BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included herein have been prepared by us pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Some of the information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations, although we believe the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (which include normal recurring adjustments) necessary for a fair statement of results for the interim periods have been made. The results for the three months ended March 31, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full fiscal year. The Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.
Other than the adoption of the Financial Accounting Standard Board’s (the “FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02 (“Leases”) and all subsequent amendments (collectively, Accounting Standards Codification 842, or ASC 842), there have been no changes to our basis of presentation and significant accounting policies since the most recent filing of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.
We evaluate the recognition of revenue based on the criteria set forth in ASC 606 (“Revenue from Contracts with Customers”) and ASC 842, as appropriate. We recognize revenue upon transferring control of goods or services to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. We enter into contracts with customers that include various performance obligations consisting of goods, services, or combinations of goods and services. Timing of the transfer of control varies based on the nature of the contract. We recognize revenue net of any sales and other taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental authorities and are not included in revenues or operating expenses. We measure revenue based on the consideration specified in a contract with a customer and adjusted, as necessary.
We evaluate the composition of our revenues to ensure compliance with SEC Regulation S-X Section 210.5-3, which requires us to separately present certain categories of revenues that exceed the quantitative threshold on our Statements of Income.
We apply judgments or estimates to determine the performance obligations and the Stand-Alone Selling Price (“SSP”) of each identified performance obligation. The establishment of SSP requires judgment as to whether there is a sufficient quantity of items sold or renewed on a stand-alone basis and those prices demonstrate an appropriate level of concentration to conclude that a SSP exists. The SSP of our goods and services are generally determined based on observable prices, an adjusted market assessment approach or an expected cost plus margin approach. We utilize a residual approach only when the SSP for performance obligations with observable prices has been established and the remaining performance obligation in the contract with a customer does not have an observable price as it is uncertain or highly variable and, therefore, is not discernible.
To assess collectability, we determine whether it is probable that we will collect substantially all of the consideration to which we are entitled in exchange for the goods and services transferred to the customer in accordance with the terms and conditions of the contract. In connection with these procedures, we evaluate the customer using internal and external information available, including, but not limited to, research and analysis of our credit history with the customer. Based on the nature of our transactions and historical trends, we determine whether our customers have the ability and intention to pay the amounts of consideration when they become due to identify potentially significant credit risk exposure.
Contract Combinations — Multiple Promised Goods and Services
Our contracts may include various performance obligations for promises to transfer multiple goods and services to a customer, especially since our Games and FinTech businesses may enter into multiple agreements with the same customer that meet the criteria to be combined for accounting purposes under ASC 606. When this occurs, a SSP will be determined for each performance obligation in the combined arrangement and the consideration allocated between the respective performance obligations. We use our judgment to analyze the nature of the promises made and determine whether each is distinct or should be combined with other promises in the contract based on the level of integration and interdependency between the individual deliverables.
Disaggregation of Revenues
We disaggregate revenues based on the nature and timing of the cash flows generated by such revenues as presented in “Note 18 — Segment Information.”
Outbound Freight Costs
Upon transferring control of goods to a customer, the shipping and handling costs in connection with sale transactions are accounted for as fulfillment costs and included in cost of revenues.
Costs to Acquire a Contract with a Customer
We typically incur incremental costs to acquire customer contracts in the form of sales commission expenses. We evaluate those acquisition costs for groups of contracts with similar characteristics, based on the nature of the transactions. The incremental costs to acquire customer contracts identified would be amortized within one year and, as a result, we elected to utilize the practical expedient set forth in ASC 340 (“Contract Costs - Incremental Costs of Obtaining a Contract”) to expense these amounts as incurred.
Since our contracts may include multiple performance obligations, there is often a timing difference between cash collections and the satisfaction of such performance obligations and revenue recognition. Such arrangements are evaluated to determine whether contract assets and liabilities exist. We generally record contract assets when the timing of cash collections differs from when revenue is recognized due to contracts containing specific performance obligations that are required to be met prior to a customer being billed. We generally record contract liabilities when cash is collected in advance of us satisfying performance obligations, including those that are satisfied over a period of time.
The following table summarizes our contract assets and contract liabilities arising from contracts with customers:
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2019
Balance at January 1
Balance at March 31
Balance at January 1
Balance at March 31
Current portion of contract assets is included within trade and other receivables, net, and non-current portion is included within other receivables in our Balance Sheets.
Current portion of contract liabilities is included within accounts payable and accrued expenses, and non-current portion is included within other accrued expenses and liabilities in our Balance Sheets.
We recognized approximately $6.1 million in revenue that was included in the beginning contract liability balance during the three months ended March 31, 2019.
Our Games products and services include commercial products, such as Native American Class II products and other bingo products, Class III products, video lottery terminals, accounting and central determinant systems, business-to-consumer and business-to-business interactive activities, and other back office systems. We conduct our Games segment business based on results generated from the following major revenue streams: (a) Gaming Operations; (b) Gaming Equipment and Systems; and (c) Gaming Other.
Games revenues are primarily generated by our gaming operations under placement, participation, and development arrangements, in which we provide our customers with player terminals, including TournEvent® terminals that allow operators to switch from in-revenue gaming to out-of-revenue tournaments, player terminal-content licenses, local-area progressive machines, and back-office equipment, collectively referred to herein as leased gaming equipment. We evaluate the recognition of lease revenues based on criteria set forth in ASC 842. Generally, under these arrangements, we retain ownership of the machines installed at customer facilities. We receive recurring revenue based on a percentage of the net win per day generated by the leased gaming equipment or a fixed daily fee. Revenues from lease participation or daily fee arrangements are considered both realizable and earned at the end of each gaming day. Gaming operations revenues generated by leased gaming equipment deployed at sites under development or placement fee agreements give rise to contract rights, which are amounts recorded to intangible assets for dedicated floor space resulting from such agreements. The gaming operations revenues generated by these arrangements are reduced by the accretion of contract rights, which represents the related amortization of the contract rights recorded in connection with those agreements. Gaming operations lease revenues accounted for under ASC 842 are generally short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 90 days. We recognized $33.8 million and $33.3 million in lease revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Gaming operations revenues include amounts generated by Wide Area Progressive (“WAP”) systems, which are recognized under ASC 606. WAP consists of linked slot machines located in multiple casino properties that are connected to a central system. WAP-based gaming machines have a progressive jackpot we administer that increases with every wager until a player wins the top award combination. Casino operators pay us a percentage of the coin-in (the total amount wagered), a percentage of net win, or a combination of both for services related to the design, assembly, installation, operation, maintenance, administration, and marketing of the WAP systems. The gaming operations revenues with respect to WAP machines comprise a separate performance obligation and are recognized over time based on the amount expected to be received with any variability being resolved in the reporting period. These arrangements are generally short-term in nature with a majority of invoices payable within 30 to 90 days. Such revenues are presented in the Statements of Income net of the jackpot expense, which is comprised of incremental amounts funded by a portion of the coin-in from players. At the time a jackpot is won by a player, an additional jackpot expense is recorded with respect to the base seed amount required to fund the minimum level required by the respective WAP arrangement with the casino operator.
Gaming operations revenues also include amounts received in connection with our relationship with the New York State Gaming Commission to provide an accounting and central determinant system for the VLTs in operation at licensed State of New York gaming facilities. Pursuant to our agreement with the New York State Gaming Commission, we receive a portion of the network-wide net win (generally, cash-in less prizes paid) per day in exchange for provision and maintenance of the central determinant system, and we record revenues in accordance with ASC 606. We also provide central determinant system technology to Native American tribes in other licensed jurisdictions for which we receive a portion of the revenue generated from the VLTs connected to the system. These arrangements are generally short-term in nature with payments due monthly.
Gaming operations revenues also include amounts generated by our Interactive offering comprised of business-to-consumer (“B2C”) and business-to-business (“B2B”) activities. B2C relates to games offered directly to consumers to play with virtual currency which can be purchased through our web and mobile applications. Control transfers and we recognize revenues in accordance with ASC 606 from player purchases of virtual currency as it is consumed for game play, which is based on a historical data analysis. B2B relates to games offered to the online business partners, including social casinos and regulated real money casinos, who then offer the games to consumers. Our B2B arrangements primarily provide access to our game content and revenue is recognized in accordance with ASC 606 as the control transfers upon the online business partners’ daily access to such content based on either a flat fee or revenue share arrangements with the social casinos and regulated real money casinos.
Gaming Equipment and Systems
Gaming equipment and systems revenues are accounted for under ASC 606 and are derived from the sale of some combination of: (a) gaming equipment and player terminals, including TournEvent® terminals that allow operators to switch from in-revenue gaming to out-of-revenue tournaments; (b) game content; (c) license fees; and (d) ancillary equipment. Such arrangements are predominately short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 180 days with certain agreements providing for extended payment terms, ranging from 12 to 24 months. Each contract containing extended payment terms over 12 months is evaluated for the presence of a financing component, and for the arrangements in which the financing component is determined to be significant to the contact, the transaction price is adjusted for the time value of money. Generally, our contracts with customers do not contain a financing component that has been determined to be significant to the contract. Performance obligations for gaming equipment and systems arrangements include gaming equipment, player terminals, content, system software, license fees, ancillary equipment, or various combinations thereof. Gaming equipment and systems revenues are recognized at a point in time when control of the promised goods and services transfers to the customer, which is generally upon shipment or delivery pursuant to the terms of the contract. The performance obligations are generally satisfied at the same time or within a short period of time.
Gaming other revenues consist of amounts generated by our TournEvent of Champions® national tournament that allows winners of local and regional tournaments throughout the year to participate in a national tournament that results in the determination of a final champion. Such revenues are accounted for under ASC 606. As the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of our performance as it occurs, revenues are recognized as earned over a period of time using an output method depicting the transfer of control to the customer. These arrangements are generally short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 90 days.
Cash Access Services
Cash access services revenues are accounted for under ASC 606 and are generally comprised of the following distinct performance obligations: cash advance, ATM, and check services. We do not control the cash advance and ATM services provided to a customer and, therefore, we are acting as an agent whose performance obligation is to arrange for the provision of these services. Our cash access services involve the movement of funds between the various parties associated with cash access transactions and give rise to settlement receivables and settlement liabilities, both of which are settled in days following the transaction.
Cash advance revenues are comprised of transaction fees assessed to gaming patrons in connection with credit card cash access and POS debit card cash access transactions. Such fees are primarily based on a combination of a fixed amount plus a percentage of the face amount of the credit card cash access or POS debit card cash access transaction amount. In connection with these types of transactions, we report certain direct costs incurred as reductions to revenues on a net basis, which generally include: (a) commission expenses payable to casino operators; (b) interchange fees payable to the network associations; and (c) processing and related costs payable to other third party partners.
ATM revenues are primarily comprised of transaction fees in the form of cardholder surcharges assessed to gaming patrons in connection with ATM cash withdrawals at the time the transactions are authorized and reverse interchange fees paid to us by the patrons’ issuing banks. The cardholder surcharges assessed to gaming patrons in connection with ATM cash withdrawals are currently a fixed dollar amount and not a percentage of the transaction amount. In connection with these types of transactions, we report certain direct costs incurred as reductions to revenues on a net basis, which generally include: (a) commission expenses payable to casino operators; (b) interchange fees payable to the network associations; and (c) processing and related costs payable to other third party partners.
Check services revenues are principally comprised of check warranty revenues and are generally based upon a percentage of the face amount of checks warranted. These fees are paid to us by gaming establishments.
For cash access services arrangements, since the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits as the performance obligations occur, we recognize revenues as earned over a period of time using an output method depicting the transfer of control to the customer based on variable consideration, such as volume of transactions processed with variability generally resolved in the reporting period.
Equipment revenues are derived from the sale of our cash access kiosks and related equipment and are accounted for under ASC 606. Revenues are recognized at a point in time when control of the promised goods and services transfers to the customer generally upon shipment or delivery pursuant to the terms of the contract. These sales contracts are generally short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 90 days.
In addition, equipment revenues are derived from the sale of our loyalty kiosks and related equipment and are accounted for under ASC 606. Revenues are recognized at a point in time when control of the promised goods and services transfers to the customer generally upon installation and customer acceptance based on connectivity to a casino management system pursuant to the terms of the contract. These sales contracts are generally short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 90 days.
Information Services and Other
Information services and other revenues are accounted for under ASC 606 and include amounts derived from our cash access, kiosk, compliance, and loyalty related revenue streams from the sale of: (a) software licenses, software subscriptions, professional services, and certain other ancillary fees; (b) service-related fees associated with the sale, installation, and maintenance of equipment directly to our customers under contracts, which are generally short-term in nature with payment terms ranging from 30 to 90 days, secured by the related equipment; (c) credit worthiness-related software subscription services that are based upon either a flat monthly unlimited usage fee or a variable fee structure driven by the volume of patron credit histories generated; and (d) ancillary marketing, database, and Internet-based gaming-related activities.
Our software represents a functional right-to-use license, and the revenues are recognized as earned at a point in time. Subscription services are recognized over a period of time using an input method based on time elapsed as we transfer the control ratably by providing a stand-ready service. Professional and other services revenues are recognized over a period of time using an input method based on time elapsed as services are provided, thereby reflecting the transfer of control to the customer.
