PRINCIPAL FINANCIAL GROUP INC, 10-K filed on 2/14/2020
Annual Report
v3.19.3.a.u2
Document and Entity Information - USD ($)
$ in Billions
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Jan. 31, 2020
Jun. 28, 2019
Document and Entity Information      
Document Type 10-K    
Document Annual Report true    
Document Period End Date Dec. 31, 2019    
Document Transition Report false    
Entity File Number 1-16725    
Entity Registrant Name PRINCIPAL FINANCIAL GROUP, INC    
Entity Incorporation, State or Country Code DE    
Entity Address, Address Line One 711 High Street    
Entity Address, City or Town Des Moines    
Entity Address, State or Province IA    
Entity Address, Postal Zip Code 50392    
Entity Tax Identification Number 42-1520346    
City Area Code 515    
Local Phone Number 247-5111    
Title of 12(b) Security Common Stock, par value $0.01    
Trading Symbol PFG    
Security Exchange Name NASDAQ    
Entity Well-known Seasoned Issuer Yes    
Entity Voluntary Filers No    
Entity Current Reporting Status Yes    
Entity Interactive Data Current Yes    
Entity Filer Category Large Accelerated Filer    
Entity Small Business false    
Entity Emerging Growth Company false    
Entity Shell Company false    
Entity Common Stock, Shares Outstanding   274,687,952  
Entity Public Float     $ 16.1
Entity Central Index Key 0001126328    
Current Fiscal Year End Date --12-31    
Document Fiscal Year Focus 2019    
Document Fiscal Period Focus FY    
Amendment Flag false    
v3.19.3.a.u2
Consolidated Statements of Financial Position - USD ($)
$ in Millions
Dec. 31, 2019
Dec. 31, 2018
Assets    
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale (2019 and 2018 include $99.4 million and $94.5 million related to consolidated variable interest entities) $ 70,106.2 $ 60,108.5
Fixed maturities, trading 675.9 636.1
Equity securities (2019 and 2018 include $810.9 million and $774.8 million related to consolidated variable interest entities) 1,879.4 1,843.7
Mortgage loans 16,486.9 15,336.9
Real estate (2019 and 2018 include $457.6 million and $364.0 million related to consolidated variable interest entities) 1,714.8 1,729.7
Policy loans 798.0 801.4
Other investments (2019 and 2018 include $263.7 million and $457.9 million related to consolidated variable interest entities and $22.8 million and $23.6 million measured at fair value under the fair value option) 4,690.2 4,310.3
Total investments 96,351.4 84,766.6
Cash and cash equivalents 2,515.9 2,977.5
Accrued investment income 686.6 636.2
Premiums due and other receivables 1,740.3 1,413.1
Deferred acquisition costs 3,521.3 3,693.5
Property and equipment 967.7 767.3
Goodwill 1,693.8 1,100.0
Other intangibles 1,786.7 1,315.1
Separate account assets (2019 and 2018 include $39,130.3 million and $37,183.3 million related to consolidated variable interest entities) 165,468.0 144,987.9
Other assets 1,356.1 1,378.9
Total assets 276,087.8 243,036.1
Liabilities    
Contractholder funds (2019 and 2018 include $394.6 million and $396.0 million related to consolidated variable interest entities) 41,367.5 39,699.7
Future policy benefits and claims 40,838.2 35,664.8
Other policyholder funds 959.4 888.4
Short-term debt 93.4 42.9
Long-term debt (2019 and 2018 include $64.2 million and $58.4 million related to consolidated variable interest entities) 3,734.1 3,259.6
Income taxes currently payable 16.2 25.3
Deferred income taxes 1,796.6 958.4
Separate account liabilities (2019 and 2018 include $39,130.3 million and $37,183.3 million related to consolidated variable interest entities) 165,468.0 144,987.9
Other liabilities (2019 and 2018 include $124.4 million and $104.9 million related to consolidated variable interest entities) 6,863.7 5,661.9
Total liabilities 261,137.1 231,188.9
Redeemable noncontrolling interest (2019 and 2018 include $215.4 million and $325.7 million related to consolidated variable interest entities) 264.9 391.2
Stockholders' equity    
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share - 2,500.0 million shares authorized, 479.3 million and 476.7 million shares issued, and 276.6 million and 279.5 million shares outstanding in 2019 and 2018 4.8 4.8
Additional paid-in capital 10,182.6 10,060.7
Retained earnings (accumulated deficit) 11,074.3 10,290.2
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) 1,037.9 (1,565.1)
Treasury stock, at cost (202.7 million and 197.2 million shares in 2019 and 2018) (7,681.6) (7,400.6)
Total stockholders' equity attributable to Principal Financial Group, Inc. 14,618.0 11,390.0
Noncontrolling interest 67.8 66.0
Total stockholders' equity 14,685.8 11,456.0
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity $ 276,087.8 $ 243,036.1
v3.19.3.a.u2
Consolidated Statements of Financial Position (Parenthetical) - USD ($)
shares in Millions, $ in Millions
Dec. 31, 2019
Dec. 31, 2018
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale $ 70,106.2 $ 60,108.5
Equity securities 1,879.4 1,843.7
Real estate 1,714.8 1,729.7
Other investments 4,690.2 4,310.3
Other investments measured at fair value under fair value option 22.8 23.6
Separate account assets 165,468.0 144,987.9
Contractholder funds 41,367.5 39,699.7
Long-term debt 3,734.1 3,259.6
Separate account liabilities 165,468.0 144,987.9
Other liabilities 6,863.7 5,661.9
Redeemable noncontrolling interest $ 264.9 $ 391.2
Common stock, par value (in dollars per share) $ 0.01 $ 0.01
Common stock, authorized (in shares) 2,500.0 2,500.0
Common stock, issued (in shares) 479.3 476.7
Common stock, outstanding (in shares) 276.6 279.5
Treasury stock (in shares) 202.7 197.2
Aggregate consolidated variable interest entities    
Fixed maturities, available-for-sale $ 99.4 $ 94.5
Equity securities 810.9 774.8
Real estate 457.6 364.0
Other investments 263.7 457.9
Separate account assets 39,130.3 37,183.3
Contractholder funds 394.6 396.0
Long-term debt 64.2 58.4
Separate account liabilities 39,130.3 37,183.3
Other liabilities 124.4 104.9
Redeemable noncontrolling interest $ 215.4 $ 325.7
v3.19.3.a.u2
Consolidated Statements of Operations - USD ($)
$ in Millions
3 Months Ended 12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Sep. 30, 2019
Jun. 30, 2019
Mar. 31, 2019
Dec. 31, 2018
Sep. 30, 2018
Jun. 30, 2018
Mar. 31, 2018
Dec. 31, 2019
Dec. 31, 2018
Dec. 31, 2017
Revenues                      
Premiums and other considerations                 $ 7,866.6 $ 6,409.6 $ 6,217.4
Fees and other revenues                 4,409.9 4,273.8 3,892.3
Net investment income (loss)                 3,998.4 3,629.2 3,459.3
Net realized capital gains (losses), excluding impairment losses on available-for-sale securities                 (9.3) (46.3) 606.0
Net other-than-temporary impairment (losses) recoveries on available-for-sale securities                 (38.3) 10.6 (28.7)
Other-than-temporary impairment losses on fixed maturities, available-for-sale reclassified to (from) other comprehensive income                 (5.2) (39.7) (53.1)
Net impairment (losses) recoveries on available-for-sale securities                 (43.5) (29.1)  
Net impairment (losses) recoveries on available-for-sale securities                     (81.8)
Net realized capital gains (losses)                 (52.8) (75.4) 524.2
Total revenues $ 4,047.2 $ 4,458.4 $ 3,972.6 $ 3,743.9 $ 3,770.6 $ 4,348.1 $ 3,234.9 $ 2,883.6 16,222.1 14,237.2 14,093.2
Expenses                      
Benefits, claims and settlement expenses                 9,905.8 8,192.5 7,822.6
Dividends to policyholders                 119.1 123.6 124.6
Operating expenses                 4,503.9 4,136.7 3,893.8
Total expenses 3,675.9 4,112.7 3,522.3 3,217.9 3,527.7 3,779.0 2,719.5 2,426.6 14,528.8 12,452.8 11,841.0
Income (loss) before income taxes                 1,693.3 1,784.4 2,252.2
Income taxes (benefits)                 249.2 230.7 (72.3)
Net income (loss) 315.3 284.6 392.1 452.1 231.7 460.0 459.5 402.5 1,444.1 1,553.7 2,324.5
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest                 49.9 7.2 14.1
Net income (loss) attributable to Principal Financial Group, Inc. $ 300.9 $ 277.1 $ 386.3 $ 429.9 $ 236.5 $ 456.3 $ 456.6 $ 397.1 $ 1,394.2 $ 1,546.5 $ 2,310.4
Earnings per common share                      
Basic earnings per common share (in dollars per share) $ 1.08 $ 0.99 $ 1.38 $ 1.54 $ 0.84 $ 1.60 $ 1.59 $ 1.37 $ 5.00 $ 5.41 $ 8.00
Diluted earnings per common share (in dollars per share) $ 1.07 $ 0.98 $ 1.37 $ 1.53 $ 0.83 $ 1.59 $ 1.58 $ 1.36 $ 4.96 $ 5.36 $ 7.88
v3.19.3.a.u2
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income - USD ($)
$ in Millions
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Dec. 31, 2018
Dec. 31, 2017
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income      
Net income (loss) $ 1,444.1 $ 1,553.7 $ 2,324.5
Other comprehensive income (loss), net:      
Net unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale securities 2,616.1 (1,529.6) 639.5
Noncredit component of impairment losses on fixed maturities, available-for-sale 3.0 26.4 31.2
Net unrealized gains (losses) on derivative instruments (11.0) 16.0 (42.6)
Foreign currency translation adjustment (78.7) (287.6) 178.9
Net unrecognized postretirement benefit obligation 77.3 (60.9) 37.3
Other comprehensive income (loss) 2,606.7 (1,835.7) 844.3
Comprehensive income (loss) 4,050.8 (282.0) 3,168.8
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest 53.6 2.7 17.7
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Principal Financial Group, Inc. $ 3,997.2 $ (284.7) $ 3,151.1
v3.19.3.a.u2
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity - USD ($)
$ in Millions
Common stock
Additional paid-in capital
Retained earnings (accumulated deficit)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
Treasury stock
Noncontrolling interest
Total
Balances at Dec. 31, 2016 $ 4.7 $ 9,686.0 $ 7,720.4 $ (675.2) $ (6,508.6) $ 66.5 $ 10,293.8
Increase (decrease) in stockholders' equity              
Common stock issued   162.5         162.5
Stock-based compensation   90.2 (7.9)     0.4 82.7
Treasury stock acquired, common         (220.4)   (220.4)
Dividends to common stockholders     (540.0)       (540.0)
Distributions to noncontrolling interest           (8.4) (8.4)
Contributions from noncontrolling interest           6.0 6.0
Purchase of subsidiary shares from noncontrolling interest   (7.6)       (1.3) (8.9)
Adjustments to redemption amount of redeemable noncontrolling interest   (5.9)         (5.9)
Net income (loss)     2,310.4     7.1 2,317.5
Other comprehensive income (loss)       840.7   2.3 843.0
Balances at Dec. 31, 2017 4.7 9,925.2 9,482.9 165.5 (6,729.0) 72.6 12,921.9
Increase (decrease) in stockholders' equity              
Common stock issued 0.1 63.9         64.0
Stock-based compensation   84.9 (7.7)     (0.4) 76.8
Treasury stock acquired, common         (671.6)   (671.6)
Dividends to common stockholders     (598.6)       (598.6)
Distributions to noncontrolling interest           (13.5) (13.5)
Contributions from noncontrolling interest           3.3 3.3
Purchase of subsidiary shares from noncontrolling interest   (20.6)   (1.6)   (1.8) (24.0)
Adjustments to redemption amount of redeemable noncontrolling interest   7.3       (0.3) 7.0
Effects of implementation of accounting change | ASU 2016-01 - Equity investments     1.0 (1.0)      
Effects of implementation of accounting change | ASU 2014-09 - Revenue recognition     (65.0) 25.6   (0.3) (39.7)
Effects of implementation of accounting change | ASU 2018-02 - Reclassification of certain tax effects     (77.6) 77.6      
Effects of implementation of accounting change related to intra-entity asset transfer taxes, net | ASU 2016-16 - Intra-entity asset transfer taxes     8.7       8.7
Net income (loss)     1,546.5     9.3 1,555.8
Other comprehensive income (loss)       (1,831.2)   (2.9) (1,834.1)
Balances at Dec. 31, 2018 4.8 10,060.7 10,290.2 (1,565.1) (7,400.6) 66.0 11,456.0
Increase (decrease) in stockholders' equity              
Common stock issued   37.7         37.7
Stock-based compensation   89.7 (8.1)     0.3 81.9
Treasury stock acquired, common         (281.0)   (281.0)
Dividends to common stockholders     (606.0)       (606.0)
Distributions to noncontrolling interest           (20.9) (20.9)
Contributions from noncontrolling interest           8.2 8.2
Purchase of subsidiary shares from noncontrolling interest   (0.5)       (0.1) (0.6)
Adjustments to redemption amount of redeemable noncontrolling interest   (5.0)       (0.4) (5.4)
Effects of implementation of accounting change | ASU 2016-02 - Leases     4.0       4.0
Net income (loss)     1,394.2     16.3 1,410.5
Other comprehensive income (loss)       2,603.0   (1.6) 2,601.4
Balances at Dec. 31, 2019 $ 4.8 $ 10,182.6 $ 11,074.3 $ 1,037.9 $ (7,681.6) $ 67.8 $ 14,685.8
v3.19.3.a.u2
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows - USD ($)
$ in Millions
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Dec. 31, 2018
Dec. 31, 2017
Operating activities      
Net income (loss) $ 1,444.1 $ 1,553.7 $ 2,324.5
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:      
Net realized capital (gains) losses 52.8 75.4 (524.2)
Depreciation and amortization expense 226.8 205.1 195.7
Amortization of deferred acquisition costs and contract costs 371.4 277.3 234.6
Additions to deferred acquisition costs and contract costs (515.5) (443.4) (421.8)
Stock-based compensation 82.6 77.4 82.7
(Income) loss from equity method investments, net of dividends received (111.9) (76.0) (68.2)
Changes in:      
Accrued investment income (50.4) (28.7) (30.0)
Net cash flows for trading securities and equity securities with operating intent (53.8) (133.7) (332.2)
Premiums due and other receivables (247.6) 37.8 (114.2)
Contractholder and policyholder liabilities and dividends 3,599.9 3,610.2 3,296.8
Current and deferred income taxes (benefits) 211.2 274.7 (164.4)
Real estate acquired through operating activities (64.7) (89.2) (82.6)
Real estate sold through operating activities 136.1 133.6 1.4
Other assets and liabilities 401.1 (282.0) (227.1)
Other 11.1 (35.7) 17.0
Net adjustments 4,049.1 3,602.8 1,863.5
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities 5,493.2 5,156.5 4,188.0
Investing activities      
Fixed maturities available-for-sale and equity securities with intent to hold: Purchases (14,137.1) (13,909.8) (13,371.6)
Fixed maturities available-for-sale and equity securities with intent to hold: Sales 2,397.4 3,813.1 1,413.6
Fixed maturities available-for-sale and equity securities with intent to hold: Maturities 7,064.2 6,217.6 8,743.2
Mortgage loans acquired or originated (3,487.7) (3,447.5) (2,755.8)
Mortgage loans sold or repaid 2,335.9 2,228.4 1,872.0
Real estate acquired (127.5) (88.1) (200.5)
Real estate sold 96.3 63.5 481.9
Net (purchases) sales of property and equipment (132.4) (92.3) (164.8)
Purchase of business or interests in subsidiaries, net of cash acquired (1,208.5) (184.7)  
Net change in other investments (489.1) (302.7) (70.8)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities (7,688.5) (5,702.5) (4,052.8)
Financing activities      
Issuance of common stock 37.7 64.0 162.5
Acquisition of treasury stock (281.0) (671.6) (220.4)
Proceeds from financing element derivatives     0.1
Payments for financing element derivatives (26.9) (65.9) (77.6)
Purchase of subsidiary shares from noncontrolling interest (1.7) (31.1) (13.3)
Dividends to common stockholders (606.0) (598.6) (540.0)
Issuance of long-term debt 504.9 80.8 2.8
Principal repayments of long-term debt (32.2) (1.3) (56.5)
Net proceeds from (repayments of) short-term borrowings 57.5 8.5 (15.5)
Investment contract deposits 9,200.0 8,308.8 10,154.4
Investment contract withdrawals (7,747.7) (6,589.6) (9,914.6)
Net increase (decrease) in banking operation deposits 623.4 553.0 136.6
Other 5.7 (4.3) (2.5)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities 1,733.7 1,052.7 (384.0)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents (461.6) 506.7 (248.8)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period 2,977.5 2,470.8 2,719.6
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period 2,515.9 2,977.5 2,470.8
Supplemental information:      
Cash paid for interest 157.7 150.2 148.6
Cash paid for (received from) income taxes (8.5) $ (96.2) 79.3
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash activities:      
Lease assets established upon adoption of accounting guidance 168.8    
Lease liabilities established upon adoption of accounting guidance 164.0    
Assets received in kind for pension risk transfer transactions $ 1,225.8    
Asset and liability changes resulting from exchange agreement to exit real estate joint ventures:      
Real estate properties received     743.2
Long-term debt assumed on real estate properties received     269.0
Increase in other investments due to discontinuing equity method accounting     $ 222.4
v3.19.3.a.u2
Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies  
Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies

Description of Business

Principal Financial Group, Inc. (“PFG”) is a leader in global investment management offering businesses, individuals and institutional clients a wide range of financial products and services, including retirement, asset management and insurance through our diverse family of financial services companies.

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of PFG and all other entities in which we directly or indirectly have a controlling financial interest as well as those variable interest entities (“VIEs”) in which we are the primary beneficiary. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.

Consolidation

We have relationships with various special purpose entities and other legal entities that must be evaluated to determine if the entities meet the criteria of a VIE or a voting interest entity (“VOE”). This assessment is performed by reviewing contractual, ownership and other rights, including involvement of related parties, and requires use of judgment. First, we determine if we hold a variable interest in an entity by assessing if we have the right to receive expected losses and expected residual returns of the entity. If we hold a variable interest, then the entity is assessed to determine if it is a VIE. An entity is a VIE if the equity at risk is not sufficient to support its activities, if the equity holders lack a controlling financial interest or if the entity is structured with non-substantive voting rights. In addition to the previous criteria, if the entity is a limited partnership or similar entity, it is a VIE if the limited partners do not have the power to direct the entity’s most significant activities through substantive kick-out rights or participating rights. A VIE is evaluated to determine the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary of a VIE is the enterprise with (1) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance and (2) the obligation to absorb losses of the entity or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE. When we are the primary beneficiary, we are required to consolidate the entity in our financial statements. We reassess our involvement with VIEs on a quarterly basis. For further information about VIEs, refer to Note 3, Variable Interest Entities.

