BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation
All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
We apply the provisions of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 805, “Business Combinations,” in the accounting for acquisitions. It requires us to recognize separately from goodwill the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed, at their acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the net of the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. Significant estimates and assumptions are required to value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date as well as contingent consideration, where applicable. These estimates are preliminary and typically include the calculation of an appropriate discount rate and projection of the cash flows associated with each acquired asset over its estimated useful life. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company may record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. In addition, deferred tax assets, deferred tax liabilities, uncertain tax positions, and tax related valuation allowances assumed in connection with a business combination are initially estimated as of the acquisition date. We reevaluate these items quarterly based upon facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date and any adjustments to its preliminary estimates are recorded to goodwill, in the period of identification, if identified within the measurement period. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the Statements of Income (Loss).
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash and balances on deposit in banks and financial institutions. We consider highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash and cash equivalents. Such balances generally exceed the federal insurance limits, however, we periodically evaluate the creditworthiness of these institutions to minimize risk.
ATM Funding Agreements
We obtain all of the cash required to operate our ATMs through various ATM Funding Agreements. Some gaming establishments provide the cash utilized within the ATM (“Site‑Funded”). The Site‑Funded receivables generated for the amount of cash dispensed from transactions performed at our ATMs are owned by us and we are liable to the gaming establishment for the face amount of the cash dispensed. In our Balance Sheets, the amount of the receivable for transactions processed on these ATM transactions is included within settlement receivables and the amount due to the gaming establishment for the face amount of dispensing transactions is included within settlement liabilities.
For the non‑Site‑Funded locations, we enter into commercial arrangements with third party vendors to provide us the currency needed for normal operating requirements for our ATMs. For the use of these funds, we pay a cash usage fee based upon the target federal funds rate. Under these agreements, the currency supplied by the third party vendors remains the sole property of these suppliers until cash is dispensed, at which time the third party vendors obtain an interest in the corresponding settlement receivable. As the cash is an asset of these suppliers, it is therefore not reflected on our Balance Sheets. The usage fee for the cash supplied in these ATMs is included as interest expense in the Statements of Income (Loss). Our rationale to record cash usage fees as interest expense is primarily due to the similar operational characteristics to a revolving line of credit, the fact that the fees are calculated on a financial index, and the fees are paid for access to a capital resource.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts related to our trade and other receivables and notes receivable that have been deemed to have a high risk of uncollectibility or for which uncertainty exists as to whether the account balance has become uncollectible. Management reviews its accounts and notes receivable on a quarterly basis to determine if any receivables will potentially be uncollectible. Management analyzes historical collection trends and changes in our customer payment patterns, concentration, and creditworthiness when evaluating the adequacy of our allowance for doubtful accounts. Based on the information available, management believes the allowance for doubtful accounts is adequate; however, actual write-offs may exceed the recorded allowance.
Settlement Receivables and Settlement Liabilities
We provide cash settlement services to gaming establishments related to our cash access services, which involve the movement of funds between various parties involved in these types of transactions. We receive reimbursement from the patron’s credit or debit card issuing financial institution for the amount owed to the gaming establishment plus the fee charged to the patron. These activities result in amounts due to us at the end of each business day that we generally recover over the next few business days, which are classified as settlement receivables on our Balance Sheets. In addition, cash settlement services result in amounts due to gaming establishments for the cash disbursed to patrons through the issuance of a negotiable instrument or through electronic settlement for the face amount provided to patrons that we generally remit over the next few business days, which are classified as settlement liabilities on our Balance Sheets.
If a gaming establishment chooses to have a check warranted, it sends a request to our third-party check warranty service provider, asking whether it would be willing to accept the risk of cashing the check. If the check warranty provider accepts the risk and warrants the check, the gaming establishment negotiates the patron’s check by providing cash for the face amount of the check. If the check is dishonored by the patron’s bank upon presentment, the gaming establishment invokes the warranty, and the check warranty service provider purchases the check from the gaming establishment for the full check amount and then pursues collection activities on its own. In our Central Credit Check Warranty product under our agreement with the third-party service provider, we receive all of the check warranty revenue. We are exposed to risk for the losses associated with any warranted items that cannot be collected from patrons issuing the items. Warranty receivables are defined as any amounts paid by the third-party check warranty service provider to gaming establishments to purchase dishonored checks. Additionally, we pay a fee to the third-party check warranty service provider for its services.
The warranty receivables amount is recorded in trade and other receivables, net on our Balance Sheets. On a monthly basis, the Company evaluates the collectability of the outstanding balances and establishes a reserve for the face amount of the expected losses on these receivables. The warranty expense associated with this reserve is included within cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization) on our Statements of Income (Loss).
