided for raw materials, components or finished goods that are determined to be excessive or obsolete. The Company regularly reviews inventory quantities in consideration of actual loss experience, projected future demand and remaining shelf life to record a provision for excess and obsolete inventory when appropriate. As a result of these evaluations, the Company recognized total write-offs and write-downs of $1.7 million, $1.0 million, and $2.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.
Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the lease term or estimated useful life. Machinery and equipment and furniture and fixtures are depreciated over a five to ten year period and computers and software are depreciated over two to five years. Upon retirement or sale, the cost and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the consolidated balance sheet and the resulting gain or loss is reflected in operations. Maintenance and repairs are charged to consolidated statements of operations as incurred.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. When such an event occurs, management determines whether there has been impairment by comparing the anticipated undiscounted future net cash flows to the related asset group’s carrying value. If an asset is considered impaired, the asset is written down to fair value, which is determined based either on discounted cash flows or appraised value, depending on the nature of the asset. There was no impairment of long-lived assets during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 or 2016.
Certain agreements the Company enters into, including business combinations, involve the potential payment of future consideration that is contingent upon certain performance and revenue milestones being achieved. A contingent consideration liability is recorded at the acquisition date at fair value and is remeasured each reporting period with the change in fair value recognized generally within sales, general and administrative expense, depending on the nature of the contingent consideration liability, in the consolidated statements of operations.
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company’s contingent consideration relates to milestone payments for the acquisition of Crossmed S.p.A. (“Crossmed”). For more information with respect to the fair value of contingent consideration, refer to Note “5. Business Combination.”
Intangible assets primarily consist of purchased rights to licensed technology, customer relationships, and trade secrets and processes.
Indefinite-lived intangible assets relate to an exclusive right to licensed technology. The acquired licensed technology is accounted for as an indefinite-lived intangible asset. Upon the commercialization of the underlying product utilizing the licensed technology, the capitalized amount will be amortized over its estimated useful life. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually, in the fourth quarter, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the asset is impaired. If the fair value of the asset is less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss would be recognized in an amount equal to the difference between the carrying amount and the fair value. Refer to Note “6. Intangible Assets” for more information on the Company’s intangible assets.
Finite-lived intangible assets are amortized over the estimated economic useful lives of the assets, which is the period during which expected cash flows support the fair value of such intangible assets. The Company reviews finite-lived intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets or asset group may not be recoverable. When such an event occurs, management determines whether there has been impairment by comparing the anticipated undiscounted future net cash flows to the related asset group’s carrying value. Refer to Note “6. Intangible Assets” for more information on the Company’s intangible assets.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of an acquired business or assets over the fair value of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Goodwill is not amortized, but is tested for impairment annually in the fourth quarter, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may no longer be recoverable and that an impairment loss may have occurred. The Company operates as one segment, which is considered to be the sole reporting unit, and therefore goodwill is tested for impairment at the consolidated level. Refer to Note “5. Business Combination” and Note “7. Goodwill” for more information.
Revenue is comprised of product revenue net of returns, discounts, administration fees and sales rebates. The Company adopted the guidance under ASC 606 on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not completed as of the date of adoption. Therefore, the comparative prior year information has not been adjusted and continues to be reported under ASC 605 with the impact of the adoption reflected in opening retained earnings in 2018. Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. Revenue from product sales is recognized either on the date of shipment or the date of receipt by the customer, but is deferred for certain transactions when control has not yet transferred. With respect to products that the Company consigns to hospitals, which primarily consist of coils, the Company recognizes revenue at the time hospitals utilize products in a procedure.
Deferred revenue represents amounts that the Company has already invoiced its customers and that are ultimately expected to be recognized as revenue, but for which not all revenue recognition criteria have been met. As of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, the Company's deferred revenue balance was not material.
Revenue is recorded at the net sales price, which includes estimates of variable consideration such as product returns utilizing historical return rates, rebates, discounts, and other adjustments to net revenue. To the extent the transaction price includes variable consideration, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration that should be included in the transaction price. Variable consideration is included in revenue only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of the revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.
The Company’s terms and conditions permit product returns and exchanges. The Company bases its estimates for sales returns on actual historical returns over the prior three years and they are recorded as reductions in revenue at the time of sale. Upon recognition, the Company reduces revenue and cost of revenue for the estimated return. Return rates can fluctuate over time, but are sufficiently predictable to allow the Company to estimate expected future product returns.
For more information and disclosures on the Company’s revenue, refer to Note “14. Revenues.”
Shipping and handling costs charged to customers are recorded as revenue. Shipping and handling costs are included in cost of revenue.
Research and Development (“R&D”) Costs
R&D costs primarily consist of product development, clinical and regulatory expenses, materials, depreciation and other costs associated with the development of the Company’s products. R&D costs also include related personnel and consultants’ salaries, benefits and related costs, including stock-based compensation. The Company expenses R&D costs as they are incurred.