If an entity is not a VIE, it is considered a VOE. VOEs are generally consolidated if we own a greater than 50% voting interest. If we determine our involvement in an entity no longer meets the requirements for consolidation under either the VIE or VOE models, the entity is deconsolidated. Entities in which we have management influence over the operating and financing decisions but are not required to consolidate, other than investments accounted for at fair value under the fair value option, are reported using the equity method.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Description

Date of
adoption

Effect on our consolidated
financial statements or other
significant matters

Standards not yet adopted:

Targeted improvements to the accounting for long-duration insurance contracts

This authoritative guidance updates certain requirements in the accounting for long-duration insurance and annuity contracts.

1.

The assumptions used to calculate the liability for future policy benefits on traditional and limited-payment contracts will be reviewed and updated periodically. Cash flow assumptions will be reviewed at least annually and updated when necessary with the impact recognized in net income. Discount rate assumptions are prescribed as the current upper-medium grade (low credit risk) fixed income instrument yield and will be updated quarterly with the impact recognized in other comprehensive income (“OCI”).

2.

Market risk benefits, which are certain market-based options or guarantees associated with deposit or account balance contracts, will be measured at fair value. The periodic change in fair value related to instrument-specific credit risk will be recognized in OCI while the remaining change in fair value will be recognized in net income.

3.

Deferred acquisition costs (“DAC”) for all insurance and annuity contracts will be amortized on a constant basis over the expected term of the related contracts.

4.

Additional disclosures are required, including disaggregated rollforwards of significant insurance liabilities and other account balances and disclosures about significant inputs, judgments, assumptions and methods used in measurement.

The guidance for the liability for future policy benefits for traditional and limited-payment contracts and DAC will be applied on a modified retrospective basis; that is, to contracts in force as of the beginning of the earliest period presented based on their existing carrying amounts. An entity may elect to apply the changes retrospectively. The guidance for market risk benefits will be applied retrospectively. Early adoption is permitted.

January 1, 2022

Our implementation and evaluation process to date includes, but is not limited to the following:

       identifying and documenting contracts and contract features in scope of the guidance;

       identifying the actuarial models, systems and processes to be updated;

       evaluating and selecting our systems solutions for implementing the new guidance;

       beginning to build key models;

       evaluating our key accounting policies;

       assessing the impact to our chart of accounts;

       developing format and content of new disclosures and

       evaluating transition requirements and impacts.

As we progress through our implementation, we will be able to better assess the impact to our consolidated financial statements; however, we expect this guidance to significantly change how we account for many of our insurance and annuity products.

Goodwill impairment testing

This authoritative guidance simplifies how an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 (which measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill to the carrying amount of that goodwill) from the goodwill impairment test. A goodwill impairment loss will be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. Entities will continue to have the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine if a quantitative impairment test is necessary. Early adoption is permitted.

January 1, 2020

We expect the guidance will reduce complexity and costs associated with performing a Step 2 test, should one be needed in the future. However, the impact of eliminating the Step 2 test from any such future impairment assessment will be dependent on modeling factors that are not currently determinable. We do not expect this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Description

Date of
adoption

Effect on our consolidated
financial statements or other
significant matters

Credit losses

This authoritative guidance requires entities to use a current expected credit loss (“CECL”) model to measure impairment for most financial assets that are not recorded at fair value through net income. Under the CECL model, an entity will estimate lifetime expected credit losses considering available relevant information about historical events, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The CECL model does not apply to available-for-sale debt securities. This guidance also expands the required credit loss disclosures and will be applied using a modified retrospective approach by recording a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. Early adoption is permitted.

January 1, 2020

The guidance will be adopted using the modified retrospective approach. Our evaluation process is complete and included, but was not limited to, identifying financial assets within scope of the guidance, developing and refining CECL models for the relevant assets, preparing quarterly estimates of the cumulative effect of adoption, developing and refining necessary internal controls and preparing the required financial statement disclosures. The financial statement changes are not material and will result in an immaterial reduction to stockholders’ equity.

Standards adopted:

Implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract

This authoritative guidance aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. This guidance can be applied either retrospectively or prospectively and early adoption is permitted.

January 1, 2019

The effective date of the guidance is January 1, 2020; however, we elected to early-adopt this guidance on a prospective basis, effective January 1, 2019. This guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Nonemployee share-based payment accounting

This authoritative guidance simplifies the accounting for share-based payments to nonemployees by generally aligning it with the accounting for share-based payments to employees. Under the guidance, the measurement of equity-classified nonemployee awards will be fixed at the grant date, where previously the measurement was fixed at performance completion date. The guidance will be applied to equity-classified nonemployee awards for which a measurement date has not been established as of the date of adoption.

January 1, 2019

This guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Description

Date of
adoption

Effect on our consolidated
financial statements or other
significant matters

Leases

This authoritative guidance requires lessee recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. The concept of an operating lease, where the lease assets and liabilities are off balance sheet, is eliminated under the new guidance. For lessors, the guidance modifies lease classification criteria and accounting for certain types of leases. Other key aspects of the guidance relate to the removal of the current real estate-specific guidance and new presentation and disclosure requirements. Lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases using a modified retrospective approach, which includes certain optional practical expedients that may be elected. We elected the alternative transition method, which allows entities to initially apply the new standard at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption.

January 1, 2019

We adopted the guidance using the modified retrospective approach and comparative periods were not restated. Further details are included under the caption “Adoption of Lease Guidance” and in Note 12, Contingencies, Guarantees, Indemnifications and Leases.

Targeted improvements to accounting for hedging activities

This authoritative guidance updated certain recognition and measurement requirements for hedge accounting. The objective of the guidance is to more closely align the economics of a company’s risk management activities in its financial results and reduce the complexity of applying hedge accounting. The updates included the expansion of hedging strategies that are eligible for hedge accounting, elimination of the separate measurement and reporting of hedge ineffectiveness, presentation of the changes in the fair value of the hedging instrument in the same consolidated statement of operations line as the earnings effect of the hedged item and simplification of hedge effectiveness assessments. This guidance also included new disclosures.

January 1, 2019

This guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. See Note 5, Derivative Financial Instruments, for further details.

Premium amortization on purchased callable debt securities

This authoritative guidance applies to entities that hold certain non-contingently callable debt securities, where the amortized cost basis is at a premium to the price repayable by the issuer at the earliest call date. Under the guidance the premium will be amortized to the first call date.

January 1, 2019

This guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Description

Date of
adoption

Effect on our consolidated
financial statements or other
significant matters

Reclassification of certain tax effects from accumulated other comprehensive income

This authoritative guidance permits a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) to retained earnings for the stranded tax effects resulting from U.S. tax legislation enacted on December 22, 2017, which is referred to as the ‘‘Tax Cuts and Jobs Act’’ (‘‘U.S. tax reform’’). The amount of that reclassification includes the change in corporate income tax rate, as well as an election to include other income tax effects related to the application of U.S. tax reform. The guidance also requires disclosures about stranded tax effects.

January 1, 2018

The effective date of the guidance was January 1, 2019; however, we elected to early adopt the guidance. The guidance was applied at the beginning of the period of adoption and comparative periods were not restated. We reclassified the stranded tax effects in AOCI resulting from U.S. tax reform, which includes the change in corporate income tax rate and an election to reclassify the tax effects of the one-time deemed repatriation tax. A reclassification of $77.6 million was recorded as an increase to AOCI and a decrease to retained earnings.

Revenue recognition

This authoritative guidance replaces all general and most industry specific revenue recognition guidance currently prescribed by U.S. GAAP. The core principle is that an entity recognizes revenue to reflect the transfer of a promised good or service to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for that good or service. This guidance also provides clarification on when an entity is a principal or an agent in a transaction. In addition, the guidance updates the accounting for certain costs associated with obtaining and fulfilling a customer contract. The guidance may be applied using one of the following two methods: (1) retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented, or (2) retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying the standard recognized at the date of initial application.

January 1, 2018

We adopted the guidance using the modified retrospective approach. The guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. A cumulative effect adjustment of $39.7 million was recorded as a decrease to total stockholders' equity. See Note 17, Revenues from Contracts with Customers, for further details.

Income tax - intra-entity transfers of assets

This authoritative guidance requires entities to recognize current and deferred income tax resulting from an intra-entity asset transfer when the transfer occurs. Prior to issuance of this guidance, U.S. GAAP did not allow recognition of income tax consequences until the asset had been sold to a third party. This guidance requires adoption through a cumulative effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption.

January 1, 2018

We adopted the guidance using the modified retrospective approach. A cumulative effect adjustment of $8.7 million was recorded as an increase to retained earnings. In addition, other assets and deferred income taxes decreased $21.1 million and $29.8 million, respectively, due to the adoption of this guidance.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Description

Date of
adoption

Effect on our consolidated
financial statements or other
significant matters

Financial instruments - recognition and measurement
This authoritative guidance addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. The guidance eliminated the classification of equity securities into different categories (trading or available-for-sale) and requires equity investments to be measured at fair value with changes in the fair value recognized through net income. The guidance also updated certain financial instrument disclosures and eliminated the requirement to disclose the methods and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value of financial instruments that are measured at amortized cost on the balance sheet.

January 1, 2018

We adopted this guidance using the modified retrospective approach. A cumulative effect adjustment of $1.0 million was recorded as a decrease to AOCI and a corresponding increase to retained earnings. The guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. See Note 4, Investments, for further details.

Nonfinancial asset derecognition and partial sales of nonfinancial assets

This authoritative guidance clarifies the scope of the recently established guidance on nonfinancial asset derecognition and the accounting for partial sales of nonfinancial assets. The guidance conforms the derecognition guidance on nonfinancial assets with the model for transactions in the new revenue recognition standard.

January 1, 2018

The guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Presentation of net periodic pension cost and net periodic postretirement benefit cost

This authoritative guidance requires that an employer disaggregate the service cost component from the other components of net benefit cost. The guidance also provides explicit guidance on the presentation of the service cost component and the other components of net benefit cost in the consolidated statement of operations and allows only the service cost component of net benefit cost to be eligible for capitalization.

January 1, 2018

The guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Definition of a business

This authoritative guidance clarifies the definition of a business to assist with evaluating when transactions involving an integrated set of assets and activities (a “set”) should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. The guidance requires that when substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired or disposed of is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not a business. The guidance also requires a set to include, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create output to be considered a business. Lastly, the guidance removes the evaluation of whether a market participant could replace missing elements and narrows the definition of outputs by more closely aligning it with how outputs are described in the revenue recognition guidance. The guidance will be applied prospectively.

January 1, 2018

The guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Employee share-based payment accounting

This authoritative guidance changes certain aspects of accounting for and reporting share-based payments to employees including changes related to the income tax effects of share-based payments, tax withholding requirements and accounting for forfeitures. Various transition methods will apply depending on the situation being addressed.

January 1, 2017

The guidance was adopted prospectively as indicated by the guidance for each area of change and did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

When we adopt new accounting standards, we have a process in place to perform a thorough review of the pronouncement, identify the financial statement and system impacts and create an implementation plan among our impacted business units to ensure we are compliant with the pronouncement on the date of adoption. This includes having effective processes and controls in place to support the reported amounts. Each of the standards listed above is in varying stages in our implementation process based on its issuance and adoption dates. We are on track to implement guidance by the respective effective dates.

Adoption of Lease Guidance

On January 1, 2019, we adopted the guidance using the modified retrospective approach with the cumulative effect of initially applying the standard recognized at the date of adoption. We elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance. In addition, we elected the hindsight practical expedient to determine the lease term for existing leases. We have agreements with lease and non-lease components, which we account for as a combined unit of account for all classes.

The impact of the guidance to our consolidated financial statements primarily related to the establishment of additional assets and liabilities of  $168.8 million and $164.0 million, respectively. The difference between the additional assets and liabilities, net of deferred tax impacts, was recorded as a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings and increased total stockholders’ equity by $4.0 million.

Results of reporting periods beginning January 1, 2019, are presented under the new guidance, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our prior accounting. The guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of operations and did not impact earnings per common share.

Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements

The preparation of our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed. These estimates and assumptions could change in the future as more information becomes known, which could impact the amounts reported and disclosed in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The most critical estimates include those used in determining:

the fair value of investments in the absence of quoted market values;
investment impairments and valuation allowances;
the fair value of and accounting for derivatives;
the DAC and other actuarial balances where the amortization is based on estimated gross profits (“EGPs”);
the measurement of goodwill, indefinite lived intangible assets, finite lived intangible assets and related impairments or amortization, if any;
the liability for future policy benefits and claims;
the value of our pension and other postretirement benefit obligations and
accounting for income taxes and the valuation of deferred tax assets.

A description of such critical estimates is incorporated within the discussion of the related accounting policies that follow. In applying these policies, management makes subjective and complex judgments that frequently require estimates about matters that are inherently uncertain. Actual results could differ from these estimates.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Closed Block

Principal Life Insurance Company (“Principal Life”) operates a closed block (“Closed Block”) for the benefit of individual participating dividend-paying policies in force at the time of the 1998 mutual insurance holding company (“MIHC”) formation. See Note 6, Closed Block, for further details.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, money market instruments and other debt issues with a maturity date of three months or less when purchased.

Investments

Fixed maturities include bonds, asset-backed securities (“ABS”), redeemable preferred stock and certain non-redeemable preferred securities. Equity securities include mutual funds, common stock, non-redeemable preferred stock and required regulatory investments. We classify fixed maturities as either available-for-sale or trading at the time of the purchase and, accordingly, carry them at fair value. Equity securities are also carried at fair value. See Note 14, Fair Value Measurements, for methodologies related to the determination of fair value. Unrealized gains and losses related to fixed maturities, available-for-sale, excluding those in fair value hedging relationships, are reflected in stockholders' equity, net of adjustments associated with DAC and related actuarial balances, derivatives in cash flow hedge relationships and applicable income taxes. Mark-to-market adjustments on equity securities, unrealized gains and losses related to hedged portions of fixed maturities, available-for-sale in fair value hedging relationships prior to 2019 and mark-to-market adjustments on certain fixed maturities, trading are reflected in net realized capital gains (losses). Beginning in 2019, unrealized gains and losses related to hedged portions of fixed maturities, available-for-sale in fair value hedging relationships are reflected in net investment income. Mark-to-market adjustments related to certain securities carried at fair value with an investment objective to realize economic value through mark-to-market changes are reflected in net investment income.

The amortized cost of fixed maturities includes cost adjusted for amortization of premiums and discounts, computed using the interest method. The amortized cost of fixed maturities classified as available-for-sale is adjusted for changes in fair value of hedged portions of securities in fair value hedging relationships and declines in value that are other than temporary. Impairments in value deemed to be other than temporary are primarily reported in net income as a component of net realized capital gains (losses), with noncredit impairment losses for certain fixed maturities, available-for-sale reported in OCI. Interest income, as well as prepayment fees and the amortization of the related premium or discount, is reported in net investment income. For loan-backed and structured securities, we recognize income using a constant effective yield based on currently anticipated cash flows.

Real estate investments are reported at cost less accumulated depreciation. The initial cost bases of properties acquired through loan foreclosures are the lower of the fair market values of the properties at the time of foreclosure or the outstanding loan balance. Buildings and land improvements are generally depreciated on the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of improvements and tenant improvement costs are depreciated on the straight-line method over the term of the related lease. We recognize impairment losses for properties when indicators of impairment are present and a property's expected undiscounted cash flows are not sufficient to recover the property's carrying value. In such cases, the cost basis of the property is reduced to fair value. Real estate expected to be disposed is carried at the lower of cost or fair value, less cost to sell, with valuation allowances established accordingly and depreciation no longer recognized. The carrying amount of real estate held for sale was $169.8 million and $209.6 million as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Any impairment losses and any changes in valuation allowances are reported in net income.

Commercial and residential mortgage loans are generally reported at cost adjusted for amortization of premiums and accrual of discounts, computed using the interest method and net of valuation allowances. Interest income is accrued on the principal amount of the loan based on the loan’s contractual interest rate. Interest income, as well as prepayment of fees and the amortization of the related premium or discount, is reported in net investment income. Any changes in the valuation allowances are reported in net realized capital gains (losses). We measure impairment based upon the difference between carrying value and estimated value less cost to sell.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Estimated value is based on either the present value of expected cash flows discounted at the loan's effective interest rate, the loan's observable market price or the fair value of the collateral. If foreclosure is probable, the measurement of any valuation allowance is based upon the fair value of the collateral.

Net realized capital gains and losses on sales of investments are determined on the basis of specific identification. In general, in addition to realized capital gains and losses on investment sales and periodic settlements on derivatives not designated as hedges, we report gains and losses related to the following in net realized capital gains (losses): other-than-temporary impairments of securities and subsequent realized recoveries, mark-to-market adjustments on equity securities, mark-to-market adjustments on certain fixed maturities, trading, mark-to-market adjustments on sponsored investment funds, mark-to-market adjustments on derivatives not designated as hedges, cash flow hedge gains (losses) when the hedged item impacts realized capital gains (losses), changes in the mortgage loan valuation allowance provision, impairments of real estate held for investment and impairments of equity method investments. Investment gains and losses on sales of certain real estate held for sale due to investment strategy and mark-to-market adjustments on certain securities carried at fair value with an investment objective to realize economic value through mark-to-market changes are reported as net investment income and are excluded from net realized capital gains (losses).

Policy loans and certain other investments are reported at cost. Interests in unconsolidated entities, joint ventures and partnerships are generally accounted for using the equity method. We have other investments reported at fair value or for which the fair value option has been elected in prior periods. See Note 14, Fair Value Measurements, for detail on these investments.

Derivatives

Overview

Derivatives are financial instruments whose values are derived from interest rates, foreign exchange rates, financial indices or the values of securities. Derivatives generally used by us include swaps, options, futures and forwards. Derivative positions are either assets or liabilities in the consolidated statements of financial position and are measured at fair value, generally by obtaining quoted market prices or through the use of pricing models. See Note 14, Fair Value Measurements, for policies related to the determination of fair value. Fair values can be affected by changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, financial indices, values of securities, credit spreads, and market volatility and liquidity.

Accounting and Financial Statement Presentation

We designate derivatives as either:

(a)a hedge of the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognized asset or liability or an unrecognized firm commitment, including those denominated in a foreign currency (“fair value hedge”);
(b)a hedge of a forecasted transaction or the exposure to variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a recognized asset or liability, including those denominated in a foreign currency (“cash flow hedge”);
(c)a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation or
(d)a derivative not designated as a hedging instrument.

Our accounting for the ongoing changes in fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the designation, as described above, and is determined when the derivative contract is entered into or at the time of redesignation. Hedge accounting is used for derivatives that are specifically designated in advance as hedges and that reduce our exposure to an indicated risk by having a high correlation between changes in the value of the derivatives and the items being hedged at both the inception of the hedge and throughout the hedge period.

Fair Value Hedges. When a derivative is designated as a fair value hedge and is determined to be highly effective, changes in its fair value, along with changes in the fair value of the hedged asset, liability or firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk, are reported in the same income statement line item that is used to report the earnings effect of the hedged item.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

For fair value hedges of fixed maturities, available-for-sale, these changes in fair value are reported in net investment income. Prior to 2019, these changes in fair value were recorded in net realized capital gains (losses). A fair value hedge determined to be highly effective may still result in a mismatch between the change in the fair value of the hedging instrument and the change in the fair value of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk.

Cash Flow Hedges. When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge and is determined to be highly effective, changes in its fair value are recorded as a component of OCI. At the time the variability of cash flows being hedged impacts net income, the related portion of deferred gains or losses on the derivative instrument is reclassified and reported in net income.

Net Investment in a Foreign Operation Hedge. When a derivative is used as a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation, its change in fair value, to the extent effective as a hedge, is recorded as a component of OCI. If the foreign operation is sold or upon complete or substantially complete liquidation, the deferred gains or losses on the derivative instrument are reclassified into net income.

Non-Hedge Derivatives. If a derivative does not qualify or is not designated for hedge accounting, all changes in fair value are reported in net income without considering the changes in the fair value of the economically associated assets or liabilities.

Hedge Documentation and Effectiveness Testing. At inception, we formally document all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as our risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. This process includes associating all derivatives designated as fair value or cash flow hedges with specific assets or liabilities on the consolidated statements of financial position or with specific firm commitments or forecasted transactions. Effectiveness of the hedge is formally assessed at inception and throughout the life of the hedging relationship. Even if a hedge is determined to be highly effective, the hedge may still result in a mismatch between the change in the fair value of the hedging instrument and the change in the fair value of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk.

We use qualitative and quantitative methods to assess hedge effectiveness. Qualitative methods may include monitoring changes to terms and conditions and counterparty credit ratings. Quantitative methods may include statistical tests including regression analysis and minimum variance and dollar offset techniques.

Termination of Hedge Accounting. We prospectively discontinue hedge accounting when (1) the criteria to qualify for hedge accounting is no longer met, e.g., a derivative is determined to no longer be highly effective in offsetting the change in fair value or cash flows of a hedged item; (2) the derivative expires, is sold, terminated or exercised or (3) we remove the designation of the derivative being the hedging instrument for a fair value or cash flow hedge.

If it is determined that a derivative no longer qualifies as an effective hedge, the derivative will continue to be carried on the consolidated statements of financial position at its fair value, with changes in fair value recognized prospectively in net realized capital gains (losses). The asset or liability under a fair value hedge will no longer be adjusted for changes in fair value pursuant to hedging rules and the existing basis adjustment is amortized to the consolidated statements of operations line associated with the asset or liability. The component of AOCI related to discontinued cash flow hedges that are no longer highly effective is amortized to the consolidated statements of operations consistent with the net income impacts of the original hedged cash flows. If a cash flow hedge is discontinued because it is probable the hedged forecasted transaction will not occur, the deferred gain or loss is immediately reclassified from AOCI into net income.

Embedded Derivatives. We purchase and issue certain financial instruments and products that contain a derivative that is embedded in the financial instrument or product. We assess whether this embedded derivative is clearly and closely related to the asset or liability that serves as its host contract. If we deem that the embedded derivative's terms are not clearly and closely related to the host contract, and a separate instrument with the same terms would qualify as a derivative instrument, the derivative is bifurcated from that contract and held at fair value on the consolidated statements of financial position, with changes in fair value reported in net income.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Contractholder and Policyholder Liabilities

Contractholder and policyholder liabilities (contractholder funds, future policy benefits and claims and other policyholder funds) include reserves for investment contracts, individual and group annuities that provide periodic income payments, universal life insurance, variable universal life insurance, indexed universal life insurance, term life insurance, participating traditional individual life insurance, group dental and vision insurance, group critical illness, group accident, group short-term and long-term disability insurance, group life insurance, individual disability insurance and long-term care insurance. It also includes a provision for dividends on participating policies.

Investment contracts are contractholders' funds on deposit with us and generally include reserves for pension and annuity contracts. Reserves on investment contracts are equal to the cumulative deposits less any applicable charges and withdrawals plus credited interest. Reserves for universal life, variable universal life and indexed universal life insurance contracts are equal to cumulative deposits less charges plus credited interest, which represents the account balances that accrue to the benefit of the policyholders.

We hold additional reserves on certain long-duration contracts where benefit features result in gains in early years followed by losses in later years; universal life, variable universal life and indexed universal life insurance contracts that contain no lapse guarantee features; and annuities with guaranteed minimum death benefits.

Reserves for individual and group annuities that provide periodic income payments, nonparticipating term life insurance and disability income contracts are computed on a basis of assumed investment yield, mortality, morbidity and expenses, including a provision for adverse deviation, which generally varies by plan, year of issue and policy duration. Investment yield is based on our experience. Mortality, morbidity and withdrawal rate assumptions are based on our experience and are periodically reviewed against both industry standards and experience.

Reserves for participating life insurance contracts are based on the net level premium reserve for death and endowment policy benefits. This net level premium reserve is calculated based on dividend fund interest rates and mortality rates guaranteed in calculating the cash surrender values described in the contract.

Participating business represented approximately 6%, 7% and 7% of our life insurance in force and 23%, 26% and 29% of the number of life insurance policies in force as of December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Participating business represented approximately 21%, 24% and 30% of life insurance premiums for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The amount of dividends to policyholders is declared annually by Principal Life's Board of Directors. The amount of dividends to be paid to policyholders is determined after consideration of several factors including interest, mortality, morbidity and other expense experience for the year and judgment as to the appropriate level of statutory surplus to be retained by Principal Life. At the end of the reporting period, Principal Life establishes a dividend liability for the pro rata portion of the dividends expected to be paid on or before the next policy anniversary date.

Some of our policies and contracts require payment of fees or other policyholder assessments in advance for services that will be rendered over the estimated lives of the policies and contracts. These payments are established as unearned revenue liabilities upon receipt and included in other policyholder funds in the consolidated statements of financial position. These unearned revenue reserves are amortized to net income over the estimated lives of these policies and contracts in relation to the emergence of EGPs.

Short-Duration Contracts

We include the following group products in our short-duration insurance contracts disclosures: long-term disability (“LTD”), group life waiver, dental, vision, short-term disability (“STD”), critical illness, accident and group life.

Future policy benefits and claims include reserves for group life and disability insurance that provide periodic income payments. These reserves are computed using assumptions of mortality, morbidity and investment performance. These assumptions are based on our experience, industry results, emerging trends and future expectations. Future policy benefits and claims also include reserves for incurred but unreported group disability, dental, vision, critical illness, accident and life insurance claims.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

We recognize claims costs in the period the service was provided to our policyholders. However, claims costs incurred in a particular period are not known with certainty until after we receive, process and pay the claims. We determine the amount of this liability using actuarial methods based on historical claim payment patterns as well as emerging cost trends, where applicable, to determine our estimate of claim liabilities.

We have defined claim frequency as follows for each short-duration product:  

LTD: Claim frequency is based on submitted reserve claim counts.
Group Life Waiver: Claim frequency is based on submitted reserve claim counts, consistent with LTD.
Dental and Vision: Claim frequency is based on the claim form, which may include one or more procedures.
STD, Critical Illness and Accident: Claim frequency is based on submitted claims.
Group Life: Claim frequency is based on submitted life claims (lives, not coverages).

We did not make any significant changes to our methodologies or assumptions used to calculate the liability for unpaid claims for short-duration contracts during 2019.

Liability for Unpaid Claims

The liability for unpaid claims for both long-duration and short-duration contracts is an estimate of the ultimate net cost of reported and unreported losses not yet settled. This liability is estimated using actuarial analyses and case basis evaluations. Although considerable variability is inherent in such estimates, we believe the liability for unpaid claims is adequate. These estimates are continually reviewed and, as adjustments to this liability become necessary, such adjustments are reflected in net income. Our liability for unpaid claims does not include any allocated claim adjustment expenses.

We incur claim adjustment expenses for both long-duration and short-duration contracts that cannot be allocated to a specific claim. Our claim adjustment expense liability is estimated using actuarial analyses based on historical trends of expenses and expected claim runout patterns.  

See Note 8, Insurance Liabilities, under the caption “Liability for Unpaid Claims” for further details.

Recognition of Premiums and Other Considerations, Fees and Other Revenues and Benefits

Products with fixed and guaranteed premiums and benefits consist principally of whole life and term life insurance policies and individual disability income. Premiums from these products are recognized as premium revenue when due. Related policy benefits and expenses for individual life products are associated with earned premiums and result in the recognition of profits over the expected term of the policies and contracts.

Immediate annuities with life contingencies include products with fixed and guaranteed annuity considerations and benefits and consist principally of group and individual single premium annuities with life contingencies. Annuity considerations from these products are recognized as premium revenue. However, the collection of these annuity considerations does not represent the completion of the earnings process, as we establish annuity reserves using estimates for mortality and investment assumptions, which include provision for adverse deviation as required by U.S. GAAP. We anticipate profits to emerge over the life of the annuity products as we earn investment income, pay benefits and release reserves.

Group life, dental, vision, critical illness, accident and disability premiums are generally recorded as premium revenue over the term of the coverage. Certain group contracts contain experience premium refund provisions based on a pre-defined formula that reflects their claim experience. Experience premium refunds reduce revenue over the term of the coverage and are adjusted to reflect current experience. Related policy benefits and expenses are associated with earned premiums and result in the recognition of profits over the term of the policies and contracts. Fees for contracts providing claim processing or other administrative services are recorded as revenue over the period the service is provided.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

Universal life-type policies are insurance contracts with terms that are not fixed. Amounts received as payments for such contracts are not reported as premium revenues. Revenues for universal life-type insurance contracts consist of policy charges for the cost of insurance, policy initiation and administration, surrender charges and other fees that have been assessed against policy account values and investment income. Policy benefits and claims that are charged to expense include interest credited to contracts and benefit claims incurred in the period in excess of related policy account balances.