Our inventory primarily consists of component parts as well as finished goods and work-in-progress. The cost of inventory includes cost of materials, labor, overhead and freight. The inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and accounted for using the first in, first out method (“FIFO”).
Our restricted cash primarily consists of: (i) deposits held in connection with a sponsorship agreement; (ii) WAP-related restricted funds; and (iii) Internet-related cash access activities. The current portion of restricted cash, which is included in prepaid expenses and other assets, was approximately $1.5 million, $0.9 million, and $0.3 million as of December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively. The non-current portion of restricted cash, which is included in other assets, was approximately $0.1 million as of December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016.
Property, Equipment and Leased Assets
Property, equipment and leased assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation, and are computed using the straight-line method over the lesser of the estimated life of the related assets, generally two to five years, or the related lease term. Player terminals and related components and equipment are included in our rental pool. The rental pool can be further delineated as “rental pool – deployed,” which consists of assets deployed at customer sites under participation arrangements, and “rental pool – undeployed,” which consists of assets held by us that are available for customer use. Rental pool – undeployed consists of both new units awaiting deployment to a customer site and previously deployed units currently back with us to be refurbished awaiting re-deployment. Routine maintenance of property, equipment and leased gaming equipment is expensed in the period incurred, while major component upgrades are capitalized and depreciated over the estimated remaining useful life of the component. Sales and retirements of depreciable property are recorded by removing the related cost and accumulated depreciation from the accounts. Gains or losses on sales and retirements of property are reflected in our Statements of Income (Loss). Property, equipment and leased assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. Impairment is indicated when future cash flows, on an undiscounted basis, do not exceed the carrying value of the asset.
Placement Fee and Development Agreements
We enter into placement fee and, to a certain extent, development agreements to provide financing for the expansion of existing facilities, or for new gaming facilities. Funds provided under placement fee agreements are not reimbursed, while funds provided under development agreements are reimbursed to us, in whole, or in part. In return, the facility dedicates a percentage of its floor space to placement of our player terminals, and we receive a fixed percentage of those player terminals’ hold amounts per day over the term of the agreement, which is generally from 12 to 83 months. Certain of the agreements contain player terminal performance standards that could allow the facility to reduce a portion of our guaranteed floor space. In addition, certain development agreements allow the facilities to buy out floor space after advances that are subject to repayment have been repaid. The agreements typically provide for a portion of the amounts retained by the gaming facility for their share of the operating profits of the facility to be used to repay some or all of the advances recorded as notes receivable.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired plus liabilities assumed arising from business combinations. We test for impairment annually on a reporting unit basis, at the beginning of our fourth fiscal quarter, or more often under certain circumstances. The annual impairment test is completed using either: a qualitative “Step 0” assessment based on reviewing relevant events and circumstances; or a quantitative “Step 1” assessment, which determines the fair value of the reporting unit, using both an income approach that discounts future cash flows based on the estimated future results of our reporting units and a market approach that compares market multiples of comparable companies to determine whether or not any impairment exists. If the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, we will use the “Step 1” assessment to determine the impairment, in accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other.
Our reporting units are identified as operating segments or one level below. Reporting units must: (a) engage in business activities from which they earn revenues and incur expenses; (b) have operating results that are regularly reviewed by our segment management to ascertain the resources to be allocated to the segment and assess its performance; and (c) have discrete financial information available. As of December 31, 2018, our reporting units included: Games, Cash Access Services, Kiosk Sales and Service, Central Credit Services, and Compliance Sales and Services.
Other Intangible Assets
Other intangible assets are stated at cost, less accumulated amortization, and are computed primarily using the straight-line method. Other intangible assets consist primarily of: (i) customer contracts (rights to provide Games and FinTech services to gaming establishment customers), developed technology, trade names and trademarks, and contract rights acquired through business combinations; and (ii) capitalized software development costs. Customer contracts require us to make renewal assumptions, which impact the estimated useful lives of such assets. Capitalized software development costs require us to make certain judgments as to the stages of development and costs eligible for capitalization. Capitalized software costs placed in service are amortized over their useful lives, generally not to exceed five years. We review intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Such events or circumstances include, but are not limited to, a significant decrease in the fair value of the underlying business or market price of the asset, a significant adverse change in legal factors or business climate that could affect the value of an asset, or a current period operating or cash flow loss combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses. We group intangible assets for impairment analysis at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. Recoverability of definite lived intangible assets is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of the asset to future net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset, on an undiscounted basis and without interest or taxes. Any impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets.
Debt Issuance Costs
Debt issuance costs incurred in connection with long-term borrowings are capitalized and amortized to interest expense based upon the related debt agreements using the straight-line method, which approximates the effective interest method. Debt issuance costs related to line-of-credit arrangements are included in other assets, non-current, on our Balance Sheets. All other debt issuance costs are included as contra-liabilities in long-term debt.
Original Issue Discounts
Original issue discounts incurred in connection with long-term borrowings are capitalized and amortized to interest expense based upon the related debt agreements using the straight-line method, which approximates the effective interest method. These amounts are recorded as contra-liabilities and included in long-term debt on our Balance Sheets.
We evaluate the recognition of revenue based on the criteria set forth in ASC 606 and ASC 840, as appropriate. We recognize revenue upon transferring control of goods or services to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. We enter into contracts with customers that include various performance obligations consisting of goods, services, or combinations of goods and services. Timing of the transfer of control varies based on the nature of the contract. We recognize revenue net of any sales and other taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental authorities and are not included in revenues or operating expenses. We measure revenue based on the consideration specified in a contract with a customer and adjusted, as necessary.
We evaluate the composition of our revenues to ensure compliance with SEC Regulation S-X Section 210.5-3, which requires us to separately present certain categories of revenues that exceed the quantitative threshold on our Statements of Income (Loss).
We apply judgments or estimates to determine the performance obligations and the Stand-Alone Selling Price (“SSP”) of each identified performance obligation. The establishment of SSP requires judgment as to whether there is a sufficient quantity of items sold or renewed on a stand-alone basis and those prices demonstrate an appropriate level of concentration to conclude that a SSP exists. The SSP of our goods and services are generally determined based on observable prices, an adjusted market assessment approach or an expected cost plus margin approach. We utilize a residual approach only when the SSP for performance obligations with observable prices have been established and the remaining performance obligation in the contract with a customer does not have an observable price as it is uncertain or highly variable and, therefore, is not discernible.
To assess collectability, we determine whether it is probable that we will collect substantially all of the consideration to which we are entitled in exchange for the goods and services transferred to the customer in accordance with the terms and conditions of the contract. In connection with these procedures, we evaluate the customer using internal and external information available, including, but not limited to, research and analysis of the credit history with the customer. Based on the nature of our transactions and historical trends, we determine whether our customers have the ability and intention to pay the amounts of consideration when they become due to identify potentially significant credit risk exposure.
Contract Combinations - Multiple Promised Goods and Services
Our contracts may include various performance obligations for promises to transfer multiple goods and services to a customer, especially since our Games and FinTech businesses may enter into multiple agreements with the same customer that meet the criteria to be combined for accounting purposes under ASC 606. When this occurs, a SSP will be determined for each performance obligation in the combined arrangement and the consideration allocated between the respective performance obligations. We use our judgment to analyze the nature of the promises made and determine whether each is distinct or should be combined with other promises in the contract based on the level of integration and interdependency between the individual deliverables.
Disaggregation of Revenues
We disaggregate revenues based on the nature and timing of the cash flows generated by such revenues as presented in “Note 18 - Segment Information.”
Outbound Freight Costs
Upon transferring control of a good to a customer, the shipping and handling costs in connection with sale transactions are accounted for as fulfillment costs and included in cost of revenues.
Costs to Acquire a Contract with a Customer
We typically incur incremental costs to acquire customer contracts in the form of sales commission expenses. We evaluate those acquisition costs for groups of contracts with similar characteristics, based on the nature of the transactions. The incremental costs to acquire customer contracts identified would be amortized within one year and, as a result, we elected to utilize the practical expedient set forth in ASC 340-40, Contract Costs - Incremental Costs of Obtaining a Contract to expense these amounts as incurred.
Since our contracts may include multiple performance obligations, there is often a timing difference between the cash collections and the satisfaction of such performance obligations and revenue recognition. Such arrangements are evaluated to determine whether contract assets and liabilities exist. We generally record contract assets when the timing of cash collections differs from when revenue is recognized due to contracts containing specific performance obligations that are required to be met prior to a customer being billed. We generally record contract liabilities when cash is collected in advance of us satisfying performance obligations, including those that are satisfied over a period of time.
The following table summarizes our contract assets and contract liabilities arising from contracts with customers:
For the Year Ended
December 31, 2018
Balance at January 1
Balance at December 31
Balance at January 1
Balance at December 31
(1) Current portion of contract assets is included within Trade and other receivables, net and non-current portion is included within Other receivables in our Balance Sheets.
(2) Current portion of contract liabilities is included within Accounts payable and accrued expenses and non-current portion is included within Other accrued expenses and liabilities in our Balance Sheets.
We recognized approximately $11.4 million in revenue that was included in the beginning contract liability balance during 2018.
Our Games products and services include commercial products, such as Native American Class II products and other bingo products, Class III products, video lottery terminals, accounting and central determinant systems, and other back office systems. We conduct our Games segment business based on results generated from the following major revenue streams: (i) Gaming Operations; (ii) Gaming Equipment and Systems; and (iii) Gaming Other.
Games revenues are primarily generated by our gaming operations under placement, participation, and development arrangements, in which we provide our customers with player terminals, including TournEvent® that allows operators to switch from in-revenue gaming to out-of-revenue tournaments, player terminal-content licenses, local-area progressive machines, and back-office equipment, collectively referred to herein as leased gaming equipment. We evaluate the recognition of lease revenues based on criteria set forth in ASC 840. Generally, under these arrangements, we retain ownership of the machines installed at customer facilities. We receive recurring revenue based on a percentage of the net win per day generated by the leased gaming equipment or a fixed daily fee. Revenues from lease participation or daily fee arrangements are considered both realizable and earned at the end of each gaming day. Gaming operations revenues generated by leased gaming equipment deployed at sites under development or placement fee agreements give rise to contract rights, which are amounts recorded to intangible assets for dedicated floor space resulting from such agreements. The gaming operations revenues generated by these arrangements are reduced by the accretion of contract rights, which represents the related amortization of the contract rights recorded in connection with those agreements. Gaming operations lease revenues accounted for under ASC 840 are generally short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 90 days. We recognized $136.6 million, $126.1 million, and $134.0 million in lease revenues for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
Gaming operations revenues include amounts generated by Wide Area Progressive (“WAP”) systems, which are recognized under ASC 606. WAP consists of linked slot machines located in multiple casino properties that are connected to a central system. WAP-based gaming machines have a progressive jackpot we administer that increases with every wager until a player wins the top award combination. Casino operators pay us a percentage of the coin-in (the total amount wagered), a percentage of net win, or a combination of both for services related to the design, assembly, installation, operation, maintenance, administration, and marketing of the WAP systems. The gaming operations revenues with respect to WAP machines comprise a separate performance obligation and are recognized over time based on the amount expected to be received with any variability being resolved in the reporting period. These arrangements are generally short-term in nature with a majority of invoices payable within 30 to 45 days. Such revenues are presented in the Statements of Income (Loss) net of the jackpot expense, which is comprised of incremental amounts funded by a portion of the coin-in from players. At the time a jackpot is won by a player, an additional jackpot expense is recorded with respect to the base seed amount required to fund the minimum level required by the respective WAP arrangement with the casino operator.
Gaming operations revenues also include amounts received in connection with our relationship with the New York State Gaming Commission to provide an accounting and central determinant system for the VLTs in operation at licensed State of New York gaming facilities. Pursuant to our agreement with the New York State Gaming Commission, we receive a portion of the network-wide net win (generally, cash-in less prizes paid) per day in exchange for provision and maintenance of the central determinant system and records it in accordance with ASC 606. We also provide central determinant system technology to Native American tribes in other licensed jurisdictions for which we receive a portion of the revenue generated from the VLTs connected to the system. These arrangements are generally short-term in nature with payments due monthly.
Gaming operations revenues also include amounts generated by our Interactive offering comprised of business-to-consumer (“B2C”) and business-to-business (“B2B”) activities. B2C relates to games offered directly to consumers to play with virtual currency which can be purchased through our social, mobile application. Control transfers and we recognize revenues in accordance with ASC 606 from player purchases of virtual currency as it is consumed for game play, which is based on a historical data analysis. B2B relates to games offered to the online business partners, or social casinos, who then offer the games to consumers. Our B2B arrangements primarily provide access to our game content and revenue is recognized in accordance with ASC 606 as the control transfers upon the online business partners’ daily access to such content based on either a flat fee or revenue share arrangements with the social casinos.
Gaming Equipment and Systems
Gaming equipment and systems revenues are accounted for under ASC 606 and are derived from the sale of some combination of: (a) gaming equipment and player terminals, including TournEvent® that allows operators to switch from in-revenue gaming to out-of-revenue tournaments; (b) game content; (c) license fees; (d) ancillary equipment; and (e) maintenance. Such arrangements are predominately short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 180 days with certain agreements providing for extended payment terms, ranging from 12 to 24 months. Our contracts with customers do not contain any financing components that have been determined to be significant to the contract. Performance obligations for gaming equipment and systems arrangements include gaming equipment, player terminals, content, system software, license fees, ancillary equipment, maintenance, or various combinations thereof. Gaming equipment and systems are recognized at a point in time when control of the promised goods and services transfers to the customer generally upon shipment or delivery pursuant to the terms of the contract. The performance obligations are generally satisfied at the same time or within a short period of time.
Gaming other revenues consist of amounts generated by our TournEvent of Champions® national tournament that allows winners of local and regional tournaments throughout the year to participate in a national tournament that results in the determination of a final champion. Such revenues are accounted for under ASC 606. As the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of our performance as it occurs, revenues are recognized as earned over a period of time using an output method depicting the transfer of control to the customer. These arrangements are generally short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 90 days.
Cash Access Services
Cash access services revenues are accounted for under ASC 606 and are generally comprised of the following distinct performance obligations: cash advance, ATM, and check services. We do not control the cash advance and ATM services provided to a customer and, therefore, we are acting as an agent whose performance obligation is to arrange for the provision of these services. Our cash access services involve the movement of funds between the various parties associated with cash access transactions and give rise to settlement receivables and settlement liabilities, both of which are settled in days following the transaction.
Cash advance revenues are comprised of transaction fees assessed to gaming patrons in connection with credit card cash access and POS debit card cash access transactions. Such fees are primarily based on a combination of a fixed amount plus a percentage of the face amount of the credit card cash access or POS debit card cash access transaction amount. In connection with these types of transactions, we report certain direct costs incurred as reductions to revenues on a net basis, which generally include: (i) commission expenses payable to casino operators; (ii) interchange fees payable to the network associations; and (iii) processing and related costs payable to other third party partners.
ATM revenues are primarily comprised of transaction fees in the form of cardholder surcharges assessed to gaming patrons in connection with ATM cash withdrawals at the time the transactions are authorized and reverse interchange fees paid to us by the patrons’ issuing banks. The cardholder surcharges assessed to gaming patrons in connection with ATM cash withdrawals are currently a fixed dollar amount and not a percentage of the transaction amount. In connection with these types of transactions, we report certain direct costs incurred as reductions to revenues on a net basis, which generally include: (i) commission expenses payable to casino operators; (ii) interchange fees payable to the network associations; and (iii) processing and related costs payable to other third party partners.
Check services revenues are principally comprised of check warranty revenues and are generally based upon a percentage of the face amount of checks warranted. These fees are paid to us by gaming establishments.
For cash access services arrangements, since the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits as the performance obligations occur, we recognize revenues as earned over a period of time using an output method depicting the transfer of control to the customer based on variable consideration, such as volume of transactions processed with variability generally resolved in the reporting period.
Equipment revenues are derived from the sale of equipment and are accounted for under ASC 606. Revenues are recognized at a point in time when control of the promised goods and services transfers to the customer generally upon shipment or delivery pursuant to the terms of the contract. These sales contracts are generally short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 90 days.
Information Services and Other
Information services and other revenues are accounted for under ASC 606 and include amounts derived from the sale of: (i) software licenses, software subscriptions, professional services and certain other ancillary fees; (ii) service related fees associated with the sale, installation, and maintenance of equipment directly to our customers under contracts, which are generally short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 90 days, secured by the related equipment; (iii) credit worthiness-related software subscription services that are based upon either a flat monthly unlimited usage fee or a variable fee structure driven by the volume of patron credit histories generated; and (iv) ancillary marketing, database, and Internet-based gaming related activities.
Our software represents a functional right-to-use license and the revenues are recognized as earned at a point in time. Subscription services are recognized over a period of time using an input method based on time elapsed as we transfer the control ratably by providing a stand-ready service. Professional and other services revenues are recognized over a period of time using an input method based on time elapsed as services are provided, thereby reflecting the transfer of control to the customer.
Cost of Revenues (Exclusive of Depreciation and Amortization)
The cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization) represents the direct costs required to perform revenue generating transactions. The costs included within cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization) are inventory and related costs associated with the sale of our fully integrated kiosks, electronic gaming machines and system sale, check cashing warranties, field service, and network operations personnel.
Advertising, Marketing, and Promotional Costs
We expense advertising, marketing, and promotional costs as incurred. Total advertising, marketing, and promotional costs, included in operating expenses in the Statements of Income (Loss), were $3.4 million, $1.1 million, and $1.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
Research and Development Costs
We conduct research and development activities primarily to develop gaming systems, game engines, casino data management systems, casino central monitoring systems, video lottery outcome determination systems, gaming platforms and gaming content, and to enhance our existing product lines. We believe our ability to deliver differentiated, appealing products and services to the marketplace is based on our research and development investments, and we expect to continue to make such investments in the future. Research and development costs consist primarily of salaries and benefits, consulting fees, and game lab testing fees. Once the technological feasibility of a project has been established, it is capitalized until it becomes available for general release.
Research and development costs were $20.5 million, $18.9 million, and $19.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States as well as various states and foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. In accordance with accounting guidance, our income taxes include amounts from domestic and international jurisdictions. Due to the 2017 Tax Act, there is no U.S. federal tax on cash repatriation from foreign subsidiaries; however, we could be subject to foreign withholding tax and U.S. state income taxes. The 2017 Tax Act also subjects our foreign subsidiary earnings to the Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) tax provisions. Some items of income and expense are not reported in tax returns and our Financial Statements in the same year. The tax effect of such temporary differences is reported as deferred income taxes.
Our deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in our Financial Statements or income tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based upon differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and their respective tax bases using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on the income tax provision or benefit and deferred tax assets and liabilities for a change in rates is recognized in the Statements of Income (Loss) in the period that includes the enactment date.
When measuring deferred tax assets, certain estimates and assumptions are required to assess whether a valuation allowance should be established by evaluating both positive and negative factors in accordance with accounting guidance. This evaluation requires that we exercise judgment in determining the relative significance of each factor. The assessment of the valuation allowance involves significant estimates regarding future taxable income and when it is recognized, the amount and timing of taxable differences, the reversal of temporary differences and the implementation of tax-planning strategies. A valuation allowance is established based on the weight of available evidence, including both positive and negative indicators, if it is more likely than not that a portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Greater weight is given to evidence that is objectively verifiable, most notably historical results. If we report a cumulative loss from continuing operations before income taxes for a reasonable period of time, this form of negative evidence is difficult to overcome. Therefore, we include certain aspects of our historical results in our forecasts of future taxable income, as we do not have the ability to solely rely on forecasted improvements in earnings to recover deferred tax assets. When we report a cumulative loss position, to the extent our results of operations improve, such that we have the ability to overcome the more likely than not accounting standard, we may be able to reverse the valuation allowance in the applicable period of determination. In addition, we rely on deferred tax liabilities in our assessment of the realizability of deferred tax assets if the temporary timing difference is anticipated to reverse in the same period and jurisdiction and the deferred tax liabilities are of the same character as the temporary differences giving rise to the deferred tax assets.
We also follow accounting guidance to account for uncertainty in income taxes as recognized in our Financial Statements. The accounting standard creates a single model to address uncertainty in income tax positions and prescribes the minimum recognition threshold a tax position is required to meet before being recognized in our Financial Statements. The standard also provides guidance on derecognition, measurement, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure, and transition.
Under this standard, we may recognize tax benefits from an uncertain position only if it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the issue. The amount recognized is the largest benefit that we believe has greater than a 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement. Actual income taxes paid may vary from estimates depending upon changes in income tax laws, actual results of operations, and the final audit of tax returns by taxing authorities. Tax assessments may arise several years after tax returns have been filed.
Employee Benefits Plan
The Company provides a 401(k) Plan that allows employees to defer up to the lesser of the Internal Revenue Code prescribed maximum amount or 100% of their income on a pre-tax basis through contributions to the plan. As a benefit to employees, the Company matches a percentage of these employee contributions (as defined in the plan document). Expenses related to the matching portion of the contributions to the 401(k) Plan were $2.2 million, $2.3 million, and $1.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
Fair Values of Financial Instruments
The fair value of a financial instrument represents the amount at which the instrument could be exchanged in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in a forced or liquidation sale. Fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time, based upon relevant market information about the financial instrument.
The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, settlement receivables, short-term trade and other receivables, settlement liabilities, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. The fair value of the long-term trade and loans receivable is estimated by discounting expected future cash flows using current interest rates at which similar loans would be made to borrowers with similar credit ratings and remaining maturities. As of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the fair value of notes receivable, net, approximated the carrying value due to contractual terms of trade and loans receivable generally being under 24 months. The fair value of our borrowings is estimated based on various inputs to determine a market price, such as: market demand and supply, size of tranche, maturity, and similar instruments trading in more active markets. The estimated fair value and outstanding balances of our borrowings are as follows (in thousands):
December 31, 2018
Senior unsecured notes
December 31, 2017
Senior unsecured notes
The term loan facility was reported at fair value using a Level 2 input as there were quoted prices in markets that were not considered active as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017. The senior unsecured notes were reported at fair value using a Level 1 input as there were quoted prices in markets that were considered active as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
Foreign Currency Translation
Foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities for those foreign entities for which the local currency is the functional currency are translated into U.S. dollars based on exchange rates prevailing at the end of each year. Revenues and expenses are translated at average exchange rates during the year. The effects of foreign exchange gains and losses arising from these translations are included as a component of other comprehensive income on the Statements of Income (Loss). Translation adjustments on intercompany balances of a long-term investment nature are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss on our Balance Sheets.
Use of Estimates
We have made estimates and judgments affecting the amounts reported in these financial statements and the accompanying notes in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The actual results may differ from these estimates.
Earnings Applicable to Common Stock
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share reflect the effect of potential common stock resulting from assumed stock option exercises and vesting of restricted stock unless it is anti-dilutive. To the extent we report a net loss from continuing operations in a particular period, no potential dilution from the application of the treasury stock method would be applicable in accordance with ASC 260, Earnings per Share.
Share-based compensation is considered an equity award and results in a cost that is measured at fair value on the grant date of an award.
Our time-based stock options were measured at fair value on the grant date using the Black Scholes model. Our restricted stock awards and restricted stock units, including the restricted stock units bound by certain performance-based metrics issued in 2018, were measured at fair value based on the stock price on the grant date. The compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the awards.
Our market-based options granted in 2017 and 2016 under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”) and 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (as amended, the “2012 Plan”) vest at a rate of 25% per year on each of the first four anniversaries of the grant date, provided that as of the vesting date for each vesting tranche, the closing price of the Company’s shares on the New York Stock Exchange is at least a specified price hurdle, defined as a 25% and 50% premium for 2017 and 2016, respectively, to the closing stock price on the grant date. If the price hurdle is not met as of the vesting date for a vesting tranche, then the vested tranche shall vest and become vested shares on the last day of a period of 30 consecutive trading days during which the closing price is at least the price hurdle.
The market-based options were measured at fair value on the grant date using a lattice-based valuation model based on the median time horizon from the date of grant for these options to the vesting date for those paths that achieved the target threshold(s). The compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the median vesting periods calculated under such valuation model.
Forfeitures are estimated at the grant date for our time-based, market-based and performance-based awards, with such estimates updated periodically; and with actual forfeitures recognized currently to the extent they differ from the estimates.
Unless otherwise provided by the administrator of our equity incentive plans, stock options granted under our plans generally expire ten years from the date of grant. The exercise price of stock options is generally the closing market price of our common stock on the date of the stock option grant.
We recognize a liability for acquisition-related costs when the expense is incurred. Acquisition-related costs include, but are not limited to: financial advisory, legal and debt fees; accounting, consulting, and professional fees associated with due diligence, valuation, and integration; severance; and other related costs and adjustments.
Reclassification of Prior Year Balances
Reclassifications were made to the prior-period Financial Statements to conform to the current period presentation, except for the adoption impact of the application of ASC 606 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method.
Recent Accounting Guidance
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In March 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-05, which provides guidance on accounting for the tax effects of the 2017 Tax Act (pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118). The new standard is effective March 13, 2018. We have adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. In accordance with this guidance, some of the income tax effects recorded in 2017 were provisional and insignificant adjustments were made during 2018. As of December 22, 2018, we completed our analysis and our updated assessment is that the 2017 Tax Act has no further impact on our previously reported income tax provisions or our deferred tax assets or liabilities; therefore, these amounts are no longer considered provisional in nature.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, which creates ASC 606 and supersedes ASC Topic 605, “Revenue Recognition.” The guidance replaces industry-specific guidance and establishes a single five-step model to identify and recognize revenue. The core principle of the guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue upon transfer of control of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Additionally, the guidance requires the entity to disclose further quantitative and qualitative information regarding the nature and amount of revenues arising from contracts with customers, as well as other information about the significant judgments and estimates used in recognizing revenues from contracts with customers. The guidance in ASU 2014-9 was further updated by ASU 2016-08 in March 2016, which provided clarification on the implementation of the principal versus agent considerations in ASU 2014-09. In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-10, which provides clarification on the implementation of performance obligations and licensing in ASU 2014-9. In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-11, which amended guidance provided in two SEC Staff Announcements at the March 3, 2016 Emerging Issues Task Force meeting over various topics relating to ASU 606. In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-12, which clarified various topics in ASC 606. In December 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-20, which clarified additional topics in ASC 606. This guidance may be adopted retrospectively or under a modified retrospective method where the cumulative effect is recognized at the date of initial application. We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2018 and have provided additional information with respect to the new revenue recognition topic elsewhere in this Note 2 disclosure and also in “Note 3 — Adoption of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.”