The Company’s clinical trial accruals are based on estimates of patient enrollment and related costs at clinical investigator sites. The Company estimates preclinical and clinical trial expenses based on the services performed pursuant to contracts with research institutions and clinical research organizations that conduct and manage preclinical studies and clinical trials on its behalf. In accruing service fees, the Company estimates the time period over which services will be performed and the level of patient enrollment and activity expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from the estimate, the Company will adjust the accrual accordingly. Payments made to third parties under these arrangements in advance of the receipt of the related services are recorded as prepaid expenses until the services are rendered.
Advertising costs are included in sales, general and administrative expenses and are expensed as incurred. Advertising costs were $0.5 million, $0.7 million and $0.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
The Company recognizes the cost of stock-based compensation in the financial statements based upon fair value. The fair value of restricted stock and restricted stock unit (“RSU”) awards is determined based on the number of units granted and the closing price of the Company’s common stock as of the grant date. The fair value of each purchase under the employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”) is estimated at the beginning of the offering period using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The fair value of stock options is determined as of the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Company’s determination of the fair value of equity-settled awards is impacted by the price of the Company’s common stock as well as changes in assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, the expected term that awards will remain outstanding, expected common stock price volatility over the term of the awards, risk-free interest rates and expected dividends.
The fair value of an award is recognized over the requisite service period (usually the vesting period) on a straight-line basis. Stock-based compensation expense recognized at fair value includes the impact of estimated forfeitures. The Company estimates future forfeitures at the date of grant and revises the estimates, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. To the extent actual forfeiture results differ from the estimates, the difference is recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period forfeiture estimates are revised. No compensation cost is recorded for awards that do not vest.
Prior to the adoption of Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) No. 2018-07, “Compensation – Stock Compensation,” the Company recorded its equity instruments issued to non-employees at their fair value on the measurement date and were subject to periodic adjustments as the Company remeasured the fair value of the non-employee awards at each reporting period prior to vesting and at the vesting dates of each non-employee award. In the third quarter of 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2018-07 and recognizes the fair value of non-employee awards over the requisite service period (usually the vesting period) on a straight-line basis. Therefore, equity instruments issued to non-employees are recorded at their fair value on the grant date in the same manner as employee awards. The fair value of these equity instruments is expensed over the service period.
Estimates of the fair value of equity-settled awards as of the grant date using valuation models, such as the Black-Scholes option pricing model, are affected by assumptions regarding a number of complex variables. Changes in the assumptions can materially affect the fair value of the award and ultimately how much stock-based compensation expense is recognized. These inputs are subjective and generally require significant analysis and judgment to develop. For all stock options granted prior to the Company’s IPO, the Company estimated the volatility data based on a study of publicly traded industry peer companies. For purposes of identifying these peer companies, the Company considered the industry, stage of development, size and financial leverage of potential comparable companies. The risk-free interest rate is based on the yield available on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues similar in duration to the expected term of the equity-settled award. For all stock options granted to date, the Company used the Staff Accounting Bulletin, No. 110 (“SAB 110”) simplified method to calculate the expected term, which is the average of the contractual term and vesting period.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method, whereby deferred tax asset (“DTA”) and liability account balances are determined based on differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The Company provides a valuation allowance to reduce the net DTAs to their estimated realizable value.
The calculation of the Company’s current provision for income taxes involves the use of estimates, assumptions and judgments while taking into account current tax laws, interpretation of current tax laws and possible outcomes of future tax audits. The Company has established reserves to address potential exposures related to tax positions that could be challenged by tax authorities. Although the Company believes its estimates, assumptions and judgments to be reasonable, any changes in tax law or its interpretation of tax laws and the resolutions of potential tax audits could significantly impact the amounts provided for income taxes in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The calculation of the Company’s DTA balance involves the use of estimates, assumptions and judgments while taking into account estimates of the amounts and type of future taxable income. Actual future operating results and the underlying amount and type of income could differ materially from the Company’s estimates, assumptions and judgments thereby impacting the Company’s financial position and results of operations.
The Company follows the guidance relating to accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, which prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the Company’s income tax return, and also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods and disclosure.
The Company includes interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within income tax expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Comprehensive income consists of net income, unrealized gains or losses on available-for-sale investments and the effects of foreign currency translation adjustments. The Company presents comprehensive income and its components in the consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share of Common Stock
The Company’s basic net income (loss) attributable to Penumbra, Inc. per share is calculated by dividing the net income attributable to Penumbra, Inc. per share by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. The diluted net income (loss) per share attributable to Penumbra, Inc. is computed by giving effect to all potential dilutive common stock equivalents outstanding for the period. For purposes of this calculation, options to purchase common stock, restricted stock and restricted stock units are considered common stock equivalents.
