ASPEN AEROGELS INC, 10-K filed on 3/1/2018
Annual Report
Document and Entity Information (USD $)
In Millions, except Share data, unless otherwise specified
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Feb. 27, 2018
Jun. 30, 2017
Document And Entity Information [Abstract]
 
 
 
Document Type
10-K 
 
 
Amendment Flag
false 
 
 
Document Period End Date
Dec. 31, 2017 
 
 
Document Fiscal Year Focus
2017 
 
 
Document Fiscal Period Focus
FY 
 
 
Trading Symbol
ASPN 
 
 
Entity Registrant Name
ASPEN AEROGELS INC 
 
 
Entity Central Index Key
0001145986 
 
 
Current Fiscal Year End Date
--12-31 
 
 
Entity Well-known Seasoned Issuer
No 
 
 
Entity Current Reporting Status
Yes 
 
 
Entity Voluntary Filers
No 
 
 
Entity Filer Category
Accelerated Filer 
 
 
Entity Common Stock, Shares Outstanding
 
23,643,189 
 
Entity Public Float
 
 
$ 86.6 
Consolidated Balance Sheets (USD $)
In Thousands, unless otherwise specified
Dec. 31, 2017
Dec. 31, 2016
Current assets:
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 10,694 
$ 18,086 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $93 and $93
26,764 
17,535 
Inventories
8,915 
12,868 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
1,289 
1,697 
Total current assets
47,662 
50,186 
Property, plant and equipment, net
76,067 
84,394 
Other long-term assets
86 
89 
Total assets
123,815 
134,669 
Current liabilities:
 
 
Accounts payable
10,653 
13,065 
Accrued expenses
5,862 
3,987 
Revolving line of credit
3,750 
 
Deferred revenue
1,304 
1,043 
Capital leases, current portion
 
35 
Total current liabilities
21,569 
18,130 
Capital leases, excluding current portion
 
Deferred rent
1,303 
971 
Total liabilities
22,872 
19,105 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)
   
   
Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.00001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued or outstanding at December 31, 2017 and 2016
   
   
Common stock, $0.00001 par value; 125,000,000 shares authorized, 23,643,189 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2017; 23,369,838 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2016
Additional paid-in capital
538,088 
533,088 
Accumulated deficit
(437,145)
(417,524)
Total stockholders’ equity
100,943 
115,564 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$ 123,815 
$ 134,669 
Consolidated Balance Sheets (Parenthetical) (USD $)
In Thousands, except Share data, unless otherwise specified
Dec. 31, 2017
Dec. 31, 2016
Statement Of Financial Position [Abstract]
 
 
Allowance for doubtful accounts
$ 93 
$ 93 
Preferred stock, par value
$ 0.00001 
$ 0.00001 
Preferred stock, shares authorized
5,000,000 
5,000,000 
Preferred stock, shares issued
Preferred stock, shares outstanding
Common stock, par value
$ 0.00001 
$ 0.00001 
Common stock, shares authorized
125,000,000 
125,000,000 
Common stock, shares issued
23,643,189 
23,369,838 
Common stock, shares outstanding
23,643,189 
23,369,838 
Consolidated Statements of Operations (USD $)
In Thousands, except Share data, unless otherwise specified
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Dec. 31, 2016
Dec. 31, 2015
Revenue:
 
 
 
Product
$ 109,590 
$ 115,490 
$ 120,532 
Research services
2,041 
2,248 
1,986 
Total revenue
111,631 
117,738 
122,518 
Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
Product
92,052 
93,123 
96,865 
Research services
908 
1,304 
1,005 
Gross profit
18,671 
23,311 
24,648 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
Research and development
6,180 
5,306 
5,253 
Sales and marketing
12,604 
11,810 
10,562 
General and administrative
19,023 
17,415 
15,068 
Total operating expenses
37,807 
34,531 
30,883 
Loss from operations
(19,136)
(11,220)
(6,235)
Other expense, net:
 
 
 
Interest expense, net
(185)
(147)
(182)
Postponed financing costs
 
(656)
 
Total other expense, net
(185)
(803)
(182)
Net loss
$ (19,321)
$ (12,023)
$ (6,417)
Net loss per share:
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
$ (0.83)
$ (0.52)
$ (0.28)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
23,390,235 
23,139,807 
22,986,931 
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity (USD $)
In Thousands, except Share data
Total
USD ($)
Common Stock 0.00001 Par Value [Member]
Additional Paid-in Capital [Member]
USD ($)
Accumulated Deficit [Member]
USD ($)
Beginning balance at Dec. 31, 2014
$ 123,716 
 
$ 522,800 
$ (399,084)
Beginning balance, shares at Dec. 31, 2014
 
22,992,273 
 
 
Net loss
(6,417)
 
 
(6,417)
Stock compensation expense
5,413 
 
5,413 
 
Issuance of restricted stock, shares
 
132,130 
 
 
Vesting of restricted stock units
(238)
 
(238)
 
Vesting of restricted stock units, shares
 
60,449 
 
 
Ending balance at Dec. 31, 2015
122,474 
 
527,975 
(405,501)
Ending balance, shares at Dec. 31, 2015
 
23,184,852 
 
 
Net loss
(12,023)
 
 
(12,023)
Stock compensation expense
5,313 
 
5,313 
 
Issuance of restricted stock, shares
 
75,152 
 
 
Vesting of restricted stock units
(200)
 
(200)
 
Vesting of restricted stock units, shares
 
109,834 
 
 
Ending balance at Dec. 31, 2016
115,564 
 
533,088 
(417,524)
Ending balance, shares at Dec. 31, 2016
 
23,369,838 
 
 
Net loss
(19,321)
 
 
(19,321)
Adoption of new accounting standard
 
 
300 
(300)
Stock compensation expense
5,091 
 
5,091 
 
Issuance of restricted stock, shares
 
86,023 
 
 
Retirement of restricted stock, shares
 
(12,289)
 
 
Vesting of restricted stock units
(391)
 
(391)
 
Vesting of restricted stock units, shares
 
199,617 
 
 
Ending balance at Dec. 31, 2017
$ 100,943 
 
$ 538,088 
$ (437,145)
Ending balance, shares at Dec. 31, 2017
 
23,643,189 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (USD $)
In Thousands, unless otherwise specified
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Dec. 31, 2016
Dec. 31, 2015
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
Net loss
$ (19,321)
$ (12,023)
$ (6,417)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash (used in) provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
10,753 
9,853 
9,887 
Postponed financing costs
 
656 
 
Stock compensation expense
5,091 
5,313 
5,413 
Lease incentives
(111)
 
 
Other
(1)
 
(139)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
(8,704)
3,089 
(2,644)
Inventories
3,953 
(6,336)
(1,635)
Prepaid expenses and other assets
411 
(19)
(881)
Accounts payable
1,269 
105 
1,517 
Accrued expenses
1,821 
(2,178)
(227)
Deferred revenue
261 
362 
333 
Other liabilities
(28)
600 
152 
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities
(4,606)
(578)
5,359 
Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 
 
Capital expenditures
(6,118)
(13,216)
(21,956)
Purchase of marketable securities
 
 
(2,500)
Maturity and sale of marketable securities
 
 
2,500 
Net cash used in investing activities
(6,118)
(13,216)
(21,956)
Cash flows from financing activities:
 
 
 
Proceeds from borrowings under line of credit
27,250 
 
 
Repayment of borrowings under line of credit
(23,500)
 
 
Postponed financing costs
 
(656)
 
Repayment of obligations under capital lease
(27)
(68)
(80)
Payments made for employee restricted stock minimum tax withholdings
(391)
(200)
(238)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
3,332 
(924)
(318)
Net (decrease) increase in cash
(7,392)
(14,718)
(16,915)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
18,086 
32,804 
49,719 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
10,694 
18,086 
32,804 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
 
 
 
Interest paid
220 
196 
198 
Income taxes paid
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash activities:
 
 
 
Changes in accrued capital expenditures
(3,681)
2,116 
(5,332)
Capital lease
 
 
$ 21 
Description of Business
Description of Business

(1) Description of Business

Nature of Business

Aspen Aerogels, Inc. (the Company) is an aerogel technology company that designs, develops and manufactures innovative, high-performance aerogel insulation used primarily in the energy infrastructure and building materials markets. The Company also conducts research and development related to aerogel technology supported by funding from several agencies of the U.S. government and other institutions in the form of research and development contracts.

The Company maintains its corporate offices in Northborough, Massachusetts. The Company has three wholly owned subsidiaries: Aspen Aerogels Rhode Island, LLC, Aspen Aerogels Germany, GmbH and Aspen Aerogels Georgia, LLC.