Investment contracts do not subject us to significant risks arising from policyholder mortality or morbidity and consist primarily of guaranteed investment contracts (“GICs”), funding agreements and certain deferred annuities. Amounts received as payments for investment contracts are established as investment contract liability balances and are not reported as premium revenues. Revenues for investment contracts consist of investment income and policy administration charges. Investment contract benefits that are charged to expense include benefit claims incurred in the period in excess of related investment contract liability balances and interest credited to investment contract liability balances.

Fees and other revenues are earned for asset management, investment advisory and distribution services provided to retail and institutional clients based largely upon contractual rates applied to the specified amounts in the clients’ portfolios, which include various platforms such as mutual funds, collective investment trusts and business trusts. Additionally, fees and other revenues are earned for administrative services performed including recordkeeping, trust and custody and reporting services for retirement savings plans, insurance companies, endowments and other financial institutions and other products. Fees and other revenues received for performance of asset management and administrative services are recognized as revenue when earned, typically when the service is performed.

Fees for managing customers’ mandatory retirement savings accounts in Chile are collected with each monthly deposit made by our customers. If a customer stops contributing before retirement age, we collect no fees but services are still provided. We recognize revenue from these long-term service contracts as services are performed over the life of the contract. 

Deferred Acquisition Costs

Incremental direct costs of contract acquisition as well as certain costs directly related to acquisition activities (underwriting, policy issuance and processing, medical and inspection and sales force contract selling) for the successful acquisition of new and renewal insurance policies and investment contract business are capitalized to the extent recoverable. Commissions and other incremental direct costs for the acquisition of long-term service contracts are also capitalized to the extent recoverable. Maintenance costs and acquisition costs that are not deferrable are charged to net income as incurred.

DAC for universal life-type insurance contracts and certain investment contracts are amortized over the expected lifetime of the contracts in relation to EGPs or, in certain circumstances, estimated gross revenues (“EGR”). This amortization is adjusted in the current period when EGPs or EGRs are revised. EGRs include similar assumptions as the revenue component of EGPs and the changes of future estimates and reflection of actual experience and market conditions is done in the same manner as EGPs.

For individual variable universal life insurance, individual variable annuities and group annuities that have separate account U.S. equity investment options, we utilize a mean reversion methodology (reversion to the mean assumption), a common industry practice, to determine the future domestic equity market growth rate assumption used for the calculation of EGPs.

DAC for participating life insurance policies are amortized in proportion to estimated gross margins (“EGM”) rather than EGPs. EGMs include similar assumption items as EGPs. We stopped selling participating business in the early 2000s. Some products allow for underwritten death benefit increases and cost of living adjustments, resulting in a small amount of new DAC each year, and the amortization schedules are modified as appropriate.

DAC for non-participating term life insurance and individual disability policies are amortized over the premium-paying period of the related policies using assumptions consistent with those used in computing policyholder liabilities. Once these assumptions are made for a given policy or group of policies, they will not be changed over the life of the policy unless a loss recognition event occurs.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

DAC on insurance policies and investment contracts are subject to recoverability testing at the time of policy issue and loss recognition testing on an annual basis, or when an event occurs that may warrant loss recognition. If loss recognition or impairment is necessary, DAC would be written off to the extent it is determined that future policy premiums and investment income or gross profits are not adequate to cover related losses and expenses.

DAC on short-duration group benefits policies are amortized over the estimated term of the underlying contracts.

Deferred Acquisition Costs on Internal Replacements

All insurance and investment contract modifications and replacements are reviewed to determine if the internal replacement results in a substantially changed contract. If so, the acquisition costs, sales inducements and unearned revenue associated with the new contract are deferred and amortized over the lifetime of the new contract. In addition, the existing DAC, sales inducement costs and unearned revenue balances associated with the replaced contract are written off. If an internal replacement results in a substantially unchanged contract, the acquisition costs, sales inducements and unearned revenue associated with the new contract are immediately recognized in the period incurred. In addition, the existing DAC, sales inducement costs or unearned revenue balance associated with the replaced contract is not written off, but instead is carried over to the new contract.

Long-Term Debt

Long-term debt includes notes payable, nonrecourse mortgages and other debt with a maturity date greater than one year at the date of issuance. Current maturities of long-term debt are classified as long-term debt in our consolidated statements of financial position. Long-term debt is primarily recorded at the unpaid principal balance, net of unamortized discount, premium and issuance costs.

Reinsurance

We enter into reinsurance agreements with other companies in the normal course of business in order to limit losses and minimize exposure to significant risks. We may assume reinsurance from or cede reinsurance to other companies. Assets and liabilities related to reinsurance ceded are reported on a gross basis. Premiums and expenses are reported net of reinsurance ceded. The cost of reinsurance related to long-duration contracts is accounted for over the life of the underlying reinsured policies using assumptions consistent with those used to account for the underlying policies. We are contingently liable with respect to reinsurance ceded to other companies in the event the reinsurer is unable to meet the obligations it has assumed. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had $465.5 million and $450.6 million of net ceded reinsurance recoverables related to claims that have been received, respectively. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, $457.2 million, or 98%, and $435.6 million, or 97%, were with our five largest ceded reinsurers, respectively. Our total amount recoverable from reinsurers includes net ceded reinsurance recoverables related to claims that have been received and reserves ceded to reinsurers; however, it does not reflect potentially offsetting impacts of collateral. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the total amount recoverable from reinsurers was $961.4 million and $920.8 million, respectively,  and is recognized in premiums due and other receivables.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

The effects of reinsurance on premiums and other considerations and policy and contract benefits were as follows:

For the year ended December 31, 

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

  

(in millions)

Premiums and other considerations:

Direct

$

8,428.1

$

6,928.3

$

6,699.3

Assumed

1.6

 

1.7

 

1.9

Ceded

(563.1)

 

(520.4)

 

(483.8)

Net premiums and other considerations

$

7,866.6

$

6,409.6

$

6,217.4

Benefits, claims and settlement expenses:

Direct

$

10,463.6

$

8,667.7

$

8,216.3

Assumed

23.1

 

24.9

 

27.7

Ceded

(580.9)

 

(500.1)

 

(421.4)

Net benefits, claims and settlement expenses

$

9,905.8

$

8,192.5

$

7,822.6

Separate Accounts

The separate accounts are legally segregated and are not subject to the claims that arise out of any of our other business. The client, rather than us, directs the investments and bears the investment risk of these funds. The separate account assets represent the fair value of funds that are separately administered by us for contracts with equity, real estate and fixed income investments and are presented as a summary total within the consolidated statements of financial position. An equivalent amount is reported as separate account liabilities, which represent the obligation to return the monies to the client. We receive fees for mortality, withdrawal and expense risks, as well as administrative, maintenance and investment advisory services that are included in the consolidated statements of operations. Net deposits, net investment income and realized and unrealized capital gains and losses of the separate accounts are not reflected in the consolidated statements of operations.

Separate account assets and separate account liabilities include certain international retirement accumulation products where the segregated funds and associated obligation to the client are consolidated within our financial statements. We have determined that summary totals are the most meaningful presentation for these funds.

As of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the separate accounts included a separate account valued at $100.4 million and $94.9 million, respectively, which primarily included shares of our stock that were allocated and issued to eligible participants of qualified employee benefit plans administered by us as part of the policy credits issued under our 2001 demutualization. These shares are included in both basic and diluted earnings per share calculations. In the consolidated statements of financial position, the separate account shares are recorded at fair value and are reported as separate account assets with a corresponding separate account liability. Changes in fair value of the separate account shares are reflected in both the separate account assets and separate account liabilities and do not impact our results of operations.

Income Taxes

We file a U.S. consolidated income tax return that includes all of our qualifying subsidiaries. In addition, we file income tax returns in all states and foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business. Our policy of allocating income tax expenses and benefits to companies in the group is generally based upon pro rata contribution of taxable income or operating losses. We are taxed at corporate rates on taxable income based on existing tax laws. Current income taxes are charged or credited to net income based upon amounts estimated to be payable or recoverable as a result of taxable operations for the current year. Deferred income taxes are provided for the tax effect of temporary differences in the financial reporting and income tax bases of assets and liabilities, net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards using enacted income tax rates and laws. The effect on deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in net income in the period in which the change is enacted. Subsequent to a change in tax rates and laws, any stranded tax effects remaining in AOCI will be released only if an entire portfolio is liquidated, sold or extinguished.

1. Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies (continued)

However, a specific exception to this rule was adopted effective January 1, 2018, to reclassify the stranded tax effects generated by U.S. tax reform from AOCI to retained earnings. Further details are included under the caption “Recent Accounting Pronouncements.”

Foreign Exchange

Assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries and affiliates denominated in non-U.S. dollars, where the U.S. dollar is not the functional currency, are translated into U.S. dollar equivalents at the year-end spot foreign exchange rates. Resulting translation adjustments are reported as a component of stockholders' equity, along with any related hedge and tax effects. Revenues and expenses for these entities are translated at the average exchange rates. Revenue, expense and other foreign currency transaction and translation adjustments that affect cash flows are reported in net income, along with related hedge and tax effects.

