(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Integer Holdings Corporation (together with its consolidated subsidiaries, “Integer” or the “Company”) is a publicly traded corporation listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “ITGR.” Integer is one of the largest medical device outsource manufacturers in the world serving the cardiac, neuromodulation, orthopedics, vascular, advanced surgical and portable medical markets. The Company provides innovative, high-quality medical technologies that enhance the lives of patients worldwide. In addition, it develops batteries for high-end niche applications in the energy, military, and environmental markets. The Company’s customers include large multi-national original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) and their affiliated subsidiaries.
On May 3, 2018, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell the Advanced Surgical and Orthopedic product lines (the “AS&O Product Line”) within its Medical segment to Viant (formerly MedPlast, LLC), and on July 2, 2018 completed the sale. On March 14, 2016, the Company completed the spin-off of a portion of its former QiG segment through a tax-free distribution of all of the shares of its former QiG Group, LLC subsidiary to the stockholders of Integer on a pro rata basis (the “Spin-off”). Refer to Note 2 “Discontinued Operations and Divestitures” for further details of these transactions.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and include the accounts of Integer Holdings Corporation and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The results of operations of the AS&O Product Line are reported as discontinued operations in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for all periods presented and the related assets and liabilities associated with the discontinued operations are classified as held for sale in the Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 29, 2017. The Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows includes cash flows related to the discontinued operations due to Integer’s (parent) centralized treasury and cash management processes, and, accordingly, cash flow amounts for discontinued operations are disclosed in Note 2 “Discontinued Operations and Divestitures.” All results and information in the consolidated financial statements are presented as continuing operations and exclude the AS&O Product Line unless otherwise noted specifically as discontinued operations.
The Company’s results for periods prior to the Spin-off on March 14, 2016 include the financial and operating results of QiG Group, LLC, which did not qualify for presentation as discontinued operations.
The Company organizes its business into two reportable segments: (1) Medical and (2) Non-Medical. The discontinued operations of the AS&O Product Line were reported in the Medical segment. Refer to Note 17 “Segment and Geographic Information,” for additional information on the Company’s reportable segments.
The Company utilizes a fifty-two or fifty-three week fiscal year ending on the Friday nearest December 31. Fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016 consisted of fifty-two weeks and ended on December 28, 2018, December 29, 2017 and December 30, 2016, respectively.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of sales and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and highly liquid, short-term investments with maturities at the time of purchase of three months or less.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist principally of accounts receivable. A significant portion of the Company’s sales and accounts receivable are to four customers, all in the medical device industry, and, as such, the Company is directly affected by the condition of those customers and that industry. However, the credit risk associated with trade receivables is partially mitigated due to the stability of those customers. The Company performs on-going credit evaluations of its customers. Note 17 “Segment and Geographic Information” contains information on sales and accounts receivable for these customers. The Company maintains cash deposits with major banks, which from time to time may exceed insured limits. The Company performs on-going credit evaluations of its banks.
(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Trade Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The Company provides credit, in the normal course of business, to its customers in the form of trade receivables. Credit is extended based on evaluation of a customer’s financial condition and collateral is not required. The Company maintains an allowance for those customer receivables that it does not expect to collect. The Company accrues its estimated losses from uncollectable accounts receivable to the allowance based upon recent historical experience, the length of time the receivable has been outstanding and other specific information as it becomes available. Provisions to the allowance for doubtful accounts are charged to current operating expenses. Actual losses are charged against this allowance when incurred.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost, determined using the first-in first-out method, or net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Write-downs for excess, obsolete or expired inventory are based primarily on how long the inventory has been held as well as estimates of forecasted net sales of that product. A significant change in the timing or level of demand for products may result in recording additional write-downs for excess, obsolete or expired inventory in the future. Note 4 “Inventories” contains additional information on the Company’s inventory.
Property, Plant and Equipment (“PP&E”)
PP&E is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, as follows: buildings and building improvements 12-30 years; machinery and equipment 3-10 years; office equipment 3-10 years; and leasehold improvements over the remaining lives of the improvements or the lease term, if less. The cost of repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred; renewals and betterments are capitalized. Upon retirement or sale of an asset, its cost and related accumulated depreciation or amortization is removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is recorded in operating income or expense. The Company also reviews its PP&E for impairment when impairment indicators exist. When impairment indicators exist, the Company determines if the carrying value of its fixed asset(s) exceeds the related undiscounted future cash flows. In cases where the carrying value of the Company's long-lived assets or asset groups (excluding goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets) exceeds the related undiscounted cash flows, the carrying value is written down to fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis. Note 5 “Property, Plant and Equipment, Net” contains additional information on the Company’s PP&E.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (i.e. the “exit price”) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, Fair Value Measurements, establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of inputs as follows:
Level 1 – Valuation is based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access. Level 1 valuations do not entail a significant degree of judgment.
Level 2 – Valuation is determined from quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical instruments in markets that are not active or by model-based techniques in which all significant inputs are observable in the market.
Level 3 – Valuation is based on unobservable inputs that are significant to the overall fair value measurement. The degree of judgment in determining fair value is greatest for Level 3 valuations.
Fair value is a market-based measure considered from the perspective of a market participant rather than an entity-specific measure. Therefore, even when market assumptions are not readily available, assumptions are required to reflect those that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Note 16 “Fair Value Measurements” contains additional information on assets and liabilities recorded at fair value in the consolidated financial statements.
(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Results of operations of acquired companies are included in the Company’s results of operations as of the respective acquisition dates. The purchase price of each acquisition is allocated to the net assets acquired based on estimates of their fair values at the date of the acquisition. Any purchase price in excess of these net assets is recorded as goodwill. All direct acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred. The allocation of purchase price in certain cases may be subject to revision based on the final determination of fair values during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date.
In determining whether a group of assets which has been disposed of (or is to be disposed of) should be presented as a discontinued operation, the Company analyzes whether the group of assets being disposed of represented a component of the entity; that is, whether it had historic operations and cash flows that were clearly distinguished (both operationally and for financial reporting purposes). In addition, the Company considers whether the disposal represents a strategic shift that has or will have a major effect on the Company’s operations and financial results.
The assets and liabilities of a discontinued operation held for sale, other than goodwill, are measured at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less cost to sell. When a portion of a goodwill reporting unit that constitutes a business is to be disposed of, the goodwill associated with that business is included in the carrying amount of the business based on the relative fair values of the business to be disposed of and the portion of the reporting unit that will be retained. The Company allocates interest to discontinued operations if the interest is directly attributable to the discontinued operations or is interest on debt that is required to be repaid as a result of the disposal transaction.
Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair value of identifiable net assets of a business acquired and is assigned to one or more reporting units. The Company tests each reporting unit’s goodwill for impairment at least annually as of the last day of the fiscal year and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more-likely-than-not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. In conducting its goodwill test, the Company first performs a qualitative assessment, which requires that it consider events or circumstances including, but not limited to, macro-economic conditions, market and industry conditions, cost factors, competitive environment, changes in strategy, changes in customers, changes in the Company’s stock price, results of the last impairment test, and the operational stability and the overall financial performance of the reporting units. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, the Company determines that it is more likely than not that the fair values of its reporting units are greater than the carrying amounts, then the quantitative goodwill impairment test is not performed.
If the qualitative assessment indicates that the quantitative analysis should be performed, the Company then evaluates goodwill for impairment by comparing the fair value of each of its reporting units to its carrying value, including the associated goodwill. To determine the fair values, the Company uses a weighted combination of the market approach based on comparable publicly traded companies and the income approach based on estimated discounted future cash flows. The cash flow assumptions consider historical and forecasted revenue, operating costs and other relevant factors.
The Company completed its annual goodwill impairment test as of December 28, 2018 and determined, after performing a qualitative review of each reporting unit, that it is more likely than not that the fair value of each of its reporting units exceeds the respective carrying amounts. Accordingly, there was no indication of impairment and the quantitative goodwill impairment test was not performed. The Company does not believe that either of its reporting units are at risk for impairment.
Other Intangible Assets
Other intangible assets consist of purchased technology and patents, customer lists and trademarks. Definite-lived intangible assets are amortized on an accelerated or straight-line basis, which approximates the projected cash flows used to determine the fair value of those definite-lived intangible assets at the time of acquisition, as follows: purchased technology and patents 5-15 years; customer lists 7-20 years and other intangible assets 1-10 years. Certain trademark assets are considered indefinite-lived intangible assets and are not amortized. The Company expenses the costs incurred to renew or extend the term of intangible assets.
The Company reviews its definite-lived intangible assets for impairment when impairment indicators exist. When impairment indicators exist, the Company determines if the carrying value of its definite-lived intangible assets exceeds the related undiscounted future cash flows. In cases where the carrying value exceeds the undiscounted future cash flows, the carrying value is written down to fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis.
(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
The Company assesses its indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment periodically to determine if any adverse conditions exist that would indicate impairment or when impairment indicators exist. The Company assesses its indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment at least annually by comparing the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset to its carrying value. The fair value is determined using the income approach.
Refer to Note 6 “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, Net” for further details of the Company’s goodwill and other intangible assets.
The Company holds long-term, strategic investments in companies to promote business and strategic objectives. These investments are included in Other Assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Equity investments are measured and recorded as follows:
Non-marketable equity securities are equity securities without readily determinable fair value are measured and recorded at fair value with changes in fair value recognized within net income. The Company has elected the practicability exception to use an alternative that measures the securities at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from qualifying observable price changes. Prior to fiscal 2018, these securities were accounted for using the cost method of accounting, measured at cost less other-than-temporary impairment.
Equity method investments are equity securities in investees the Company does not control but over which it has the ability to exercise influence. Equity method investments are measured at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus our share of equity method investee income or loss.
Realized and unrealized gains and losses resulting from changes in fair value or the sale of these equity investments is recorded through (Gain) Loss on Equity Investments, Net. The carrying value of the Company’s non-marketable equity securities is adjusted for qualifying observable price changes resulting from the issuance of similar or identical securities by the same issuer. Determining whether an observed transaction is similar to a security within the Company’s portfolio requires judgment based on the rights and preferences of the securities. Recording upward and downward adjustments to the carrying value of the Company’s equity securities as a result of observable price changes requires quantitative assessments of the fair value of these securities using various valuation methodologies and involves the use of estimates.
Non-marketable equity securities and equity method investments (collectively referred to as non-marketable equity investments) are also subject to periodic impairment reviews. The Company’s quarterly impairment analysis considers both qualitative and quantitative factors that may have a significant impact on the investee's fair value. Qualitative factors considered include the investee's financial condition and business outlook, market for technology, operational and financing cash flow activities, technology and regulatory approval progress, and other relevant events and factors affecting the investee. When indicators of impairment exist, quantitative assessments of the fair value of the Company’s non-marketable equity investments are prepared.
To determine the fair value of these investments, the Company uses all pertinent financial information available related to the investees, including financial statements, market participant valuations from recent and proposed equity offerings, and other third-party data.
Non-marketable equity securities are tested for impairment using a qualitative model similar to the model used for goodwill and long-lived assets. Upon determining that an impairment may exist, the security's fair value is calculated and compared to its carrying value and an impairment is recognized immediately if the carrying value exceeds the fair value. Prior to 2018, non-marketable equity securities were tested for impairment using the other-than-temporary impairment model.
Equity method investments are subject to periodic impairment reviews using the other-than-temporary impairment model, which considers the severity and duration of a decline in fair value below cost and the Company’s ability and intent to hold the investment for a sufficient period of time to allow for recovery.
The Company has determined that its investments are not considered variable interest entities. The Company’s exposure related to these entities is limited to its recorded investment. These investments are in start-up research and development companies whose fair value is highly subjective in nature and subject to future fluctuations, which could be significant. Refer to Note 16 “Fair Value Measurements” for additional information on the Company’s equity investments.
(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Debt Issuance Costs and Discounts
Debt issuance costs and discounts associated with the issuance of debt by the Company are deferred and amortized over the lives of the related debt. Debt issuance costs incurred in connection with the Company’s issuance of its revolving credit facility are classified within Other Assets and amortized to Interest Expense on a straight-line basis over the contractual term of the credit facility. Debt issuance costs and discounts related to the Company’s term-debt are recorded as a reduction of the carrying value of the related debt and are amortized to Interest Expense using the effective interest method over the period from the date of issuance to the put option date (if applicable) or the maturity date, whichever is earlier. The amortization of debt issuance costs and discounts are included in Debt Related Charges Included in Interest Expense in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. Upon prepayment of the related debt, the Company accelerates the recognition of a proportionate amount of the costs as refinancing or extinguishment of debt. Note 8 “Debt” contains additional information on the Company’s debt issuance costs and discounts.
The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared using the asset and liability approach to account for income taxes, which requires the recognition of deferred income taxes for the expected future tax consequences of net operating losses, credits, and temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is provided on deferred tax assets if it is determined, within each taxing jurisdiction, that it is more likely than not that the asset will not be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions using a more likely than not recognition threshold. The evaluation of uncertain tax positions is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in tax law, the measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in tax returns, the effective settlement of matters subject to audit, new audit activity and changes in facts or circumstances related to a tax position. These tax positions are evaluated on a quarterly basis. The Company recognizes interest expense related to uncertain tax positions as Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes. Penalties, if incurred, are recognized as a component of Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (“SG&A”).
The Company and its subsidiaries file a consolidated U.S. federal income tax return. State tax returns are filed on a combined or separate basis depending on the applicable laws in the jurisdictions where the tax returns are filed. The Company also files foreign tax returns on a separate company basis in the countries in which it operates.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company recognizes all derivative financial instruments in its consolidated financial statements at fair value. Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments are recorded in earnings unless hedge accounting criteria are met. The Company designated its interest rate swap (refer to Note 8 “Debt”) and foreign currency contracts (refer to Note 13 “Commitments and Contingencies”) entered into as cash flow hedges. The effective portion of the changes in fair value of these cash flow hedges is recorded each period, net of tax, in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income until the related hedged transaction occurs. Any ineffective portion of the changes in fair value of these cash flow hedges is recorded in earnings. In the event the hedged cash flow for forecasted transactions does not occur, or it becomes probable that they will not occur, the Company reclassifies the amount of any gain or loss on the related cash flow hedge to income (expense) at that time. Cash flows related to these derivative financial instruments are included in cash flows from operating activities. The cash flows from the termination of interest rate swap agreements are reported as operating activities in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
The majority of the Company’s revenues consist of sales of various medical devices and products to large, multinational OEMs and their affiliated subsidiaries. The Company considers the customer’s purchase order, which in some cases is governed by a long-term agreement, and the Company’s corresponding sales order acknowledgment as the contract with the customer. The Company has elected to adopt the practical expedient provided in ASC 340-40-25-4 and recognize the incremental costs of obtaining a contract, which are primarily sales commissions, as expense when incurred because the amortization period is less than one year.
The Company evaluates the pattern of revenue recognition as a performance obligation is satisfied and the customer has obtained control of the products. Control is defined as the ability to direct the use of and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits of the product. The customer obtains control of the products when title and risk of ownership transfers to them, which is primarily based upon shipping terms. Accordingly, the majority of the Company’s revenues are recognized at the point of shipment. In instances where title and risk of ownership do not transfer to the customer until the products have reached the customer’s location, revenue is recognized at that point in time. Revenue is recognized net of sales tax, value-added taxes and other taxes.
(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
The Company considers each shipment of an individual product included on a purchase order to be a separate performance obligation, as each shipment is separately identifiable and the customer can benefit from each individual product separately from the other products included on the purchase order. Accordingly, a contract can have one or more performance obligations to manufacture products. Standard payment terms range from 30 to 90 days and can include a discount for early payment.
The Company does not offer its customers a right of return. Rather, the Company warrants that each unit received by the customer will meet the agreed upon technical and quality specifications and requirements. Only when the delivered units do not meet these requirements can the customer return the non-compliant units as a corrective action under the warranty. The remedy offered to the customer is repair of the returned units or replacement if repair is not viable. Accordingly, the Company records a warranty reserve and any warranty activities are not considered to be a separate performance obligation.