On June 18, 2014, the Company completed the initial public offering (IPO) of its common stock.

Liquidity

In August 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014‑15, Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern. (ASU 2015-14). This ASU requires management to assess and evaluate whether conditions or events exist, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about the entity's ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the financial statements issue date. This standard is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016. The Company adopted this standard effective January 1, 2017.

During the year ended 2017, the Company incurred a net loss of $19.3 million, used $4.6 million of cash in operations and had a net cash balance of $6.9 million, after giving effect to the $3.8 million in outstanding borrowings under its revolving line of credit (see note 6). The existing revolving line of credit matures on April 28, 2018.

The Company is making investments to increase capacity at its existing manufacturing facility in East Providence, Rhode Island, for the planned manufacturing facility in Statesboro, Georgia and to expand its sales and marketing efforts. The Company expects its existing cash balance, the $5.0 million prepayment under its amended customer supply agreement (see note 9) and anticipated credit will be sufficient to fund these investments. The Company has no mitigating plans in place to reduce its cash expenditures under its current operating plan.

Summary of Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Summary of Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

(2) Summary of Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP), include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires the Company to make a number of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include allowances for doubtful accounts, sales returns and allowances, product warranty costs, inventory valuation, the carrying amount of property and equipment, stock-based compensation and deferred income taxes. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an on-going basis using historical experience and other factors, including the current economic environment, which are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Management adjusts such estimates and assumptions when facts and circumstances warrant. Illiquid credit markets, volatile equity markets and declines in business investment can increase the uncertainty inherent in such estimates and assumptions. As future events and their effects cannot be determined with precision, actual results could differ significantly from these estimates. Changes in these estimates resulting from continuing changes in the economic environment will be reflected in the financial statements in future periods.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash equivalents include short-term, highly liquid instruments, which consist of money market accounts. All cash and cash equivalents are maintained with major financial institutions in North America. Deposits with these financial institutions may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits; however, these deposits typically may be redeemed upon demand and, therefore, bear minimal risk.

Marketable Securities

Marketable securities consisted primarily of marketable debt securities which are classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value. The Company held no marketable securities as of December 31, 2017 or 2016. During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company purchased $2.5 million of marketable securities which matured during the same period. The unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of 90 days or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents, and investments with maturities of greater than 90 days at the time of purchase to be marketable securities. When a marketable security incurs a significant unrealized loss for a sustained period of time, the Company will review the instrument to determine if it is other-than-temporarily impaired. If it is determined that an instrument is other-than-temporarily impaired, the Company will record the unrealized loss in the consolidated statement of operations.

Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments, which potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist principally of accounts receivable. The Company’s customers are primarily insulation distributors, insulation contractors, insulation fabricators and select end-users located throughout the world. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition and generally requires no collateral to secure accounts receivable. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the collectability of accounts receivable. The Company reviews the allowance for doubtful accounts quarterly. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company wrote off $0.5 million of accounts receivable related to a single customer. The Company has not experienced any other meaningful non-payment or write-offs of accounts receivable. Accordingly, the allowance for doubtful accounts was zero at December 31, 2017 and 2016. The Company does not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to its customers.

For the year ended December 31, 2017, two customers represented 15% and 12% of total revenue, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2016, two customers represented 25% and 15% of total revenue, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2015, two customers represented 14% and 12% of total revenue, respectively.

At December 31, 2017, the Company had three customers that accounted for 19%, 14% and 11% of accounts receivable, respectively. At December 31, 2016, the Company had three customers that accounted for 31%, 17% and 10% of accounts receivable, respectively.

Inventories

Inventory consists of finished products and raw materials. Inventories are carried at lower of cost, determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method, and net realizable value. Cost includes materials, labor and manufacturing overhead. Manufacturing overhead is allocated to the costs of conversion based on normal capacity of the Company’s production facility. Abnormal freight, handling costs and material waste is expensed in the period it occurs.

The Company periodically reviews its inventories and makes provisions as necessary for estimated excess, obsolete or damaged goods to ensure values approximate the lower of cost and net realizable value. The amount of any such provision is equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand, selling prices and market conditions.

Property, Plant and Equipment, Net

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Assets held under capital leases are stated at the lesser of the present value of future minimum payments, using the Company’s incremental borrowing rate, or the fair value of the property at the inception of the lease. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred, whereas major betterments are capitalized as additions to property, plant and equipment.

Depreciation on plant and equipment is calculated on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Assets related to capital leases are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the lease term or estimated useful life of the asset.

Assets utilized in the Company’s operations that are taken out of service with no future use are charged to cost of sales or operating expenses, depending on the department in which the asset was utilized. Write-offs of construction in progress are charged to operating expenses upon the determination of no future use.

Other Assets

Other assets primarily include long-term deposits.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. Recognition and measurement of a potential impairment is performed on assets grouped with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level where identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset or asset group to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or asset group. If the carrying amount of an asset or asset group exceeds its estimated undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset or asset group. Fair value is determined through various valuation techniques including discounted cash flow models, quoted market values and third-party independent appraisals, as considered necessary.

Asset Retirement Obligations

During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company recorded an asset retirement obligation associated with its lease obligations and the retirement of tangible long-lived assets. The Company reviews legal obligations associated with the retirement of long-lived assets that result from contractual obligations or the acquisition, construction, development and/or normal use of the assets. If it is determined that a legal obligation exists, regardless of whether the obligation is conditional on a future event, the fair value of the liability for an asset retirement obligation is recognized in the period in which it is incurred, if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. An amount equal to the fair value of the liability is also recorded as a long-term asset that is depreciated over the estimated life of the asset. The difference between the gross expected future cash outflow and its present value is accreted over the life of the related lease as an operating expense. The Company fully satisfied its asset retirement obligation during the year ended December 31, 2016.

Deferred Revenue

The Company records deferred revenue for product sales when (i) the Company has delivered products but other revenue recognition criteria have not been satisfied or (ii) payments have been received in advance of products being delivered.

Deferred Rent

For leases that contain fixed increases in the minimum annual lease payment during the original term of the lease, the Company recognizes rental expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term, and records the difference between rent expense and the amount currently payable as deferred rent. Lease incentives for allowances for qualified leasehold improvements received from landlords are amortized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The short-term portion of deferred rent is included within accrued expenses on the consolidated balance sheet.

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue from the sale of products and performance of research and development services. Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, delivery has occurred or services have been provided, and collectability is reasonably assured.

Product Revenue

Product revenue is recognized upon transfer of title and risk of loss, which is upon shipment or delivery. The Company’s customary shipping terms are free on board shipping point.

Sales returns are recorded based on historical sales and return information. Products that exhibit unusual sales return patterns due to quality or other manufacturing matters are specifically investigated and analyzed as part of the sales return accrual. The sales return accrual represents a reserve for products that may be returned due to quality concerns or authorized for destruction in the field. Sales return reserves are recorded at full original sales value. The Company rarely exchanges products from inventory for returned products. Sales return reserves were $0.1 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016.

For initial shipments of products where the Company is unsure of meeting the customer’s specifications, the Company will defer the recognition of product revenue and related costs until written customer acceptance is obtained.

Research Services Revenue

The Company performs research services under contracts with various government agencies and other institutions. The Company records revenue earned on research services contracts using the percentage-of-completion method in two ways: (1) for firm-fixed-price contracts, the Company accrues that portion of the total contract price that is allocable, on the basis of the Company’s estimates of costs incurred to date to total contract costs; and (2) for cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts, the Company records revenue that is equal to total payroll cost incurred times a stated factor plus reimbursable expenses, to a stated upper limit. The primary cost under the Company’s research service contracts is the labor effort expended in completing the research, and the only deliverable, other than the labor hours expended, is reporting of research results to the customer. Because the input measure of labor hours expended is also reflective of the output measure, it is a reliable means to measure the extent of progress toward completion. Revisions in cost estimates and fees during the course of the contract are reflected in the accounting period in which the facts that require the revisions become known. Contract costs and rates used to allocate overhead to contracts are subject to audit by the respective contracting government agency. Adjustments to revenue as a result of audit are recorded in the period they become known. To date, adjustments to revenue as a result of audit have been insignificant.

Warranty

The Company provides warranties for its products and records the estimated cost within cost of sales in the period that the related revenue is recorded. The Company’s standard warranty period extends to one year from the date of shipment. This standard warranty provides that the Company’s products will be free from defects in material and workmanship, and will, under normal use, conform to the specifications for the product.