Goodwill and Other Intangibles

Goodwill and other intangible assets include the cost of acquired subsidiaries in excess of the fair value of the net tangible assets recorded in connection with acquisitions. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized. Rather, they are tested for impairment during the third quarter each year, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. Goodwill is tested at the reporting unit level, which is a business one level below the operating segment, if financial information is prepared and regularly reviewed by management at that level. Once goodwill has been assigned to a reporting unit, it is no longer associated with a particular acquisition; therefore, all of the activities within a reporting unit, whether acquired or organically grown, are available to support the goodwill value. Impairment testing for indefinite-lived intangible assets consists of a comparison of the fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying value.

Intangible assets with a finite useful life are amortized as related benefits emerge and are reviewed periodically for indicators of impairment in value. If facts and circumstances suggest possible impairment, the sum of the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset is compared to the current carrying value of the asset. If the undiscounted future cash flows are less than the carrying value, an impairment loss is recognized for the excess of the carrying amount of assets over their fair value.

Earnings Per Common Share

Basic earnings per common share is calculated by dividing net income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period and excludes the dilutive effect of equity awards. Diluted earnings per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if dilutive securities, such as options and non-vested stock grants, were exercised or resulted in the issuance of common stock.

v3.19.3.a.u2
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets  
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

2. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Goodwill

The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill reported in our segments were as follows:

    

Retirement

    

Principal

    

    

U.S.

    

    

  

and Income

Global

Principal

Insurance

Solutions

Investors

International

Solutions

Corporate

Consolidated

(in millions)

Balance as of January 1, 2018

$

57.4

$

247.3

$

707.5

$

56.6

$

$

1,068.8

Goodwill from acquisitions (1)

65.0

46.8

2.1

113.9

Goodwill disposed (2)

(12.0)

(12.0)

Foreign currency

 

 

(5.0)

 

(65.7)

 

 

 

(70.7)

Balance as of December 31, 2018

57.4

307.3

676.6

56.6

2.1

1,100.0

Goodwill from acquisitions (3)

618.5

6.5

(1.1)

623.9

Foreign currency

1.5

(31.6)

(30.1)

Other (4)

2.2

(2.2)

Balance as of December 31, 2019

$

675.9

$

317.5

$

642.8

$

56.6

$

1.0

$

1,693.8

(1)Relates to the acquisitions of: a) RobustWealth, a financial technology company, which is consolidated within our Corporate segment with the majority of the goodwill allocated to our Principal Global Investors segment; b) INTERNOS, a London-based European real estate investment manager that, upon acquisition, became Principal Real Estate Europe Limited and is consolidated within our Principal Global Investors segment; c) MetLife Afore, S.A. de C.V., which was MetLife, Inc.’s pension fund management business in Mexico and is consolidated within our Principal International segment.
(2)Relates to sales of closed blocks of business in Mexico.
(3)Relates to the acquisitions of: a) Wells Fargo Institutional Retirement & Trust business consolidated within our Retirement and Income Solutions segment; b) a consolidating interest in Finisterre Capital LLP within our Principal Global Investors segment for which we previously held an equity method interest; c) measurement period adjustments related to RobustWealth within our Principal Global Investors segment and Corporate segment.
(4)Relates to the movement of our investment management company in Brazil from the Principal International segment to the Principal Global Investors segment.

On July 1, 2019, we completed the purchase of the Institutional Retirement & Trust business of Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. (the “Acquired Business”), which includes defined contribution, defined benefit, executive deferred compensation, employee stock ownership plans, institutional trust and custody, and institutional asset advisory businesses. The purchase price consisted of $1.2 billion cash paid at closing, which was funded with available cash and debt financing. See “Note 9, Debt” for further information on the debt financing. An additional earn-out payment of up to $150.0 million may be payable based upon the retention of fee revenue of the Acquired Business through December 31, 2020.

The fair value of the net assets acquired primarily relates to intangible assets. Of the acquired intangible assets, $618.5 million was assigned to goodwill and is not subject to amortization. The goodwill is largely related to the opportunities to realize substantial revenue and cost synergies while achieving scale in operations.

Of the remaining acquired intangible assets, $510.3 million was assigned to customer relationships, which are subject to amortization over a 23-year useful life, and $35.4 million was assigned to technology, which is subject to amortization over a 6-year useful life.

2. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets (continued)

Finite Lived Intangible Assets

Amortized intangible assets primarily relate to customer relationship intangibles associated with the Acquired Business and previous acquisitions in Chile, Mexico and Hong Kong. The finite lived intangible assets that continue to be subject to amortization over a weighted average remaining expected life of 18 years were as follows:

December 31, 

    

2019

    

2018

  

(in millions)

Gross carrying value

$

1,346.3

$

810.2

Accumulated amortization

 

343.2

288.4

Net carrying value

$

1,003.1

$

521.8

The amortization expense for intangible assets with finite useful lives was $62.8 million, $53.9 million and $45.4 million for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. As of December 31, 2019, the estimated amortization expense for the next five years is as follows (in millions):

Year ending December 31:

    

  

2020

$

74.5

2021

73.2

2022

72.4

2023

70.2

2024

69.0

Indefinite Lived Intangible Assets

The net carrying amount of unamortized indefinite lived intangible assets was $783.6 million and $793.3 million as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. As of both December 31, 2019 and 2018, $608.0 million relates to investment management contracts associated with our acquisition of WM Advisors, Inc. in 2006. The remaining balance primarily relates to the trade name intangible associated with our acquisition of Administradora de Fondos de Pensiones Cuprum S.A. in 2013.

v3.19.3.a.u2
Variable Interest Entities
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Variable Interest Entities  
Variable Interest Entities

3. Variable Interest Entities

We have relationships with various types of entities which may be VIEs. Certain VIEs are consolidated in our financial results. See Note 1, Nature of Operations and Significant Accounting Policies, under the caption “Consolidation” for further details of our consolidation accounting policies. We did not provide financial or other support to investees designated as VIEs for the periods ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018.

Consolidated Variable Interest Entities

Grantor Trust

We contributed undated subordinated floating rate notes to a grantor trust. The trust separated its cash flows by issuing an interest-only certificate and a residual certificate related to each note contributed. Each interest-only certificate entitles the holder to interest on the stated note for a specified term, while the residual certificate entitles the holder to interest payments subsequent to the term of the interest-only certificate and to all principal payments. We retained the interest-only certificates and the residual certificates were subsequently sold to third parties. We determined the grantor trust is a VIE due to insufficient equity to sustain it. We determined we are the primary beneficiary as a result of our contribution of securities into the trust and our significant continuing interest in the trust.

3.  Variable Interest Entities (continued)

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities

We sold commercial mortgage loans to a real estate mortgage investment conduit trust. The trust issued various commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) certificates using the cash flows of the underlying commercial mortgage loans it purchased. This was considered a VIE due to insufficient equity to sustain itself. We determined we were the primary beneficiary as we retained the special servicing role for the assets within the trust as well as the ownership of the bond class that controls the unilateral kick-out rights of the special servicer. The trust was unwound in the third quarter of 2019.

Mandatory Retirement Savings Funds

We hold an equity interest in Chilean mandatory privatized social security funds in which we provide asset management services. We determined the mandatory privatized social security funds, which also include contributions for voluntary pension savings, voluntary non-pension savings and compensation savings accounts, are VIEs. This is because the equity holders as a group lack the power, due to voting rights or similar rights, to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance and also because equity investors are protected from below-average market investment returns relative to the industry's return, due to a regulatory guarantee that we provide. Further we concluded we are the primary beneficiary through our power to make decisions and our significant variable interest in the funds. The purpose of the funds, which reside in legally segregated entities, is to provide long-term retirement savings. The obligation to the customer is directly related to the assets held in the funds and, as such, we present the assets as separate account assets and the obligation as separate account liabilities within our consolidated statements of financial position.

Principal International Hong Kong offers retirement pension schemes in which we provide trustee, administration and asset management services to employers and employees under the Hong Kong Mandatory Provident Fund and Occupational Retirement Schemes Ordinance pension schemes. Each pension scheme has various guaranteed and non-guaranteed constituent funds, or investment options, in which customers can invest their money. The guaranteed funds provide either a guaranteed rate of return to the customer or a minimum guarantee on withdrawals under certain qualifying events. We determined the guaranteed funds are VIEs due to the fact the equity holders, as a group, lack the obligation to absorb expected losses due to the guarantee we provide. We concluded we are the primary beneficiary because we have the power to make decisions and to receive benefits and the obligation to absorb losses that could be potentially significant to the VIE. Therefore, we consolidate the underlying assets and liabilities of the funds and present as separate accounts or within the general account, depending on the terms of the guarantee.

Real Estate

We invest in several real estate limited partnerships and limited liability companies. The entities invest in real estate properties. Certain of these entities are VIEs based on the combination of our significant economic interest and related voting rights. We determined we are the primary beneficiary as a result of our power to control the entities through our significant ownership. Due to the nature of these real estate investments, the investment balance will fluctuate as we purchase and sell interests in the entities and as capital expenditures are made to improve the underlying real estate.

Sponsored Investment Funds

We sponsor and invest in certain investment funds for which we provide asset management services. Although our asset management fee is commensurate with the services provided and consistent with fees for similar services negotiated at arms-length, we have a variable interest for funds where our other interests are more than insignificant. The funds are VIEs as the equity holders lack power through voting rights to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact its economic performance. We determined we are the primary beneficiary of the VIEs where our interest in the entity is more than insignificant and we are the asset manager.

We also invest in certain series of another investment fund. These series are VIEs as the equity holders of each series lack the power to direct the most significant activities of the VIE. We determined we are the primary beneficiary of these series as our interest is more than insignificant and collectively we have the power to direct the most significant activities of the fund.