Recent Accounting Guidance
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In the first quarter of 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”), and its associated amendments. Under the standard, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The Company applied the five step method outlined in the ASU to all revenue streams and elected to utilize the modified retrospective implementation method. The additional disclosures required by the ASU have been included in Note “14. Revenues.”
In the first quarter of 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows: Restricted Cash, a consensus of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Emerging Issues Task Force. Under the standard, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalent amounts are presented within cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the total beginning and ending amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. When cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents are presented in more than one line item on the balance sheet, a reconciliation of the totals in the statement of cash flows to the related captions in the balance sheet is required. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact to the statement of cash flow for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, as the Company did not hold any restricted cash as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.
In the first quarter of 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation - Scope of Modification Accounting. The standard provides clarification on when modification accounting should be used for changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. This standard does not change the accounting for modifications but clarifies that modification accounting guidance should only be applied if there is a change to the value, vesting conditions, or award classification and would not be required if the changes are considered non-substantive. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those annual periods. The guidance was adopted on a prospective basis in the first quarter of 2018 and did not have any impact upon adoption.
In the first quarter of 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income. The standard allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Reform Act”). The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for any interim and annual financial statements that have not yet been issued. The Company elected to early adopt this standard on a prospective basis in the first quarter of 2018 and reclassify the stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Reform Act from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings. There were no additional income tax effects resulting from the Tax Reform Act reclassified from accumulated comprehensive income to retained earnings. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position.
In the first quarter of 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2018-05, Income Taxes (“Topic 740”): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, which included amendments to expand income tax accounting and disclosure guidance pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”) issued by the SEC in December 2017. SAB 118 provides guidance on accounting for the income tax effects of the Tax Reform Act. Refer to Note “12. Income Taxes” for more information and disclosures related to this amended guidance.
In the third quarter of 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (“Topic 718”): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies the accounting and reporting for share-based payments granted to nonemployees for goods and services. Under the new guidance, payments to nonemployees would be more closely aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than the Company's adoption date of ASC 606. The Company adopted the standard on a prospective basis in the third quarter of 2018 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, which amends the existing accounting standards for leases. In September 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-13 which provides additional clarification and implementation guidance on the previously issued ASU No. 2016-02. Under the new guidance, a lessee will be required to recognize a lease liability and right-of-use asset for all leases with terms in excess of twelve months. The new guidance also modifies the classification criteria and accounting for sales-type and direct financing leases, and requires additional disclosures to enable users of financial statements to understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. Consistent with current guidance, a lessee’s recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease will continue to depend primarily on its classification. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10 and ASU No. 2018-11, which further clarifies the application of the guidance issued under ASU No. 2016-02 and provides updates to transition methods and practical expedients. ASU No. 2018-11 provides an optional transition method in addition to the existing transition method which allows entities, at the adoption date, to recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The accounting standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption is permitted.
The Company has completed its initial assessment of the impact of the new leasing standard on the Company’s financial statements and internal controls; including its evaluation of key policy elections. The Company intends to adopt the new standard and related amendments under the optional transitional method as of January 1, 2019. Under this method, the Company is allowed to record a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption and not restate prior periods. Additionally, the Company expects to elect the transitional practical expedients such that the Company will not reassess whether contracts are leases and will retain lease classification and initial direct costs for leases existing prior to the adoption of the new standard. The Company also expects to make the following transitional practical expedients elections: (1) elect the short term lease exception, (2) not elect hindsight and (3) elect to not separate its nonlease components for its real estate, vehicle and equipment leases. While substantially complete, the Company is still in the process of finalizing its evaluation of the effect of ASC 842 on the Company’s financial statements, disclosures, and internal controls. The Company estimates its total assets and total liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet will increase by approximately $38.0 million to $46.0 million due to the recognition of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities upon adoption, net of the impact of eliminating existing deferred rent liabilities and pre-paid assets related to its leasing arrangements. This estimated range is based on the Company's current lease portfolio but could be impacted by changes to the lease portfolio, including the total number of leases, lease commencement and end dates and lease termination expectations, as well as changes in anticipated lease incremental borrowing rates. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU No. 2016-02, as amended, to have a material impact to the Company’s consolidated statements of operations or consolidated statements of cash flows.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses. The standard changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net income. The Company will recognize an allowance for credit losses on available-for-sale securities rather than deductions in amortized cost. The standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for all periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (“ASU 2018-13”). The primary focus of the standard is to improve the effectiveness of the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. The standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019. An entity is permitted to early adopt the removed or modified disclosures upon the issuance of the standard and may delay adoption of the additional disclosures until their effective date. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard.