BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included herein have been prepared by us pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Some of the information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations, although we believe the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (which include normal recurring adjustments) necessary for a fair statement of results for the interim periods have been made. The results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full fiscal year. The Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.
Other than the adoption of ASU 2014-09 and all subsequent amendments (collectively, ASC 606) and Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-18, there have been no changes to our basis of presentation and significant accounting policies since the most recent filing of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017.
Overall – Revenue Recognition
We evaluate the recognition of revenue based on the criteria set forth in ASC 606 and ASC 840, as appropriate. We recognize revenue upon transferring control of goods or services to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. We enter into contracts with customers that may include various combinations of goods and services. Timing of the transfer of control varies based on the nature of the contract. We recognize revenue net of any sales and other taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental authorities and are not included in revenues or operating expenses. We measure revenue based on the consideration specified in a contract with a customer and adjusted, as necessary.
We evaluate the composition of our revenues to ensure compliance with SEC Regulation S-X Section 210.5-3, which requires us to separately present certain categories of revenues that exceed the quantitative threshold on our Statements of Income (Loss).
We apply judgments or estimates to determine the performance obligations and the Stand-Alone Selling Price (“SSP”) of each identified performance obligation. The establishment of SSP requires judgment as to whether there is a sufficient quantity of items sold or renewed on a stand-alone basis and those prices demonstrate an appropriate level of concentration to conclude that a SSP exists. The SSP of our goods and services are generally determined based on observable prices, an adjusted market assessment approach or an expected cost plus margin approach. We utilize a residual approach only when the SSP for performance obligations with observable prices have been established and the remaining performance obligation in the contract with a customer does not have an observable price as it is uncertain or highly variable and, therefore, is not discernible.
To assess collectability, we determine whether it is probable that we will collect substantially all of the consideration to which we are entitled in exchange for the goods and services transferred to the customer in accordance with the terms and conditions of the contract. In connection with these procedures, we evaluate the customer using internal and external information available, including, but not limited to, research and analysis of the credit history with the customer. Based on the nature of our transactions and historical trends, we determine whether our customers have the ability and intention to pay the amounts of consideration when they become due to identify potentially significant credit risk exposure.
Contract Combinations - Multiple Promised Goods and Services
Our contracts may include promises to transfer multiple goods and services to a customer. Our Games and FinTech businesses may enter into multiple agreements with the same customer that meet the criteria to be combined for accounting purposes under ASC 606. When this occurs, a SSP will be determined for each performance obligation in the combined arrangement and the consideration allocated between the respective performance obligations. We use our judgment to analyze the nature of the promises made and determine whether each is distinct or should be combined with other promises in the contract based on the level of integration and interdependency between the individual deliverables.
Disaggregation of Revenues
We disaggregate revenues based on the nature and timing of the cash flows generated by such revenues as presented in “Note 18 — Segment Information.”
Outbound Freight Costs
Upon transferring control of a good to a customer, the shipping and handling costs in connection with sale transactions are accounted for as fulfillment costs and included in cost of revenues.
Costs to Acquire a Contract with a Customer
We typically incur incremental costs to acquire customer contracts in the form of sales commission expenses. We evaluate those acquisition costs for groups of contracts with similar characteristics, based on the nature of the transactions. The incremental costs to acquire customer contracts identified would be amortized within one year and, as a result, we elected to utilize the practical expedient set forth in ASC 340-40, Contract Costs – Incremental Costs of Obtaining a Contract to expense these amounts as incurred.
In connection with the adoption of ASC 606 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method, we recorded an immaterial cumulative adjustment with respect to certain amounts that had been previously deferred under the then existing revenue recognition guidance as of December 31, 2017 that required recognition under ASC 606 as of the effective date of adoption in accumulated deficit.
Games revenues are primarily generated by our gaming operations under placement, participation and development arrangements in which we provide our customers with player terminals, player terminal-content licenses, central determinant systems for devices placed in service in licensed jurisdictions and back-office equipment, collectively referred to herein as leased gaming equipment. We evaluate the recognition of lease revenues based on criteria set forth in ASC 840. Generally, under these arrangements, we retain ownership of the leased gaming equipment installed at customer facilities and we receive revenues based on a percentage of the net win per day generated by the leased gaming equipment or a fixed daily fee based on the number of player terminals installed at the facility. Revenues from lease participation or daily fee arrangements are considered both realizable and earned at the end of each gaming day.
Gaming operations revenues generated by leased gaming equipment deployed at sites under development or placement fee agreements give rise to contract rights, which are amounts recorded to intangible assets for dedicated floor space resulting from such agreements. The gaming operations revenues generated by these arrangements are reduced by the accretion of contract rights, which represents the related amortization of the contract rights recorded in connection with those agreements.
Gaming operations revenues include amounts generated by Wide Area Progressive (“WAP”) systems, which consist of linked slot machines located in multiple casino properties that are connected to a central system. WAP-based gaming machines have a progressive jackpot we administer that increases with every wager until a player wins the top award combination. Casino operators pay us a percentage of the coin-in (the total amount wagered) for services related to the design, assembly, installation, operation, maintenance, administration and marketing of the WAP systems. The gaming operations revenues with respect to WAP-based gaming machines are presented in the Statements of Income (Loss) net of the jackpot expense, which is comprised of incremental amount funded by a portion of the coin-in from players. At such time a jackpot is won by a player, an additional jackpot expense is recorded with respect to the base seed amount required to fund the minimum level required by the respective WAP arrangement with the casino operator.
Gaming Equipment and Systems
Gaming equipment and systems revenues are derived from the sale of gaming equipment to our customers under contracts on standard credit terms, which are generally short-term in nature, and are recognized at a point in time when control of the promised goods and services transfers to the customer generally upon shipment or delivery pursuant to the terms of the contract.
Gaming other revenues primarily consist of our TournEvent of Champions® national tournament and are recognized over a period of time as the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits.
Cash Access Services
Cash access services revenues are comprised of cash advance, ATM and check services revenue streams. We do not control the cash advance and ATM services provided to a customer and, therefore, we are acting as an agent whose performance obligation is to arrange for the provision of these services.
Cash advance revenues are comprised of transaction fees assessed to gaming patrons in connection with credit card cash access and POS debit card cash access transactions. Such fees are primarily based on a combination of a fixed amount plus a percentage of the face amount of the credit card cash access or POS debit card cash access transaction amount. In connection with these types of transactions, we report certain direct costs incurred as reductions to revenues on a net basis, which generally include: (i) commission expenses payable to casino operators; (ii) interchange fees payable to the network associations; and (iii) processing and related costs payable to other third party partners.
ATM revenues are primarily comprised of transaction fees in the form of cardholder surcharges assessed to gaming patrons in connection with ATM cash withdrawals at the time the transactions are authorized and reverse interchange fees paid to us by the patrons’ issuing banks. The cardholder surcharges assessed to gaming patrons in connection with ATM cash withdrawals are currently a fixed dollar amount and not a percentage of the transaction amount. In connection with these types of transactions, we report certain direct costs incurred as reductions to revenues on a net basis, which generally include: (i) commission expenses payable to casino operators; (ii) interchange fees payable to the network associations; and (iii) processing and related costs payable to other third party partners.
Check services revenues are principally comprised of check warranty revenues and are generally based upon a percentage of the face amount of checks warranted. These fees are paid to us by gaming establishments.
For cash access services arrangements, we recognize revenues over a period of time using an output method depicting the transfer of control to the customer based on variable consideration, such as volume of transactions processed with variability generally resolved in the reporting period.
Equipment revenues are derived from the sale of equipment under contracts with standard credit terms, which are generally short-term in nature, and are recognized at a point in time when control of the promised goods and services transfers to the customer generally upon shipment or delivery pursuant to the terms of the contract.
Information Services and Other
Information services and other revenues include amounts derived from the sale of: (i) software licenses, software subscriptions, professional services and certain other ancillary fees; (ii) service related fees associated with the sale, installation and maintenance of equipment directly to our customers under contracts on standard credit terms, which are generally short-term in nature, secured by the related equipment, (iii) credit worthiness related software subscription services that are based upon either a flat monthly unlimited usage fee or a variable fee structure driven by the volume of patron credit histories generated; and (iv) ancillary marketing, database and internet-based gaming related activities.
Our software represents a functional right-to-use license and the revenues are recognized at a point in time. Subscription services represent a stand-ready performance obligation and the revenues are recognized over a period of time using an input method based on time elapsed. Professional and other services revenues are recognized over a period of time using an input method based on time elapsed as services are provided, thereby reflecting the transfer of control to the customer.
Our restricted cash primarily consists of: (i) deposits held in connection with a sponsorship agreement; (ii) WAP-related restricted funds; and (iii) Internet related cash access activities. The current portion of restricted cash, which is included in prepaid expenses and other assets, was approximately $1.0 million and $0.9 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The non-current portion of restricted cash, which is included in other assets, was approximately $0.1 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017. The current portion of restricted cash was approximately $0.6 million and $0.3 million as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. The non-current portion of restricted cash was approximately $0.1 million as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016.
Fair Values of Financial Instruments
The fair value of a financial instrument represents the amount at which the instrument could be exchanged in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in a forced or liquidation sale. Fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time, based upon relevant market information about the financial instrument.
The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, settlement receivables, short-term trade and other receivables, settlement liabilities, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. The fair value of the long-term trade and loans receivable is estimated by discounting expected future cash flows using current interest rates at which similar loans would be made to borrowers with similar credit ratings and remaining maturities. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the fair value of notes receivable, net, approximated the carrying value due to contractual terms of trade and loans receivable generally being under 24 months. The fair value of our borrowings is estimated based on various inputs to determine a market price, such as: market demand and supply, size of tranche, maturity and similar instruments trading in more active markets. The estimated fair value and outstanding balances of our borrowings are as follows (in thousands).
September 30, 2018
Senior unsecured notes
December 31, 2017
Senior unsecured notes
The term loan facility was reported at fair value using a Level 2 input as there were quoted prices in markets that were not considered active as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017. The senior unsecured notes were reported at fair value using a Level 1 input as there were quoted prices in markets that were considered active as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
Reclassification of Prior Year Balances
Reclassifications were made to the prior-period Financial Statements to conform to the current period presentation, except for the adoption impact of the application of ASC 606 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method.
Recent Accounting Guidance
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In March 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-05, which provides guidance on accounting for the tax effects of the 2017 Tax Act (pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118). The new standard is effective March 13, 2018. We have adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. In accordance with this guidance, some of the income tax effects recorded in 2017 are provisional and may be adjusted during 2018.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, which creates ASC 606 and supersedes ASC Topic 605, “Revenue Recognition.” The guidance replaces industry-specific guidance and establishes a single five-step model to identify and recognize revenue. The core principle of the guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue upon transfer of control of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Additionally, the guidance requires the entity to disclose further quantitative and qualitative information regarding the nature and amount of revenues arising from contracts with customers, as well as other information about the significant judgments and estimates used in recognizing revenues from contracts with customers. The guidance in ASU 2014-9 was further updated by ASU 2016-08 in March 2016, which provided clarification on the implementation of the principal versus agent considerations in ASU 2014-09. In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-10, which provides clarification on the implementation of performance obligations and licensing in ASU 2014-9. In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-11, which amended guidance provided in two SEC Staff Announcements at the March 3, 2016 Emerging Issues Task Force meeting over various topics relating to ASU 606. In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-12, which clarified various topics in ASC 606. In December 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-20, which clarified additional topics in ASC 606. This guidance may be adopted retrospectively or under a modified retrospective method where the cumulative effect is recognized at the date of initial application. We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2018 and have provided additional information with respect to the new revenue recognition topic elsewhere in this Note 2 disclosure and also in “Note 3 — Adoption of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.”