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09 to clarify which changes to the terms and conditions of share-based payment awards require an entity to apply modification accounting under Topic 718. An entity is required to account for the effects of a modification unless all of the following conditions are met: (i) the fair value (or calculated value or intrinsic value, if such an alternative measurement method is used) of the modified award is the same as the fair value (or value using an alternative measurement method) of the original award immediately before the original award is modified. If the modification does not affect any of the inputs to the valuation technique that the entity uses to value the award, the entity is not required to estimate the value immediately before and after the modification; (ii) the vesting conditions of the modified award are the same as the vesting conditions of the original award immediately before the original award is modified; and (iii) the classification of the modified award as an equity instrument or a liability instrument is the same as the classification of the original award immediately before the original award is modified. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, which clarifies the definition of a business. The amendments affect all companies and other reporting organizations that must determine whether they have acquired or sold a business. The amendments are intended to help companies and other organizations evaluate whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. This guidance is to be applied using a prospective approach as of the beginning of the first period of adoption. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, which requires that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. As a result, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The amendments do not provide a definition of restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018 using a retrospective approach to each period presented. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, which provides updated guidance on the recognition of the income tax consequences of intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory when the transfer occurs, and this eliminates the exception for an intra-entity transfer of such assets. This guidance will be applied using a modified retrospective approach through a cumulative-effective adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, which provides updated guidance on the classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments in the statement of cash flows. This guidance is to be applied using a retrospective approach. If it is impracticable to apply the amendments retrospectively for some of the issues within this ASU, the amendments for those issues would be applied prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, which, among other things, requires equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting, or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2018. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
Recent Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal use software license). The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our Financial Statements; however, we do not expect the impact to be material.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, which expands the scope of Topic 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation (which currently only includes share-based payments to employees) to include share-based payments issued to nonemployees for goods or services. Consequently, the accounting for share-based payments to nonemployees and employees will be substantially aligned. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, which provides financial statement preparers with an option to reclassify stranded tax effects within AOCI to retained earnings in each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (or portion thereof) is recorded. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, which provides updated guidance on how an entity should measure credit losses on financial instruments. The new guidance replaces the current incurred loss measurement methodology with a lifetime expected loss measurement methodology, and is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. This guidance will be applied using a modified retrospective approach for the cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective and using a prospective approach for debt securities for which any other-than-temporary impairment had been recognized before the effective date. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-19 to mitigate transition complexity by requiring entities other than public business entities to implement ASU No. 2016-13 for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. This aligns the implementation date for their annual financial statements with the implementation date for their interim financial statements. The guidance also clarified that receivables arising from operating leases are not within the scope of the credit losses standard, but rather, should be accounted for in accordance with the leases standard. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our Financial Statements; however, we do not expect the impact to be material.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing transactions. The guidance establishes a right-of-use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. We made an accounting policy election whereby leases that are 12 months or less that do not include an option to purchase the underlying assets will be accounted for similarly to our current operating leases; therefore, these arrangements will not be recorded on the balance sheet. For lessees, leases will be classified as either financing or operating with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. For lessors, leases will be classified as operating, sales-type or direct financing with classification affecting the pattern of revenue and profit recognition in the income statement. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10 - Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases and ASU No. 2018-11 - Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements. ASU No. 2018-10 affects narrow aspects of the guidance previously issued and ASU No. 2018-11 provides a practical expedient for lessors on separating components of a contract and also includes an additional optional transition relief methodology for adopting the new standard. In December 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-20 - Leases (Topic 842): Narrow-Scope Improvements for Lessors, which addresses the following issues facing lessors when applying the standard: sales taxes and other similar taxes collected from lessees, certain lessor costs paid directly by lessees, and recognition of variable payments for contracts with lease and non-lease components. The guidance requires an entity to adopt the new standard, as amended, under a modified retrospective application. With the optional transition relief methodology available, entities have an opportunity to adopt the new lease standard prospectively at the beginning of the period of adoption through a cumulative-effect adjustment, with certain practical expedients available.
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted the new leasing standard promulgated by the FASB using the adoption date method. While we are finalizing the adoption procedures, we expect that the standard will have a material impact on our Balance Sheets, however, we do not expect that the standard will have a material impact on our Statements of Income (Loss). Upon adoption, we will record a ROU asset and lease liability, representing our obligation to make lease payments for operating leases, measured on a discounted basis. We expect the ROU assets and lease liabilities of operating leases recorded to be within the range of approximately 1%-2% of total assets. We elected the practical expedients offered in the aforementioned guidance, including the transition practical expedient that states that the Company need not reassess: (a) whether expired or existing contracts contain leases; (b) the lease classification of expired or existing leases; or (c) initial direct costs for any existing leases. Other expedients adopted include practical expedient that allows a Company, as an accounting policy election by class of underlying assets, choose not to separate non-lease components from lease components; and a short-term lease recognition exemption to not record short-term leases with an initial term of 12 months or less on the balance sheet.
As we are finalizing the adoption procedures, we expect the following impact to our financial statements as summarized within the table below:
Expected Impact Upon Adoption
Games and FinTech Segments
The adoption of ASC 842 will not have a material impact on the Company from the lessor perspective as our lessor accounting for leases will be consistent with current practices.
Expected Impact Upon Adoption
Games and FinTech Segments
We will recognize operating lease ROU assets and liabilities primarily associated with real estate leases on our Balance Sheets for lease contracts with terms that are longer than 12 months with no material impact to the Statements of Income (Loss). The operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are expected to be recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease terms.
We do not anticipate that any other recently issued accounting guidance will have a significant effect on our consolidated financial statements.