Our restricted cash primarily consists of: (a) deposits held in connection with a sponsorship agreement; (b) WAP-related restricted funds; and (c) Internet-related cash access activities. The current portion of restricted cash, which is included in prepaid expenses and other assets, was approximately $1.8 million and $1.5 million as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. The non-current portion of restricted cash, which is included in other assets, was approximately $0.1 million as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018. The current portion of restricted cash was approximately $0.8 million and $0.9 million as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The non-current portion of restricted cash was approximately $0.1 million as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
Fair Values of Financial Instruments
The fair value of a financial instrument represents the amount at which the instrument could be exchanged in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in a forced or liquidation sale. Fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time, based upon relevant market information about the financial instrument.
The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, settlement receivables, short-term trade and other receivables, settlement liabilities, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. The fair value of the long-term trade and loans receivable is estimated by discounting expected future cash flows using current interest rates at which similar loans would be made to borrowers with similar credit ratings and remaining maturities. As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the fair value of notes receivable, net approximated the carrying value due to contractual terms of trade and loans receivable generally being under 24 months. The fair value of our borrowings is estimated based on various inputs to determine a market price, such as: market demand and supply, size of tranche, maturity, and similar instruments trading in more active markets. The estimated fair value and outstanding balances of our borrowings are as follows (in thousands):
March 31, 2019
Senior unsecured notes
December 31, 2018
Senior unsecured notes
The term loan facility was reported at fair value using a Level 2 input as there were quoted prices in markets that were not considered active as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018. The senior unsecured notes were reported at fair value using a Level 1 input as there were quoted prices in markets that were considered active as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
Recent Accounting Guidance
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, which expands the scope of Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation (which currently only includes share-based payments to employees) to include share-based payments issued to nonemployees for goods or services. Consequently, the accounting for share-based payments to nonemployees and employees will be substantially aligned. The new standard became effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2019. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, which provides financial statement preparers with an option to reclassify stranded tax effects within accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings in each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (or portion thereof) is recorded. The new standard became effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We adopted this guidance in the quarter ended March 31, 2019. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Financial Statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing transactions. The guidance establishes a right-of-use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to record a lease ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. We made an accounting policy election where leases that are 12 months or less and do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset are treated similarly to the operating lease accounting under ASC 840 and are not recorded on the balance sheet. For lessees, leases are classified as either financing or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. For lessors, leases are classified as operating, sales-type, or direct financing with classification affecting the pattern of revenue and profit recognition in the income statement. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10 — Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases and ASU No. 2018-11 — Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements. ASU No. 2018-10 affected narrow aspects of the guidance previously issued, and ASU No. 2018-11 provided a practical expedient for lessors on separating components of a contract and also included an additional optional transition relief methodology for adopting the new standard. In December 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-20 — Leases (Topic 842): Narrow-Scope Improvements for Lessors, which addressed the following issues facing lessors when applying the standard: sales taxes and other similar taxes collected from lessees, certain lessor costs paid directly by lessees, and recognition of variable payments for contracts with lease and non-lease components. The guidance requires an entity to adopt the new standard, as amended, under a modified retrospective application to each prior reporting period presented in the financial statements with the cumulative effect recognized at the beginning of the earliest comparative period. With the optional transition relief methodology available, entities had an opportunity to adopt the new lease standard retrospectively at the beginning of the period of adoption through a cumulative-effect adjustment, with certain practical expedients available. Based on the guidance, we adopted the new standard effective January 1, 2019 and applied certain practical expedients offered in the aforementioned guidance, such as those that stated that the Company need not reassess: (a) whether expired or existing contracts contain leases, (b) the lease classification of expired or existing leases, or (c) initial direct costs for any existing leases. We have provided additional information with respect to the new guidance in “Note 3 — Leases.”
Recent Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal use software license). The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our Financial Statements; however, we do not expect the impact to be material.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, which provides updated guidance on how an entity should measure credit losses on financial instruments. The new guidance replaces the current incurred loss measurement methodology with a lifetime expected loss measurement methodology. Subsequently, in November 2018 the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-19 which clarified that receivables arising from operating leases are not within the scope of Subtopic 326-20, but should rather be accounted for in accordance with Topic 842, Leases. The new standard and related amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. This guidance will be applied using a modified retrospective approach for the cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective and using a prospective approach for debt securities for which any other-than-temporary impairment had been recognized before the effective date. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our Financial Statements.
We do not anticipate that any other recently issued accounting guidance will have a significant effect on our consolidated financial statements.