3. Variable Interest Entities (continued)

Assets and Liabilities of Consolidated Variable Interest Entities

The carrying amounts of our consolidated VIE assets, which can only be used to settle obligations of consolidated VIEs, and liabilities of consolidated VIEs for which creditors do not have recourse were as follows:

December 31, 2019

    

December 31, 2018

Total

Total

Total

Total

    

assets

    

liabilities

    

assets

    

liabilities

  

(in millions)

Grantor trust (1)

$

99.9

$

98.6

$

95.0

$

89.4

CMBS

 

 

 

6.4

 

Mandatory retirement savings funds (2)

 

39,891.1

 

39,524.9

 

37,915.7

 

37,579.3

Real estate (3)

 

479.7

 

88.0

 

379.2

 

70.6

Sponsored investment funds (4)

 

331.4

 

2.2

 

526.5

 

3.6

Total

$

40,802.1

$

39,713.7

$

38,922.8

$

37,742.9

(1)The assets of the grantor trust are primarily fixed maturities, available-for-sale. The liabilities are primarily other liabilities that reflect an embedded derivative of the forecasted transaction to deliver the underlying securities.
(2)The assets of the mandatory retirement savings funds include separate account assets and equity securities. The liabilities include separate account liabilities and contractholder funds.
(3)The assets of the real estate VIEs primarily include real estate and cash. Liabilities primarily include long-term debt and other liabilities.
(4)The assets of sponsored investment funds are primarily fixed maturities and equity securities, certain of which are reported with other investments, and cash. The consolidated statements of financial position included a $215.4 million and $325.7 million redeemable noncontrolling interest for sponsored investment funds as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.

Unconsolidated Variable Interest Entities

We hold a variable interest in a number of VIEs where we are not the primary beneficiary. Our investments in these VIEs are reported in fixed maturities, available-for-sale; fixed maturities, trading; equity securities and other investments in the consolidated statements of financial position and are described below.

Unconsolidated VIEs include certain CMBS, residential mortgage-backed pass-through securities ("RMBS") and other ABS. All of these entities were deemed VIEs because the equity within these entities is insufficient to sustain them. We determined we are not the primary beneficiary in the entities within these categories of investments. This determination was based primarily on the fact we do not own the class of security that controls the unilateral right to replace the special servicer or equivalent function.

We invest in cash collateralized debt obligations, collateralized bond obligations, collateralized loan obligations and other collateralized structures, which are VIEs due to insufficient equity to sustain the entities. We have determined we are not the primary beneficiary of these entities primarily because we do not control the economic performance of the entities and were not involved with the design of the entities or because we do not have a potentially significant variable interest in the entities for which we are the asset manager.

We have invested in various VIE trusts and similar entities as a debt holder. Most of these entities are classified as VIEs due to insufficient equity to sustain them. In addition, we have an entity classified as a VIE based on the combination of our significant economic interest and lack of voting rights. We have determined we are not the primary beneficiary primarily because we do not control the economic performance of the entities and were not involved with the design of the entities.

We have invested in partnerships and other funds, which are classified as VIEs. The entities are VIEs as equity holders lack the power to control the most significant activities of the entities because the equity holders do not have either the ability by a simple majority to exercise substantive kick-out rights or substantive participating rights. We have determined we are not the primary beneficiary because we do not have the power to direct the most significant activities of the entities.

3.  Variable Interest Entities (continued)

As previously discussed, we sponsor, invest in and have other interests in certain investment funds that are VIEs. We determined we are not the primary beneficiary of the VIEs for which we are the asset manager but do not have a potentially significant variable interest in the funds.

We hold an equity interest in Mexican mandatory privatized social security funds in which we provide asset management services. Our equity interest in the funds is considered a variable interest. We concluded the funds are VIEs because the equity holders as a group lack decision-making ability through their voting rights. We are not the primary beneficiary of the VIEs because although we, as the asset manager, have the power to direct the activities of the VIEs, we do not have a potentially significant variable interest in the funds.

The carrying value and maximum loss exposure for our unconsolidated VIEs were as follows:

Maximum exposure to

    

Asset carrying value

    

loss (1)

  

(in millions)

December 31, 2019

Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:

Corporate

$

238.2

$

225.7

Residential mortgage-backed pass-through securities

2,982.4

2,913.9

Commercial mortgage-backed securities

4,850.2

4,746.6

Collateralized debt obligations (2)

 

3,215.3

 

3,226.7

Other debt obligations

 

8,191.1

 

8,076.4

Fixed maturities, trading:

Residential mortgage-backed pass-through securities

 

282.3

 

282.3

Commercial mortgage-backed securities

 

28.2

 

28.2

Collateralized debt obligations (2)

20.9

20.9

Other debt obligations

13.2

13.2

Equity securities

123.2

123.2

Other investments:

Other limited partnership and fund interests (3)

 

911.9

 

1,467.0

December 31, 2018

Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:

Corporate

$

235.3

$

222.6

Residential mortgage-backed pass-through securities

2,460.6

2,488.5

Commercial mortgage-backed securities

3,945.6

4,023.1

Collateralized debt obligations (2)

 

2,420.8

 

2,451.3

Other debt obligations

 

7,153.2

 

7,196.6

Fixed maturities, trading:

Residential mortgage-backed pass-through securities

 

322.6

 

322.6

Commercial mortgage-backed securities

 

13.8

 

13.8

Collateralized debt obligations (2)

11.8

11.8

Other debt obligations

9.7

9.7

Equity securities

103.9

103.9

Other investments:

Other limited partnership and fund interests (3)

 

737.5

 

1,432.2

(1)Our risk of loss is limited to our initial investment measured at amortized cost for fixed maturities, available-for-sale. Our risk of loss is limited to our investment measured at fair value for our fixed maturities, trading and equity securities. Our risk of loss is limited to our carrying value plus any unfunded commitments and/or guarantees and similar provisions for our other investments. Unfunded commitments are not liabilities on our consolidated statements of financial position because we are only required to fund additional equity when called upon to do so by the general partner or investment manager.
(2)Primarily consists of collateralized loan obligations backed by secured corporate loans.
(3)As of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the maximum exposure to loss for other limited partnership and fund interests includes $129.1 million and $132.2 million, respectively, of debt within certain of our managed international real estate funds that is fully secured by assets whose value exceeds the amount of the debt, but also includes recourse to the investment manager.

3. Variable Interest Entities (continued)

Money Market Funds

We are the investment manager for certain money market mutual funds. These types of funds are exempt from assessment under any consolidation model due to a scope exception for money market funds registered under Rule 2a-7 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 or similar funds. As of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, money market mutual funds we manage held $4.0 billion and $3.0 billion in total assets, respectively. We have no contractual obligation to contribute to these funds; however, we provide support through the waiver of fees and through expense reimbursements. The amount of fees waived and expenses reimbursed was insignificant.

v3.19.3.a.u2
Investments
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Investments  
Investments

4. Investments

Fixed Maturities and Equity Securities

The amortized cost, gross unrealized gains and losses, other-than-temporary impairments in AOCI and fair value of available-for-sale securities were as follows:

Other-than-

Gross

Gross

temporary

Amortized

unrealized

unrealized

impairments in

    

cost

    

gains

    

losses

    

Fair value

    

AOCI (1)

  

(in millions)

December 31, 2019

Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:

U.S. government and agencies

$

1,627.0

$

100.2

$

3.0

$

1,724.2

$

Non-U.S. governments

 

852.3

 

144.1

 

0.2

 

996.2

 

States and political subdivisions

 

6,857.1

 

644.5

 

11.6

 

7,490.0

 

Corporate

 

36,993.1

 

3,706.5

 

52.2

 

40,647.4

 

Residential mortgage-backed pass-through securities

 

2,913.9

 

72.3

 

3.8

 

2,982.4

 

Commercial mortgage-backed securities

 

4,746.6

 

127.6

 

24.0

 

4,850.2

 

15.8

Collateralized debt obligations (2)

 

3,226.7

 

2.9

 

14.3

 

3,215.3

 

0.9

Other debt obligations

 

8,085.8

 

129.6

 

14.9

 

8,200.5

 

31.7

Total fixed maturities, available-for-sale

$

65,302.5

$

4,927.7

$

124.0

$

70,106.2

$

48.4

December 31, 2018

Fixed maturities, available-for-sale:

U.S. government and agencies

$

1,441.6

$

16.4

$

17.0

$

1,441.0

$

Non-U.S. governments

 

833.4

 

71.7

 

14.6

 

890.5

 

States and political subdivisions

 

6,125.0

 

196.0

 

95.3

 

6,225.7

 

Corporate

 

35,134.6

 

1,249.9

 

845.2

 

35,539.3

 

Residential mortgage-backed pass-through securities

 

2,488.5

 

21.9

 

49.8

 

2,460.6

 

Commercial mortgage-backed securities

 

4,023.1

 

17.1

 

94.6

 

3,945.6

 

16.3

Collateralized debt obligations (2)

 

2,451.3

 

 

30.5

 

2,420.8

 

1.2

Other debt obligations

 

7,228.3

 

39.4

 

82.7

 

7,185.0

 

36.1

Total fixed maturities, available-for-sale

$

59,725.8

$

1,612.4

$

1,229.7

$

60,108.5

$

53.6

(1)Excludes $62.3 million and $64.2 million as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively, of net unrealized gains on impaired fixed maturities, available-for-sale related to changes in fair value subsequent to the impairment date, which are included in gross unrealized gains and gross unrealized losses.
(2)Primarily consists of collateralized loan obligations backed by secured corporate loans.

4. Investments (continued)

The amortized cost and fair value of fixed maturities, available-for-sale as of December 31, 2019, by expected maturity, were as follows:

    

Amortized cost

    

Fair value

  

(in millions)

Due in one year or less

$

2,138.3

$

2,154.0

Due after one year through five years

9,955.3

10,319.2

Due after five years through ten years