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable and less frequently, unearned revenue. Accounts receivable are recorded when the right to consideration becomes unconditional. Unearned revenue is recorded when customers pay or are billed in advance of the Company’s satisfaction of performance obligations. Contract liabilities were $2.3 million and $2.2 million as of December 28, 2018 and December 29, 2017, respectively, and are classified as Accrued Expenses on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. During the year ended December 28, 2018, the Company recognized $1.9 million of revenue that was included in the contract liability balance as of December 29, 2017. The Company does not have any contract assets.
Generally, the transaction price of the Company’s contracts consists of a unit price for each individual product included in the contract, which can be fixed or variable based on the number of units ordered. In some instances, the transaction price also includes a rebate for meeting certain volume-based targets over a specified period of time. The transaction price of a contract is determined based on the unit price and the number of units ordered, reduced by the rebate expected to be earned on those units. Rebates are estimated based on the expected achievement of the volume-based target using the most likely amount method and updated quarterly. Any adjustments to these estimates are recognized under the cumulative catch-up method, such that impact of the adjustment is recognized in the period in which it is identified. Volume discounts and rebates and other pricing concessions earned by customers are offset against their receivable balances.
The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. As the majority of products sold to customers are manufactured to meet the specific requirements and technical specifications of that customer, the products are considered unique to that customer and the unit price stated in the contract is considered the standalone selling price.
The Company has elected to adopt the practical expedient provided in ASC 606-10-50-14 and not disclose the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to unsatisfied performance obligations and an expectation of when those amounts are expected to be recognized as revenue because the majority of contracts have an original expected duration of one year or less.
Contract modifications, which can include a change in either or both scope and price, most often occur related to contracts that are governed by a long-term arrangement. Contract modifications typically relate to the same products already governed by the long-term arrangement, and therefore, are accounted for as part of the existing contract. If a contract modification is for additional products, it is accounted for as a separate contract.
Environmental expenditures that relate to an existing condition caused by past operations and that do not provide future benefits are expensed as incurred. Liabilities are recorded when environmental assessments are made, the requirement for remedial efforts is probable and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated. Liabilities are recorded generally no later than the completion of feasibility studies. The Company has an ongoing monitoring and identification process to assess how the activities, with respect to known exposures, are progressing against the recorded liabilities, as well as to identify other potential remediation sites that are presently unknown.
(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
The Company continually evaluates alternatives to align the business with the changing needs of its customers and to lower operating costs. This includes the realignment of its existing manufacturing capacity, facility closures, or similar actions, either in the normal course of business or pursuant to significant restructuring programs. These actions may result in employees receiving voluntary or involuntary employee termination benefits, which may be pursuant to contractual agreements. Voluntary termination benefits are accrued when an employee accepts the related offer. Involuntary termination benefits are accrued upon the commitment to a termination plan and the benefit arrangement is communicated to affected employees, or when liabilities are determined to be probable and estimable, depending on the existence of a substantive plan for severance or termination. All other exit costs are expensed as incurred. Refer to Note 11 “Other Operating Expenses” for additional information.
The Company allows customers to return defective or damaged products for credit, replacement, or repair. The Company warrants that its products will meet customer specifications and will be free from defects in materials and workmanship. The Company accrues its estimated exposure to warranty claims, through Cost of Sales, based upon recent historical experience and other specific information as it becomes available. Note 13 “Commitments and Contingencies” contains additional information on the Company’s product warranties.
Research, Development and Engineering Costs (“RD&E”)
RD&E costs are expensed as incurred. The primary costs are salary and benefits for personnel, material costs used in development projects and subcontracting costs.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for its related compensation plans, which include stock options, restricted stock awards (“RSAs”), restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSUs”). For the Company's PRSUs, in addition to service conditions, the ultimate number of shares to be earned depends on the achievement of targets based on market-based conditions, such as total shareholder return, or financial metrics based on the Company’s operating results. The Company recognizes forfeitures of equity awards as incurred.
The fair value of the stock-based compensation is determined at the grant date. The Company uses the Black-Scholes standard option pricing model (“Black-Scholes model”) to determine the fair value of stock options. The fair value of each RSU and RSA is determined based on the Company's closing stock price on the date of grant. The fair value of each PRSU is determined based on either the Company's closing stock price on the date of grant or through a Monte Carlo simulation valuation model (“Monte Carlo model”) for those awards that include a market-based condition. In addition to the closing stock price on the date of grant, the determination of the fair value of awards using both the Black-Scholes and Monte Carlo models is affected by other assumptions, including the following:
Expected Term - The Company analyzes historical employee exercise and termination data to estimate the expected term assumption for stock options. For market-based awards, the term is commensurate with the performance period remaining as of the grant date.
Risk-free Interest Rate - A risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury rates in effect on the grant date for a maturity equal to or approximating the expected term of the award.
Expected Volatility - For stock options, expected volatility is calculated using historical volatility based on the daily closing prices of the Company's common stock over a period equal to the expected term. For market-based awards, a combination of historical and implied volatilities for the Company and members of its peer group are used in developing the expected volatility assumption.
Dividend Yield - The dividend yield assumption is based on the Company’s history and the expected annual dividend yield on the grant date.
The Company recognizes compensation expense based on the fair value of the award on the date of grant. For stock options, RSAs and RSUs, compensation expense is recognized over the respective service period using the straight-line amortization method. Compensation expense for PRSUs with financial metrics is reassessed each reporting period and recognized based upon the probability that the performance targets will be achieved. Compensation expense for market-based awards is not adjusted based on actual achievement of the performance goals. Based on the vesting terms of the grant, compensation expense for PRSUs is amortized over the service period using either a graded vesting method or the straight-line amortization method. The actual expense recognized over the vesting period will only be for those awards that ultimately vest, excluding market-based award considerations.
(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
All stock option awards granted under the Company’s compensation plans have an exercise price equal to the closing stock price on the date of grant, a ten-year contractual life and generally, vest annually over a three-year vesting term. RSUs typically vest in equal annual installments over a three or four year period. Stock options and RSAs issued to members of the Company’s Board of Directors as a portion of their annual retainer vest quarterly over a one-year vesting term. Earned PRSUs typically vest two or three years from the date of grant.
The Company records deferred tax assets for awards that result in deductions on the Company's income tax returns, based on the amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized and the statutory tax rate in the jurisdiction in which it will receive a deduction. Differences between the deferred tax assets recognized for financial reporting purposes and the actual tax deduction reported on the income tax return are recorded as a component of income tax expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Note 10 “Stock-Based Compensation” contains additional information on the Company’s stock-based compensation.
Foreign Currency Translation and Remeasurement
The Company translates all assets and liabilities of its foreign subsidiaries, where the U.S. dollar is not the functional currency, at the period-end exchange rate and translates income and expenses at the average exchange rates in effect during the period. The net effect of this translation is recorded in the consolidated financial statements as Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. Translation adjustments are not adjusted for income taxes as they relate to permanent investments in the Company’s foreign subsidiaries.
The Company has foreign operations in Ireland, Switzerland, Mexico, Uruguay, and Malaysia, which expose the Company to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations due to transactions denominated in Euros, Swiss francs, Mexican pesos, Uruguayan pesos, and Malaysian ringgits. To the extent that monetary assets and liabilities, including short-term and long-term intercompany loans, are recorded in a currency other than the functional currency of the subsidiary, these amounts are remeasured each period at the period-end exchange rate, with the resulting gain or loss being recorded in Other (Income) Loss, Net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Net foreign currency transaction gains (losses) included in Other (Income) Loss, Net amounted to $(1.6) million, $(10.9) million and $4.3 million for 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and primarily related to the remeasurement of intercompany loans and the fluctuation of the U.S. dollar relative to the Euro.
Defined Benefit Plans
The Company recognizes in its balance sheet as an asset or liability the overfunded or underfunded status of its defined benefit plans provided to its employees located in Mexico and Switzerland. This asset or liability is measured as the difference between the fair value of plan assets, if any, and the benefit obligation of those plans. For these plans, the benefit obligation is the projected benefit obligation, which is calculated based on actuarial computations of current and future benefits for employees. Actuarial gains or losses and prior service costs or credits that arise during the period, but are not included as components of net periodic benefit expense, are recognized as a component of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. The Company records the service cost component of net benefit costs in Cost of Sales and Selling, General and Administrative expenses. The interest cost component of net benefit costs is recorded in Interest Expense and the remaining components of net benefit costs, amortization of net losses and expected return on plan assets, are recorded in Other (Income) Loss, Net. Note 9 “Benefit Plans” contains additional information on these costs.