The Company’s products may be utilized in systems that involve new technical demands and new configurations. Accordingly, the Company regularly reviews and assesses whether warranty reserves should be recorded in the period the related revenue is recorded. For an initial shipment of product for use in a system with new technical demands or new configurations and where the Company is unsure of meeting the customer’s specifications, the Company will defer the recognition of product revenue and related costs until written customer acceptance is obtained.

During the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company recorded warranty expense of $0.9 million and $0.5 million, respectively. These specific warranty charges were related to product claims for two separate product application issues. These claims were outside of the Company’s typical experience. As of December 31, 2017, the Company had satisfied all outstanding warranty claims.

Shipping and Handling Costs

Shipping and handling costs are classified as a component of cost of revenue. Customer payments of shipping and handling costs are recorded as product revenue.

Stock-based Compensation

The Company grants share-based awards to its employees and non-employee directors. All share-based awards granted, including grants of stock options, restricted stock and restricted stock units (RSUs), are recognized in the statement of operations based on their fair value as of the date of grant. Expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for all awards with service conditions. For performance-based awards, the grant date fair value is recognized as expense when the condition is probable of being achieved, and then on a graded basis over the requisite service period. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of service-based option awards. The Black-Scholes model requires the use of a number of complex and subjective assumptions including fair value of the underlying security, the expected volatility of the underlying security, a risk-free interest rate and the expected term of the option.

The fair value of restricted stock and RSUs is determined using the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. All shares of restricted stock are not transferable until vested. Restricted stock is typically issued to non-employee directors and typically vests over a one-year period from the date of issuance. RSUs are issued to employees and typically vest over a three to four year period from the date of issuance. The fair value of restricted stock and RSUs upon which vesting is solely service-based is expensed ratably over the vesting period. If the service condition for shares of restricted stock is not met for any reason, the shares of unvested restricted stock will be forfeited and returned to the Company.

For stock options that contain a market condition, the Company uses the Monte-Carlo simulation option-pricing model to determine the fair value of the awards. In addition to the input assumptions used in the Black-Scholes model, the Monte-Carlo simulation option-pricing model factors the probability that the specific market condition may or may not be satisfied into the valuation. Stock-based compensation expense for awards with a market condition is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each such award.

Pursuant to the evergreen provisions of the 2014 Employee, Director and Consultant Equity Incentive Plan, the number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance under the plan automatically increased by 467,396 shares to 6,536,597 shares effective January 1, 2017.

Research and Development

Costs incurred in the research and development of the Company’s products include compensation and related costs, services provided by third-party contractors, materials and supplies and are classified as research and development expenses as incurred. Research and development costs directly associated with research services revenue are classified as research services in cost of revenue.

Earnings per Share

The Company calculates net loss per common share based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Potential common stock equivalents are determined using the treasury stock method. The weighted-average number of common shares included in the computation of diluted net income (loss) gives effect to all potentially dilutive common equivalent shares, including outstanding stock options, RSUs and warrants. Common equivalent shares are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share if their effect is antidilutive.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

The Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions using a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. Differences between tax positions taken in a tax return and amounts recognized in the financial statements are recorded as adjustments to income taxes payable or receivable, or adjustments to deferred taxes, or both. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. The Company recognizes penalties and interest related to uncertain tax positions, if any, as a component of income tax expense.

Segments

Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate, discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker in making decisions on how to allocate resources and assess performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is the Chief Executive Officer. The Company’s chief operating decision maker reviews consolidated operating results to make decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance for the entire Company. The Company views its operations and manages its business as one operating segment.

Information about the Company’s total revenues, based on shipment destination or services location, is presented in the following table:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S.

 

$

51,439

 

 

$

35,726

 

 

$

44,553

 

International

 

 

60,192

 

 

 

82,012

 

 

 

77,965

 

Total

 

$

111,631

 

 

$

117,738

 

 

$

122,518

 

 

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standard setting bodies. Recently issued standards typically do not require adoption until a future effective date. Prior to their effective date, the Company evaluates the pronouncements to determine the potential effects of adoption to its consolidated financial statements.

Standards Implemented After December 31, 2016

In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330), which, for entities that do not measure inventory using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) or retail inventory method, changes the measurement principle for inventory from the lower of cost or market to lower of cost and net realizable value. The ASU also eliminates the requirement for these entities to consider replacement cost or net realizable value less an approximately normal profit margin when measuring inventory. Public entities are required to apply the standard for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal periods. The Company adopted this standard effective January 1, 2017. Application of the standard has not resulted in any material impact to the Company’s consolidated financial statements or other disclosures.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The amendment simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. For public entities, the amendments in ASU 2016-09 are effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company adopted this standard effective January 1, 2017. The provisions of ASU 2016-09 related to the timing of accounting for the forfeitures of share based awards was adopted using a modified retrospective method by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to equity as of January 1, 2017 of $0.3 million. The other provisions of ASU 2016-09 were adopted prospectively.

Standards to be Implemented After December 31, 2017

In August 2015, the FASB issued a deferral of ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The standard replaces the transaction- and industry-specific revenue recognition guidance under current U.S. GAAP with a principle based approach for determining revenue recognition. As a result of the deferral, public entities are required to apply the revised revenue recognition standard for the annual reporting period beginning on or after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that annual reporting period. The Company will adopt this standard using the modified retrospective method on January 1, 2018. The Company completed its analysis of the new revenue standard and determined that it will not materially impact the allocation and timing of recognition of previously reported revenues from the sale of products or performance of research and development services. In addition, the Company determined that there are no incremental contracts costs or contract fulfillment costs to be recognized in connection with the adoption. Based on the Company’s analysis, no adjustment to retained earnings will be required as of the January 1, 2018 adoption date. Accordingly, the Company’s application of the standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet at January 1, 2018 and will not have a material impact to our statement of operations. Additional disclosures will be required in future filings.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). FASB ASU 2016-02 modifies the accounting for leases and requires that all leases be recorded on the consolidated balance sheets as assets and liabilities. This update is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early application is permitted. The Company has not yet selected a transition method and is evaluating the effect the updated standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The Company currently expects that most of its operating lease commitments will be subject to the new standard and recognized as right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities. The Company expects application of the standard will increase the reported value of both total assets and total liabilities upon adoption and will have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and other disclosures.

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (ASU 2016-15). This amendment addresses eight classification issues related to the statement of cash flows. The amendments in ASU 2016-15 are effective for public business entities for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company has completed its assessment of the amendment and has determined that adoption will not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or other disclosures. The Company will adopt the provisions of the amendment effective January 1, 2018.

Inventories
Inventories

(3) Inventories

Inventories consist of the following:

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Raw material

 

$

2,543

 

 

$

3,511

 

Finished goods

 

 

6,372

 

 

 

9,357

 

Total

 

$

8,915

 

 

$

12,868

 

 

Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net

(4) Property, Plant and Equipment, Net

Property, plant and equipment consist of the following:

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

Useful life

 

 

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Construction in progress

 

$

7,699

 

 

$

11,139

 

 

Buildings

 

 

24,013

 

 

 

23,901

 

 

30 years

Machinery and equipment

 

 

118,786

 

 

 

113,659

 

 

3 — 10 years

Computer equipment and software

 

 

8,099

 

 

 

7,679

 

 

3 years

Total

 

 

158,597

 

 

 

156,378

 

 

 

Accumulated depreciation and amortization

 

 

(82,530

)

 

 

(71,984

)

 

 

Property, plant and equipment, net

 

$

76,067

 

 

$

84,394

 

 

 

Plant and equipment under capital leases was less than $0.1 million at both December 31, 2017 and 2016.

Depreciation expense was $10.8 million, $9.8 million and $9.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Amortization associated with assets under capital leases was less than $0.1 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.

Construction in progress totaled $7.7 million and $11.1 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, which included engineering designs and other pre-construction costs for the planned manufacturing facility in Statesboro, Georgia of $7.2 million at both December 31, 2017 and 2016. The Company assessed the engineering designs and pre-construction costs associated with the planned manufacturing facility and determined that the assets remain technologically feasible as of December 31, 2017.

The Company has delayed the project to construct the Statesboro, Georgia manufacturing facility to better align the timing of this capacity expansion with the Company’s assessment of future demand.