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09 to clarify which changes to the terms and conditions of share-based payment awards require an entity to apply modification accounting under Topic 718. An entity is required to account for the effects of a modification unless all of the following conditions are met: (i) the fair value (or calculated value or intrinsic value, if such an alternative measurement method is used) of the modified award is the same as the fair value (or value using an alternative measurement method) of the original award immediately before the original award is modified. If the modification does not affect any of the inputs to the valuation technique that the entity uses to value the award, the entity is not required to estimate the value immediately before and after the modification; (ii) the vesting conditions of the modified award are the same as the vesting conditions of the original award immediately before the original award is modified; and (iii) the classification of the modified award as an equity instrument or a liability instrument is the same as the classification of the original award immediately before the original award is modified. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, which clarifies the definition of a business. The amendments affect all companies and other reporting organizations that must determine whether they have acquired or sold a business. The amendments are intended to help companies and other organizations evaluate whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. This guidance is to be applied using a prospective approach as of the beginning of the first period of adoption. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, which requires that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. As a result, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The amendments do not provide a definition of restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018 using a retrospective approach to each period presented. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, which provides updated guidance on the recognition of the income tax consequences of intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory when the transfer occurs, and this eliminates the exception for an intra-entity transfer of such assets. This guidance will be applied using a modified retrospective approach through a cumulative-effective adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, which provides updated guidance on the classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments in the statement of cash flows. This guidance is to be applied using a retrospective approach. If it is impracticable to apply the amendments retrospectively for some of the issues within this ASU, the amendments for those issues would be applied prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
Recent Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In August 208, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal use software license). The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our Financial Statements.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, which expands the scope of Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation (which currently only includes share-based payments to employees) to include share-based payments issued to nonemployees for goods or services. Consequently, the accounting for share-based payments to nonemployees and employees will be substantially aligned. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our Financial Statements. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our Financial Statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, which provides financial statement preparers with an option to reclassify stranded tax effects within AOCI to retained earnings in each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (or portion thereof) is recorded. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our Financial Statements. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our Financial Statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, which provides updated guidance on how an entity should measure credit losses on financial instruments. The new guidance replaces the current incurred loss measurement methodology with a lifetime expected loss measurement methodology, and is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. This guidance will be applied using a modified retrospective approach for the cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective and using a prospective approach for debt securities for which any other-than-temporary impairment had been recognized before the effective date. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our Financial Statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing transactions. The guidance establishes a right-of-use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. We expect to make an accounting policy election where leases that are 12 months or less and do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset, will be treated similar to current operating lease accounting and will not be recorded on the balance sheet. For lessees, leases will be classified as either financing or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. For lessors, leases will be classified as operating, sales-type or direct financing with classification affecting the pattern of revenue and profit recognition in the income statement. In July, 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10 - Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases and ASU No. 2018-11 - Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements. ASU No. 2018-10 affects narrow aspects of the guidance previously issued and ASU No. 2018-11 provides a practical expedient for lessors on separating components of a contract and also includes an additional optional transition relief methodology for adopting the new standard. The guidance requires an entity to adopt the new standard, as amended, under a modified retrospective application to each prior reporting period presented in the financial statements with the cumulative effect recognized at the beginning of the earliest comparative period. With the optional transition relief methodology available, entities have an opportunity to adopt the new lease standard retrospectively at the beginning of the period of adoption through a cumulative-effect adjustment, with certain practical expedients available. Based on the guidance, we intend to adopt the new standard effective on January 1, 2019 and, if necessary, will recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. We expect to apply certain practical expedients offered in the aforementioned guidance, such as those that state that the Company need not reassess: (a) whether expired or existing contracts contain leases, (b) the lease classification of expired or existing leases, or (c) initial direct costs for any existing leases.
While we are currently assessing the impact of this new lease standard on our financial statements, including evaluation of available practical expedients, we expect the following impact to our financial statements as summarized within the table below.
Preliminary Expected Impact Upon Adoption
We expect accounting for leases to be consistent with our current practices; however, there may be differences as we continue to evaluate the impact to our gaming operations revenue stream.
We do not typically have leases in which we are the lessor, however, we are continuing to assess our conclusions under Topic 842.
Preliminary Expected Impact Upon Adoption
Games and FinTech Segments
We expect to recognize operating lease ROU assets and liabilities primarily associated with real estate leases on our Balance Sheets for lease contracts with terms that are longer than 12 months with no material impact to the Statements of Income (Loss). The operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are expected to be recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease terms. Our lease contracts may include renewal options to extend the terms and, when it is reasonably certain that we expect to exercise the options, they will be factored into the analysis, as applicable. Operating lease expenses will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease terms. In the event we enter into financing lease arrangements, the costs will be amortized utilizing the effective interest method.
The Company is in the process of identifying and implementing appropriate changes to its business processes, systems and controls to support lease accounting and disclosures under Topic 842. We expect our quantitative and qualitative disclosures regarding Topic 842 to increase post adoption of the guidance.
We do not anticipate that any other recently issued accounting guidance will have a significant effect on our consolidated financial statements.