Accrued Expenses
Accrued Expenses

(5) Accrued Expenses

Accrued expenses consist of the following:

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Employee compensation

 

$

4,633

 

 

$

2,796

 

Other accrued expenses

 

 

1,229

 

 

 

1,191

 

 

 

$

5,862

 

 

$

3,987

 

 

Revolving Line of Credit
Revolving Line of Credit

(6) Revolving Line of Credit

The Company entered into an Amended and Restated Loan and Security Agreement with Silicon Valley Bank (Loan Agreement), on August 31, 2014, which has been subsequently amended from time to time. On January 25, 2018, the Loan Agreement was amended to extend the maturity date of the facility to April 28, 2018. Under the Loan Agreement, the Company may borrow up to $20.0 million subject to compliance with certain covenants and borrowing base limitations. At the Company’s election, the interest rate applicable to borrowings may be based on the prime rate or LIBOR. Prime rate-based rates vary from prime rate plus 0.75% per annum to prime rate plus 2.00% per annum, while LIBOR-based rates vary from LIBOR plus 3.75% per annum to LIBOR plus 4.25% per annum. In addition, the Company is required to pay a monthly unused line fee of 0.5% per annum of the average unused portion of the facility. Obligations under the Loan Agreement are secured by a security interest in all assets of the Company, including those at the East Providence facility, except for certain exclusions.

During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company borrowed $27.3 million and repaid $23.5 million under the line of credit. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company had $3.8 million and $0.0 million drawn on the revolving credit facility. Under the Loan Agreement, the Company is required to comply with both non-financial and financial covenants, including minimum Adjusted EBITDA and minimum Adjusted Quick Ratio covenants, as defined. At December 31, 2017, the Company was in compliance with all such covenants.

The Company has been required to provide letters of credit to secure obligations under certain commercial contracts and real property leases. The Company had outstanding letters of credit backed by the revolving credit facility of $2.3 million and $2.7 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, which reduce the funds otherwise available to the Company under the facility.

At December 31, 2017, the effective amount available to the Company under the revolving credit facility was $13.9 million after giving effect to the $3.8 million in outstanding borrowings and $2.3 million of outstanding letters of credit.

Other Expense, Net
Other Expense, Net

(7) Other Expense, net

For the year ended December 31, 2017, other expense, net of $0.2 million consisted primarily of fees and interest expense related to the Company’s revolving credit facility with Silicon Valley Bank.

For the year ended December 31, 2016, other expense, net of $0.8 million consisted of financing costs and interest expense. During the year, the Company engaged with a third party lender to secure a term loan to fund a portion of the construction of the planned manufacturing facility in Statesboro, Georgia. In 2016, the Company decided to delay construction of the facility and its related financing to better align the timing of this capacity expansion with the Company’s assessment of future demand. As a result, the Company recorded a $0.7 million charge for postponed financing costs. The charge included legal fees incurred directly by the Company and on behalf of the potential lender. In addition, the Company recognized fees of $0.1 million associated with the revolving credit facility.

For the year ended December 31, 2015, other expense, net consisted primarily of fees associated with the revolving credit facility of $0.2 million.

Deferred Rent
Deferred Rent

(8) Deferred Rent

Deferred rent is comprised as follows:

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Deferred rent

 

$

1,511

 

 

$

1,125

 

Current maturities of deferred rent

 

 

(208

)

 

 

(154

)

Deferred rent, less current maturities

 

$

1,303

 

 

$

971

 

 

On June 29, 2016, the Company executed a new agreement to extend its lease of the Northborough, Massachusetts facility through December 31, 2026. As part of the new agreement, the Company’s obligation to perform certain activities upon the termination of the prior lease was eliminated. The settlement of the asset retirement obligation balance of approximately $0.2 million was reclassified to other long-term liabilities and will be amortized as a reduction to rent expense over the term of the new lease agreement.

Commitments and Contingencies
Commitments and Contingencies

(9) Commitments and Contingencies

Operating Leases

During 2016, the Company entered into an agreement to extend its lease of approximately 51,650 square feet of office space in Northborough, Massachusetts. The lease commenced on January 1, 2017 and will expire on December 31, 2026. The annual base rent associated with the lease was $408,000 during 2017 and will increase by approximately 3% annually for the term of the lease. The lease also requires the payment by the Company of its pro rata share of real estate taxes and certain other expenses. Prior to the expiration of the lease, the Company will have the right to extend the lease for an additional term of three years.

Under the terms of the new lease, the landlord provided the Company with an allowance of $1.2 million to be utilized for improvements to the leased premises. These amounts are recorded as a component of deferred rent in determining the minimum lease payments for the property. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company had capitalized $1.2 million and $0.7 million in associated leasehold improvement costs, respectively.

The Company also leases facilities and equipment under operating leases expiring at various dates through 2021. Under these agreements, the Company is obligated to pay annual rent, real estate taxes, and certain operating expenses.

Future minimum lease payments under operating leases at December 31, 2017 are as follows:

 

Year

 

Operating

Leases

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

2018

 

$

1,335

 

2019

 

 

909

 

2020

 

 

687

 

2021

 

 

535

 

2022

 

 

473

 

Thereafter

 

 

2,039

 

Total minimum lease payments

 

$

5,978

 

The Company incurred rent expense under all operating leases of approximately $1.4 million, $1.5 million and $1.6 million in the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Letters of Credit

The Company has been required to provide certain customers with letters of credit securing obligations under commercial contracts. The Company had letters of credit outstanding of $2.3 million and $2.7 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. These letters of credit are secured by the Company’s revolving credit facility (see note 6).

Customer Supply Agreement

The Company is party to a supply agreement, as amended, with BASF Polyurethanes GmbH (BASF) (the Supply Agreement) and a joint development agreement with BASF SE (the JDA). Pursuant to the Supply Agreement, the Company will sell exclusively to BASF the Company’s Spaceloft A2 product at annual volumes to be specified by BASF, subject to certain volume limits. The Supply Agreement will terminate on December 31, 2027. Upon expiration of the Supply Agreement, the Company will be subject to a post-termination supply commitment for an additional two years. The JDA is designed to facilitate the collaboration between the parties on the development and commercialization of new products.

In addition, BASF, in its sole discretion, may make prepayments to the Company in the aggregate amount of up to $22 million during the term of the Supply Agreement. BASF has agreed to make a prepayment in the amount of $5 million to the Company in two equal installments in 2018 (the 2018 Prepayment). The amounts and terms of additional prepayment installments, if any, are subject to negotiation between the Company and BASF.

After January 1, 2019, the Company will, at BASF’s instruction, credit up to 25.3% of any amounts invoiced by the Company for Spaceloft A2 product sold to BASF against the prepayment balance. However, BASF has no obligation to purchase products under the Supply Agreement. If any of the 2018 Prepayment remains uncredited as of December 31, 2021, BASF may request that the Company repay the uncredited amount to BASF. The prepayment obligation is secured by a security interest in real estate, plant and equipment at the Company’s Rhode Island facility and a license to certain intellectual property.

Litigation

The Company is, from time to time, a party to litigation that arises in the normal course of its business operations. See Part I, Item 3 (“Legal Proceedings”) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of certain of the Company’s current legal proceedings. The Company is not presently a party to any litigation for which it believes a loss is probable requiring an amount to be accrued or a possible loss contingency requiring disclosure.

Stockholders' Equity
Stockholders' Equity

(10) Stockholders’ Equity

At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company was authorized to issue 130,000,000 shares of stock, of which 125,000,000 shares were designated as common stock and 5,000,000 shares were designated as preferred stock.

Employee Benefit Plan
Employee Benefit Plan

(11) Employee Benefit Plan

The Company sponsors the Aspen Aerogels, Inc. 401(k) Plan. Under the terms of the plan, the Company’s employees may contribute a percentage of their pretax earnings. During the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, the Company provided matching contributions of $0.2 million, $0.2 million and $0.1 million, respectively.

Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Employee Stock Ownership Plans

(12) Employee Stock Ownership Plans

Effective June 12, 2014, the Company adopted the 2014 Employee, Director and Consultant Equity Incentive Plan (the 2014 Equity Plan). Under the 2014 Equity Plan, the Company may grant incentive stock options (ISOs), non-qualified stock options (NSOs), restricted stock, restricted stock units (RSUs) and other stock-based awards. Stock options under the plan are to be granted with an exercise price not less than the fair market value of the Company’s common stock at the date of grant. Equity awards granted to employees generally vest over a service period of three to four years. Restricted stock and stock options granted to nonemployee directors generally vest over a one year service period.

During 2017, the Company granted 86,023 shares of restricted common stock with a grant date fair value of $0.4 million and NSOs to purchase 119,133 shares of common stock with a grant date fair value of $0.2 million to its non-employee directors. The awards to non-employee directors during 2017 will vest over a period of one year. The Company also granted 481,373 RSUs and NSOs to purchase 320,571 shares of common stock to employees. The RSUs and NSOs granted to employees during 2017 will vest over a three year period. All awards to nonemployee directors and employees during 2017 were granted under the 2014 Equity Plan.

On December 11, 2015, the Company issued certain equity grants to its chief executive officer which included 78,125 shares of restricted stock, NSOs to purchase 84,745 shares of common stock vesting solely over three years and NSOs to purchase 370,181 shares of common stock vesting subject to certain common stock price target achievements, as defined, over a three to five year period (the CEO Options). Collectively, these equity grants had an aggregate fair value of $2.0 million at the time of grant. The restricted stock award will vest based on achievement of a Company financial performance target for fiscal year 2020.

On August 2, 2017, the Company modified the performance target for the year ending December 31, 2020 with respect to 78,125 shares of restricted stock held by its chief executive officer. In addition, the Company modified the vesting conditions of NSOs held by its chief executive officer to purchase 131,578 and 122,324 shares of common stock to extend the time period to achieve certain common stock price targets by an additional year to four and five years from the date of grant, respectively.

The Company accounted for the extension of the time periods for the achievement of the common stock price target vesting conditions of the NSOs as modifications in determining the stock-based compensation expense to be recognized over the remaining service period. The total incremental compensation expense resulting from the modification was $0.1 million. The incremental compensation expense associated with these awards will be recognized over the remaining service period of the awards.

Stock-based compensation is included in cost of sales or operating expenses, as applicable, and consists of the following:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Cost of product revenue

 

$

790

 

 

$

796

 

 

$

824

 

Research and development expenses

 

 

555

 

 

 

594

 

 

 

666

 

Sales and marketing expenses

 

 

1,096

 

 

 

1,066

 

 

 

1,012

 

General and administrative expenses

 

 

2,650

 

 

 

2,857

 

 

 

2,911

 

Total stock-based compensation

 

$

5,091

 

 

$

5,313

 

 

$

5,413

 

At December 31, 2017, 3,170,009 shares of common stock were reserved for issuance upon the exercise or vesting, as appropriate, of outstanding stock-based awards granted under the 2014 Equity Plan. In addition, at December 31, 2017, 90,288 shares of common stock were reserved issuance upon the exercise of outstanding options granted under the Company’s 2001 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended (the 2001 Equity Plan). Any cancellations or forfeitures of the options outstanding under the 2001 Equity Plan will result in the shares reserved for issuance upon exercise or such options becoming available for grant under the 2014 Equity Plan. At December 31, 2017, there were 2,402,555 shares available for future grant under the 2014 Equity Plan.

Stock Options Valuation and Amortization Method

The fair value of each stock option is estimated as of the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Key inputs into this formula included expected term, expected volatility, expected dividend yield and the risk-free rate. Each assumption is set forth and discussed below.

The Company used a Monte Carlo Simulation model to estimate the original grant date fair value of the CEO Options and the 2017 modification. The simulation model was based on the Black-Scholes option pricing model and a number of complex assumptions including (i) whether the vesting condition is satisfied within the time-vesting periods, and (ii) the date the common stock price target is met per the terms of the agreement.

For stock options with a service condition, the fair value is amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the options, which is generally a three- to four-year vesting period from the date of grant.

Expected Term

The expected term represents the period that the Company’s stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding. The Company does not have sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate the expected term. Accordingly, the Company uses the simplified method to calculate the expected term for options granted.

Expected Volatility

Due to the Company’s limited historical data, the Company’s uses an estimated volatility based on the historical volatility of comparable companies with publicly available share prices. In 2017, 2016 and 2015, the expected volatility is based on the weighted average volatility of up to 17 companies with business, financial and market attributes that the Company believes are similar to its own.

Expected Dividend

The Company uses an expected dividend yield of zero. The Company does not intend to pay cash dividends on its common stock in the foreseeable future, nor has it paid dividends on its common stock in the past.

Risk-free Interest Rate

The Company uses a risk-free interest rate based on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with a remaining term equal to the expected life assumed at the date of grant.

Estimated Forfeitures

Effective January 1, 2017, the Company adopted the provisions of ASU 2016-09 related to the timing of accounting for the forfeitures of share based awards using a modified retrospective transition method. Under these provisions, the Company records the impact of forfeitures of service based awards at the time an award is forfeited. Adoption of the provisions resulted in a cumulative-effect adjustment to equity as of January 1, 2017 of $0.3 million.

Prior to adopting ASU 2016-09, forfeitures were required to be estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Forfeitures were estimated based on voluntary termination behavior as well as analysis of actual option forfeitures. Accordingly, share-based compensation expense had been reduced by an estimated annual forfeiture rate for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015.

Assumptions Utilized

The following information relates to the fair value of the option awards estimated by use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Weighted average assumptions:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expected term (in years)

 

 

5.86

 

 

 

5.86

 

 

 

6.02

 

Expected volatility

 

 

51.95

%

 

 

53.56

%

 

 

57.95

%

Risk free rate

 

 

1.99

%

 

 

1.36

%

 

 

1.79

%

Expected dividend yield

 

 

0.00

%

 

 

0.00

%

 

 

0.00

%

Weighted average fair value:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grant-date fair value of options granted

 

$

2.08

 

 

$

2.16

 

 

$

3.82

 

Grant-date fair value of options vested

 

$

3.98

 

 

$

7.58

 

 

$

11.89

 

Aggregate intrinsic value of options exercised

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Outstanding Options

The following table summarizes information about stock options outstanding:

 

 

 

Number of

Shares

 

 

Weighted

Average

Grant Date

Fair Value

Per Share

 

 

Weighted

Average

Exercise

Price

Per Share

 

 

Weighted

Average

Remaining

Contractual

Term

(Years)

 

 

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value

 

 

 

($ in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Options outstanding at December 31, 2016

 

 

2,063,574

 

 

$

8.26

 

 

$

11.80

 

 

 

8.30

 

 

$

36,326

 

Granted

 

 

439,704

 

 

$

2.08

 

 

$

4.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forfeited

 

 

(70,372

)

 

$

6.98

 

 

$

9.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercised

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

Options outstanding at December 31, 2017

 

 

2,432,906

 

 

$

7.18

 

 

$

10.48

 

 

 

7.64

 

 

$

554,236

 

Exercisable at December 31, 2017

 

 

1,156,129

 

 

$

11.80

 

 

$

15.59

 

 

 

6.98

 

 

$

 

Expected to vest at December 31, 2017

 

 

1,276,777

 

 

$

2.99

 

 

$

5.85

 

 

 

8.24

 

 

$

465,719

 

As of December 31, 2017, total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested service-based options granted under the 2014 Equity Plan was $2.2 million. The unrecognized compensation cost for the service-based options is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 1.68 years.

Restricted Stock Awards and Restricted Stock Units

The Company values restricted stock awards and RSUs based on the closing price of our shares on the date of grant. RSUs have time-based vesting conditions and typically vest over three or four years. Restricted stock awards issued to nonemployee directors generally vest in full one year from the date of grant.

Information related to grants of RSUs during 2017 is as follows:

 

 

 

Restricted

Stock

Units

 

 

Weighted

Average

Grant Date

Fair Value

 

Balance at December 31, 2016

 

 

682,085

 

 

$

5.83

 

Granted

 

 

481,373

 

 

 

4.14

 

Vested

 

 

(293,561

)

 

 

6.67

 

Forfeited

 

 

(42,506

)

 

 

4.91

 

Balance at December 31, 2017

 

 

827,391

 

 

$

4.59

 

Restricted stock awards granted during 2017 are considered issued and outstanding common stock and are excluded from the table above. As of December 31, 2017 there were 151,859 shares of restricted stock outstanding.

The total intrinsic value of restricted stock and RSUs that vested in 2017 and 2016 was $1.4 million and $0.6 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2017, 901,125 of the total shares of restricted stock and RSUs outstanding will vest upon the fulfillment of service conditions. In addition, 78,125 shares of restricted stock will vest only if a certain performance condition is achieved. As of December 31, 2017, the Company had determined that the performance-based condition was probable and $0.1 million in compensation expense was recorded to date in conjunction with the award.

As of December 31, 2017, total unrecognized compensation cost related to restricted stock awards of $0.1million, RSUs of $2.3million and restricted stock with performance-based conditions of $0.2 million is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 0.45 years, 1.68 years and 3.00 years, respectively.

Net Loss Per Share
Net Loss Per Share

(13) Net Loss Per Share

The computation of basic and diluted net loss per share consists of the following:

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(19,321

)

 

$

(12,023

)

 

$

(6,417

)

Denominator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

 

23,390,235

 

 

 

23,139,807

 

 

 

22,986,931

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

$

(0.83

)

 

$

(0.52

)

 

$

(0.28

)

Potentially dilutive common shares that were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share because they were anti-dilutive consist of the following:

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Common stock options

 

 

2,432,906

 

 

 

2,063,574

 

 

 

1,702,337

 

Restricted common stock units

 

 

827,391

 

 

 

682,085

 

 

 

417,126

 

Common stock warrants

 

 

 

 

 

115

 

 

 

131

 

Restricted common stock awards

 

 

151,859

 

 

 

153,277

 

 

 

132,130

 

Total

 

 

3,412,156

 

 

 

2,899,051

 

 

 

2,251,724

 

In the table above, anti-dilutive shares consist of those common stock equivalents that have (i) an exercise price above the average stock price for the period or (ii) related average unrecognized stock compensation expense sufficient to buy back the entire amount of shares. The Company excludes the shares issued in connection with restricted stock awards from the calculation of basic weighted average common shares outstanding until the restrictions lapse.

As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, there was no dilutive impact of the common stock options, RSUs, common stock warrants and restricted stock awards.

Income Taxes
Income Taxes

(14) Income Taxes

The Company incurred net operating losses and recorded a full valuation allowance against net deferred assets for all periods presented. Accordingly, the Company has not recorded a provision for federal or state income taxes.

The reconciliation between the U.S. statutory income tax rate and the Company’s effective rate consists of the following:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

U.S. federal income tax statutory rate

 

 

35

%

 

 

35

%

 

 

35

%

Permanent differences

 

 

(3

)%

 

 

(4

)%

 

 

(11

)%

State tax, net of federal benefit

 

 

(5

)%

 

 

(1

)%

 

 

(6

)%

Changes in valuation allowance for deferred tax assets

 

 

113

%

 

 

(30

)%

 

 

(11

)%

Stock-based compensation

 

 

%

 

 

(1

)%

 

 

(8

)%

2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

 

 

(138

)

 

 

%

 

 

%

Other

 

 

(2

)%

 

 

1

%

 

 

1

%

Effective tax rate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The tax effects of temporary differences between financial statement and tax accounting that gave rise to significant portions of the Company’s deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities at December 31, 2017 and 2016 are presented below:

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Deferred tax assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net operating loss carryforwards

 

$

45,307

 

 

$

66,276

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

4,719

 

 

 

6,140

 

Tax credit carryforwards

 

 

308

 

 

 

312

 

Reserves and accruals

 

 

492

 

 

 

398

 

Intangible assets and amortization

 

 

56

 

 

 

95

 

Total gross deferred tax assets

 

 

50,882

 

 

 

73,221

 

Deferred tax liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation

 

 

(4,645

)

 

 

(5,295

)

Total deferred tax liabilities

 

 

(4,645

)

 

 

(5,295

)

Total deferred tax assets and liabilities

 

 

46,237

 

 

 

67,926

 

Valuation allowance

 

 

(46,237

)

 

 

(67,926

)

Net deferred tax asset

 

$

 

 

$

 

On December 22, 2017, the President of the United States signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) tax reform legislation. This legislation makes significant change in U.S. tax law including a reduction in the corporate tax rates, changes to net operating loss carryforwards and carrybacks, and a repeal of the corporate alternative minimum tax. The legislation reduced the U.S. corporate tax rate from the current rate of 34% to 21% for the year ending 2018. As a result of the enacted law, the Company was required to revalue deferred tax assets and liabilities at the 21% rate. This results in a decrease in the Company’s net deferred tax asset and corresponding valuation allowance of $26.7 million. As the Company maintains a full valuation allowance against its net deferred tax asset position in the United States, this revaluation does not result in an income tax expense or benefit in the current period. The provisions of the TCJA related to the one-time mandatory transition tax on deemed repatriation did not have an impact on the Company’s results of operations during the year ended December 31, 2017. The other provisions of the TCJA did not have a material impact on the Company’s 2017 consolidated financial statements.

The net change in the valuation allowance for the year ended December 31, 2017, was a decrease of $21.7 million. The Company has recorded a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty associated with the utilization of the net operating loss carryforwards and other future deductible items. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, the Company considers all available evidence, historical and prospective, with greater weight given to historical evidence, in determining whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of the Company’s deferred tax assets generally is dependent upon generation of future taxable income.

At December 31, 2017, the Company has $194.6 million of net operating losses available to offset future federal income, if any, and which expire on various dates through December 31, 2037.

For the year ended December 31, 2014, the Company performed an analysis pursuant to Internal Revenue Code Section 382, as well as similar state provisions, in order to determine whether any limitations might exist on the utilization of net operating losses and other tax attributes. Based on this analysis, the Company has determined that an ownership change occurred as a result of the June 2014 IPO, resulting in an annual limitation on the use of its net operating losses and other tax attributes as of such date. Net operating losses of $113.2 million were determined to be available. The Company also determined that built-in gains of $42.0 million existed at the date of the ownership change. Built-in gains increase the limitation under the Internal Revenue Code to the extent triggered during the five-year period subsequent to the date of change. Absent the disposition of certain built-in gain assets within the five-year period subsequent to the change in ownership, the entire $42.0 million of net operating losses will expire in June 2019.

At December 31, 2017, the Company has $76.7 million of apportioned net operating losses available to offset future state taxable income, if any, and which begin to expire at various dates between 2018 and 2037.

For each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, the Company did not have any material unrecognized tax benefits and thus no interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits were recorded. In addition, the Company does not expect that the amount of unrecognized tax benefits will change significantly within the next twelve months.

The Company files a federal income tax return in the United States and income tax returns in various state and foreign jurisdictions. All tax years are open for examination by the taxing authorities for both federal and state purposes.

The Securities & Exchange Commission staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (SAB 118) to address the tax reform legislation. In accordance with SAB 118, the Company has recognized the provisional tax impacts, outlined above, related to the re-measurement of its deferred income tax assets and liabilities associated with the one-time mandatory transition tax on deemed repatriation. Although the Company does not believe there will be any material adjustments in subsequent reporting periods, the ultimate impact may differ from the provisional amounts, due to, among other things, the significant complexity of the 2017 Tax Act and anticipated additional regulatory guidance that may be issued by the IRS, changes in analysis, interpretations and assumptions the Company has made and actions the Company may take as a result of the 2017 Tax Act.

Subsequent Events
Subsequent Events

(15) Subsequent Events

The Company has evaluated subsequent events through March 1, 2018, the date of issuance of the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017.

On January 25, 2018, the Company’s Loan Agreement was amended to extend the maturity date of the facility to April 28, 2018 and includes the modification of certain financial covenants and the consent to the amendment of the supply agreement and side agreement with BASF.

On February 16, 2018, the Company amended and restated its existing supply agreement and side agreement with BASF. Among the amended terms of the agreement, BASF has agreed to remit prepayments in the aggregate amount of $5 million to the Company in two installments during 2018. The Company will credit 25.3% of any amounts invoiced by the Company for product sold to BASF after January 1, 2019 against any remaining balance of the prepayments. Any remaining balance from the prepayments as of December 31, 2021, BASF may require that the Company repay such amount to BASF after December 31, 2021.

 

Quarterly Results of Operations
Quarterly Results of Operations

QUARTERLY RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

Sept 30,

 

 

Dec 31,

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

 

 

(unaudited)

 

2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total revenue

 

$

23,002

 

 

$

25,069

 

 

$

27,198

 

 

$

36,362

 

Gross profit

 

 

2,221

 

 

 

3,694

 

 

 

4,948

 

 

 

7,808

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(9,052

)

 

 

(5,433

)

 

 

(3,030

)

 

 

(1,621

)

Net loss

 

 

(9,078

)

 

 

(5,472

)

 

 

(3,088

)

 

 

(1,683

)

Net loss per share basic and diluted

   common share - basic

 

$

(0.39

)

 

$

(0.23

)

 

$

(0.13

)

 

$

(0.07

)

2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total revenue

 

$

32,821

 

 

$

27,718

 

 

$

29,560

 

 

$

27,639

 

Gross profit

 

 

6,527

 

 

 

6,653

 

 

 

6,402

 

 

 

3,729

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(1,758

)

 

 

(1,348

)

 

 

(2,404

)

 

 

(5,710

)

Net loss

 

 

(1,797

)

 

 

(1,387

)

 

 

(3,097

)

 

 

(5,742

)

Net income loss per share basic and diluted

   common share - basic

 

$

(0.08

)

 

$

(0.06

)

 

$

(0.13

)

 

$

(0.25

)

 

Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
Valuation and Qualifying Accounts

Schedule II

VALUATION AND QUALIFYING ACCOUNTS

(in millions)

 

Description

 

Balance

at

Beginning

of Year

 

 

Charges

to

Costs

and

Expenses (a)

 

 

Deductions to

Allowances

for

Uncollectible

Accounts (b)

 

 

Charges to

(Deductions

from)

Other

Accounts (c)

 

 

Balance

at

End of

Year

 

Year Ended December 31, 2017:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allowances for uncollectible accounts and sales returns and

   allowances

 

$

93

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

93

 

Year Ended December 31, 2016:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allowances for uncollectible accounts and sales returns and

   allowances

 

$

89

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

$

93

 

Year Ended December 31, 2015:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allowances for uncollectible accounts and sales returns and

   allowances

 

$

120

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(31

)

 

$

89

 

 

(a)Represents allowances for uncollectible accounts established through selling, general and administrative expenses.

(b)Represents actual write-offs of uncollectible accounts.

(c)Represents net change in allowances for sales returns, recorded as contra-revenue.

Description of Business (Policies)

Nature of Business

Aspen Aerogels, Inc. (the Company) is an aerogel technology company that designs, develops and manufactures innovative, high-performance aerogel insulation used primarily in the energy infrastructure and building materials markets. The Company also conducts research and development related to aerogel technology supported by funding from several agencies of the U.S. government and other institutions in the form of research and development contracts.

The Company maintains its corporate offices in Northborough, Massachusetts. The Company has three wholly owned subsidiaries: Aspen Aerogels Rhode Island, LLC, Aspen Aerogels Germany, GmbH and Aspen Aerogels Georgia, LLC.

On June 18, 2014, the Company completed the initial public offering (IPO) of its common stock.

Liquidity

In August 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014‑15, Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern. (ASU 2015-14). This ASU requires management to assess and evaluate whether conditions or events exist, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about the entity's ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the financial statements issue date. This standard is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016. The Company adopted this standard effective January 1, 2017.

During the year ended 2017, the Company incurred a net loss of $19.3 million, used $4.6 million of cash in operations and had a net cash balance of $6.9 million, after giving effect to the $3.8 million in outstanding borrowings under its revolving line of credit (see note 6). The existing revolving line of credit matures on April 28, 2018.

The Company is making investments to increase capacity at its existing manufacturing facility in East Providence, Rhode Island, for the planned manufacturing facility in Statesboro, Georgia and to expand its sales and marketing efforts. The Company expects its existing cash balance, the $5.0 million prepayment under its amended customer supply agreement (see note 9) and anticipated credit will be sufficient to fund these investments. The Company has no mitigating plans in place to reduce its cash expenditures under its current operating plan.

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP), include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires the Company to make a number of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include allowances for doubtful accounts, sales returns and allowances, product warranty costs, inventory valuation, the carrying amount of property and equipment, stock-based compensation and deferred income taxes. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an on-going basis using historical experience and other factors, including the current economic environment, which are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Management adjusts such estimates and assumptions when facts and circumstances warrant. Illiquid credit markets, volatile equity markets and declines in business investment can increase the uncertainty inherent in such estimates and assumptions. As future events and their effects cannot be determined with precision, actual results could differ significantly from these estimates. Changes in these estimates resulting from continuing changes in the economic environment will be reflected in the financial statements in future periods.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash equivalents include short-term, highly liquid instruments, which consist of money market accounts. All cash and cash equivalents are maintained with major financial institutions in North America. Deposits with these financial institutions may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits; however, these deposits typically may be redeemed upon demand and, therefore, bear minimal risk.

Marketable Securities

Marketable securities consisted primarily of marketable debt securities which are classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value. The Company held no marketable securities as of December 31, 2017 or 2016. During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company purchased $2.5 million of marketable securities which matured during the same period. The unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of 90 days or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents, and investments with maturities of greater than 90 days at the time of purchase to be marketable securities. When a marketable security incurs a significant unrealized loss for a sustained period of time, the Company will review the instrument to determine if it is other-than-temporarily impaired. If it is determined that an instrument is other-than-temporarily impaired, the Company will record the unrealized loss in the consolidated statement of operations.

Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments, which potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist principally of accounts receivable. The Company’s customers are primarily insulation distributors, insulation contractors, insulation fabricators and select end-users located throughout the world. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition and generally requires no collateral to secure accounts receivable. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the collectability of accounts receivable. The Company reviews the allowance for doubtful accounts quarterly. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company wrote off $0.5 million of accounts receivable related to a single customer. The Company has not experienced any other meaningful non-payment or write-offs of accounts receivable. Accordingly, the allowance for doubtful accounts was zero at December 31, 2017 and 2016. The Company does not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to its customers.

For the year ended December 31, 2017, two customers represented 15% and 12% of total revenue, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2016, two customers represented 25% and 15% of total revenue, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2015, two customers represented 14% and 12% of total revenue, respectively.

At December 31, 2017, the Company had three customers that accounted for 19%, 14% and 11% of accounts receivable, respectively. At December 31, 2016, the Company had three customers that accounted for 31%, 17% and 10% of accounts receivable, respectively.

Inventories

Inventory consists of finished products and raw materials. Inventories are carried at lower of cost, determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method, and net realizable value. Cost includes materials, labor and manufacturing overhead. Manufacturing overhead is allocated to the costs of conversion based on normal capacity of the Company’s production facility. Abnormal freight, handling costs and material waste is expensed in the period it occurs.

The Company periodically reviews its inventories and makes provisions as necessary for estimated excess, obsolete or damaged goods to ensure values approximate the lower of cost and net realizable value. The amount of any such provision is equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand, selling prices and market conditions.

Property, Plant and Equipment, Net

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Assets held under capital leases are stated at the lesser of the present value of future minimum payments, using the Company’s incremental borrowing rate, or the fair value of the property at the inception of the lease. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred, whereas major betterments are capitalized as additions to property, plant and equipment.

Depreciation on plant and equipment is calculated on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Assets related to capital leases are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the lease term or estimated useful life of the asset.

Assets utilized in the Company’s operations that are taken out of service with no future use are charged to cost of sales or operating expenses, depending on the department in which the asset was utilized. Write-offs of construction in progress are charged to operating expenses upon the determination of no future use.

Other Assets

Other assets primarily include long-term deposits.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. Recognition and measurement of a potential impairment is performed on assets grouped with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level where identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset or asset group to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or asset group. If the carrying amount of an asset or asset group exceeds its estimated undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset or asset group. Fair value is determined through various valuation techniques including discounted cash flow models, quoted market values and third-party independent appraisals, as considered necessary.

Asset Retirement Obligations

During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company recorded an asset retirement obligation associated with its lease obligations and the retirement of tangible long-lived assets. The Company reviews legal obligations associated with the retirement of long-lived assets that result from contractual obligations or the acquisition, construction, development and/or normal use of the assets. If it is determined that a legal obligation exists, regardless of whether the obligation is conditional on a future event, the fair value of the liability for an asset retirement obligation is recognized in the period in which it is incurred, if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. An amount equal to the fair value of the liability is also recorded as a long-term asset that is depreciated over the estimated life of the asset. The difference between the gross expected future cash outflow and its present value is accreted over the life of the related lease as an operating expense. The Company fully satisfied its asset retirement obligation during the year ended December 31, 2016.

Deferred Revenue

The Company records deferred revenue for product sales when (i) the Company has delivered products but other revenue recognition criteria have not been satisfied or (ii) payments have been received in advance of products being delivered.

Deferred Rent

For leases that contain fixed increases in the minimum annual lease payment during the original term of the lease, the Company recognizes rental expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term, and records the difference between rent expense and the amount currently payable as deferred rent. Lease incentives for allowances for qualified leasehold improvements received from landlords are amortized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The short-term portion of deferred rent is included within accrued expenses on the consolidated balance sheet.

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue from the sale of products and performance of research and development services. Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, delivery has occurred or services have been provided, and collectability is reasonably assured.

Product Revenue

Product revenue is recognized upon transfer of title and risk of loss, which is upon shipment or delivery. The Company’s customary shipping terms are free on board shipping point.

Sales returns are recorded based on historical sales and return information. Products that exhibit unusual sales return patterns due to quality or other manufacturing matters are specifically investigated and analyzed as part of the sales return accrual. The sales return accrual represents a reserve for products that may be returned due to quality concerns or authorized for destruction in the field. Sales return reserves are recorded at full original sales value. The Company rarely exchanges products from inventory for returned products. Sales return reserves were $0.1 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016.

For initial shipments of products where the Company is unsure of meeting the customer’s specifications, the Company will defer the recognition of product revenue and related costs until written customer acceptance is obtained.

Research Services Revenue

The Company performs research services under contracts with various government agencies and other institutions. The Company records revenue earned on research services contracts using the percentage-of-completion method in two ways: (1) for firm-fixed-price contracts, the Company accrues that portion of the total contract price that is allocable, on the basis of the Company’s estimates of costs incurred to date to total contract costs; and (2) for cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts, the Company records revenue that is equal to total payroll cost incurred times a stated factor plus reimbursable expenses, to a stated upper limit. The primary cost under the Company’s research service contracts is the labor effort expended in completing the research, and the only deliverable, other than the labor hours expended, is reporting of research results to the customer. Because the input measure of labor hours expended is also reflective of the output measure, it is a reliable means to measure the extent of progress toward completion. Revisions in cost estimates and fees during the course of the contract are reflected in the accounting period in which the facts that require the revisions become known. Contract costs and rates used to allocate overhead to contracts are subject to audit by the respective contracting government agency. Adjustments to revenue as a result of audit are recorded in the period they become known. To date, adjustments to revenue as a result of audit have been insignificant.

Warranty

The Company provides warranties for its products and records the estimated cost within cost of sales in the period that the related revenue is recorded. The Company’s standard warranty period extends to one year from the date of shipment. This standard warranty provides that the Company’s products will be free from defects in material and workmanship, and will, under normal use, conform to the specifications for the product.

The Company’s products may be utilized in systems that involve new technical demands and new configurations. Accordingly, the Company regularly reviews and assesses whether warranty reserves should be recorded in the period the related revenue is recorded. For an initial shipment of product for use in a system with new technical demands or new configurations and where the Company is unsure of meeting the customer’s specifications, the Company will defer the recognition of product revenue and related costs until written customer acceptance is obtained.

During the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company recorded warranty expense of $0.9 million and $0.5 million, respectively. These specific warranty charges were related to product claims for two separate product application issues. These claims were outside of the Company’s typical experience. As of December 31, 2017, the Company had satisfied all outstanding warranty claims.

Shipping and Handling Costs

Shipping and handling costs are classified as a component of cost of revenue. Customer payments of shipping and handling costs are recorded as product revenue.

Stock-based Compensation

The Company grants share-based awards to its employees and non-employee directors. All share-based awards granted, including grants of stock options, restricted stock and restricted stock units (RSUs), are recognized in the statement of operations based on their fair value as of the date of grant. Expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for all awards with service conditions. For performance-based awards, the grant date fair value is recognized as expense when the condition is probable of being achieved, and then on a graded basis over the requisite service period. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of service-based option awards. The Black-Scholes model requires the use of a number of complex and subjective assumptions including fair value of the underlying security, the expected volatility of the underlying security, a risk-free interest rate and the expected term of the option.

The fair value of restricted stock and RSUs is determined using the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. All shares of restricted stock are not transferable until vested. Restricted stock is typically issued to non-employee directors and typically vests over a one-year period from the date of issuance. RSUs are issued to employees and typically vest over a three to four year period from the date of issuance. The fair value of restricted stock and RSUs upon which vesting is solely service-based is expensed ratably over the vesting period. If the service condition for shares of restricted stock is not met for any reason, the shares of unvested restricted stock will be forfeited and returned to the Company.

For stock options that contain a market condition, the Company uses the Monte-Carlo simulation option-pricing model to determine the fair value of the awards. In addition to the input assumptions used in the Black-Scholes model, the Monte-Carlo simulation option-pricing model factors the probability that the specific market condition may or may not be satisfied into the valuation. Stock-based compensation expense for awards with a market condition is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each such award.

Pursuant to the evergreen provisions of the 2014 Employee, Director and Consultant Equity Incentive Plan, the number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance under the plan automatically increased by 467,396 shares to 6,536,597 shares effective January 1, 2017.

Research and Development

Costs incurred in the research and development of the Company’s products include compensation and related costs, services provided by third-party contractors, materials and supplies and are classified as research and development expenses as incurred. Research and development costs directly associated with research services revenue are classified as research services in cost of revenue.

Earnings per Share

The Company calculates net loss per common share based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Potential common stock equivalents are determined using the treasury stock method. The weighted-average number of common shares included in the computation of diluted net income (loss) gives effect to all potentially dilutive common equivalent shares, including outstanding stock options, RSUs and warrants. Common equivalent shares are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share if their effect is antidilutive.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

The Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions using a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. Differences between tax positions taken in a tax return and amounts recognized in the financial statements are recorded as adjustments to income taxes payable or receivable, or adjustments to deferred taxes, or both. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. The Company recognizes penalties and interest related to uncertain tax positions, if any, as a component of income tax expense.

Segments

Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate, discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker in making decisions on how to allocate resources and assess performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is the Chief Executive Officer. The Company’s chief operating decision maker reviews consolidated operating results to make decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance for the entire Company. The Company views its operations and manages its business as one operating segment.

Information about the Company’s total revenues, based on shipment destination or services location, is presented in the following table:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S.

 

$

51,439

 

 

$

35,726

 

 

$

44,553

 

International

 

 

60,192

 

 

 

82,012

 

 

 

77,965

 

Total

 

$

111,631

 

 

$

117,738

 

 

$

122,518

 

 

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standard setting bodies. Recently issued standards typically do not require adoption until a future effective date. Prior to their effective date, the Company evaluates the pronouncements to determine the potential effects of adoption to its consolidated financial statements.

Standards Implemented After December 31, 2016

In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330), which, for entities that do not measure inventory using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) or retail inventory method, changes the measurement principle for inventory from the lower of cost or market to lower of cost and net realizable value. The ASU also eliminates the requirement for these entities to consider replacement cost or net realizable value less an approximately normal profit margin when measuring inventory. Public entities are required to apply the standard for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal periods. The Company adopted this standard effective January 1, 2017. Application of the standard has not resulted in any material impact to the Company’s consolidated financial statements or other disclosures.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The amendment simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. For public entities, the amendments in ASU 2016-09 are effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company adopted this standard effective January 1, 2017. The provisions of ASU 2016-09 related to the timing of accounting for the forfeitures of share based awards was adopted using a modified retrospective method by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to equity as of January 1, 2017 of $0.3 million. The other provisions of ASU 2016-09 were adopted prospectively.

Standards to be Implemented After December 31, 2017

In August 2015, the FASB issued a deferral of ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The standard replaces the transaction- and industry-specific revenue recognition guidance under current U.S. GAAP with a principle based approach for determining revenue recognition. As a result of the deferral, public entities are required to apply the revised revenue recognition standard for the annual reporting period beginning on or after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that annual reporting period. The Company will adopt this standard using the modified retrospective method on January 1, 2018. The Company completed its analysis of the new revenue standard and determined that it will not materially impact the allocation and timing of recognition of previously reported revenues from the sale of products or performance of research and development services. In addition, the Company determined that there are no incremental contracts costs or contract fulfillment costs to be recognized in connection with the adoption. Based on the Company’s analysis, no adjustment to retained earnings will be required as of the January 1, 2018 adoption date. Accordingly, the Company’s application of the standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet at January 1, 2018 and will not have a material impact to our statement of operations. Additional disclosures will be required in future filings.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). FASB ASU 2016-02 modifies the accounting for leases and requires that all leases be recorded on the consolidated balance sheets as assets and liabilities. This update is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early application is permitted. The Company has not yet selected a transition method and is evaluating the effect the updated standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The Company currently expects that most of its operating lease commitments will be subject to the new standard and recognized as right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities. The Company expects application of the standard will increase the reported value of both total assets and total liabilities upon adoption and will have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and other disclosures.

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (ASU 2016-15). This amendment addresses eight classification issues related to the statement of cash flows. The amendments in ASU 2016-15 are effective for public business entities for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company has completed its assessment of the amendment and has determined that adoption will not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or other disclosures. The Company will adopt the provisions of the amendment effective January 1, 2018.

Summary of Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies (Tables)
Schedule of Revenues, Based on Shipment Destination or Research Services Location

Information about the Company’s total revenues, based on shipment destination or services location, is presented in the following table:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S.

 

$

51,439

 

 

$

35,726

 

 

$

44,553

 

International

 

 

60,192

 

 

 

82,012

 

 

 

77,965

 

Total

 

$

111,631

 

 

$

117,738

 

 

$

122,518

 

 

Inventories (Tables)
Schedule of Inventories

Inventories consist of the following:

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Raw material

 

$

2,543

 

 

$

3,511

 

Finished goods

 

 

6,372

 

 

 

9,357

 

Total

 

$

8,915