Earnings (Loss) Per Share (“EPS”)
Basic EPS is calculated by dividing Net Income (Loss) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is calculated by adjusting the weighted average number of shares outstanding for potential common shares if dilutive to the EPS calculation and consist of stock options, unvested RSAs and RSUs and, if applicable, contingently convertible instruments such as convertible debt. Note 14 “Earnings (Loss) Per Share” contains additional information on the computation of the Company’s EPS.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The Company’s comprehensive income (loss) as reported in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) includes net income (loss), foreign currency translation adjustments, the net change in cash flow hedges, and defined benefit plan liability adjustments. The Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) and Note 15 “Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income” contains additional information on the computation of the Company’s comprehensive income (loss).
(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In the normal course of business, management evaluates all new accounting pronouncements issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), or other authoritative accounting bodies to determine the potential impact they may have on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements. Based upon this review, except as noted below, management does not expect any of the recently issued accounting pronouncements, which have not already been adopted, to have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
On May 28, 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” requiring an entity to recognize revenue in a way that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The new guidance provided alternative methods of adoption. Subsequent guidance issued after May 2014 did not change the core principle of ASU 2014-09.
The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of fiscal 2018, using the modified retrospective transition method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of December 30, 2017. Prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reflected in accordance with the Company’s historical accounting. The adoption of this ASU did not have an impact on the consolidated financial statements and therefore no cumulative adjustment was recorded to equity. The Company has updated its internal controls for changes and expanded disclosures have been made in the Notes to the Financial Statements as a result of adopting the standard. Refer to Note 17, “Segment and Geographic Information for additional revenue disclosures.
ASU 2016-01, “Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10) - Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities,” became effective prospectively for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. This ASU requires entities to carry all investments in equity securities, including other ownership interests such as partnerships, unincorporated joint ventures, and limited liability companies, at fair value with changes in fair value recognized within net income. This ASU does not apply to equity method investments, investments that result in consolidation of the investee or investments in certain investment companies. For investments in equity securities without a readily determinable fair value, an entity is permitted to elect a practicability exception, under which the investment will be measured at cost, less impairment, plus or minus observable price changes from orderly transactions of an identical or similar investment of the same issuer.
Additionally, this ASU eliminated the requirement to assess whether an impairment of an equity investment is other than temporary. The impairment model for equity investments subject to this election is now a single-step model whereby an entity performs a qualitative assessment to identify impairment. If the qualitative assessment indicates that an impairment exists, the entity would estimate the fair value of the investment and recognize in net income an impairment loss equal to the difference between the fair value and the carrying amount of the equity investment.
The Company’s non-marketable equity securities formerly classified as cost method investments are measured and recorded using the measurement alternative. The Company has elected the practicability exception whereby these investments are measured at cost, less impairment, plus or minus observable price changes from orderly transactions of identical or similar investments of the same issuer. Refer to Note 16 “Fair Value Measurements” for additional information on the Company’s equity investments.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, “Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income,” which allows for the reclassification of certain income tax effects related to the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Reform Act”) between accumulated other comprehensive income and retained earnings, thereby eliminating the stranded tax effects that were created as a result of the reduction of the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate. The effective date of this ASU for the Company is the first quarter of fiscal 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company elected to early adopt this ASU during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018 and reclassified the related tax effects from the change in the federal corporate tax from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings. The reclassification was adopted on a prospective basis and is reflected in the Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity.
(1.) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Effective
On February 24, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases,” requiring lessees to recognize in the statement of financial position a lease liability, which represents the obligation to make future payments, and a right-of-use asset, which represents the Company’s right to use the underlying asset for the lease term, for all leases except short-term leases. The classification of a lease as financing or operating will affect the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the statement of operations.
The new standard offers several optional practical expedients in transition. The Company plans to elect the “Package of Three,” which allows the Company to not reassess its prior conclusions regarding lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs, and the practical expedient for short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. Additionally, in July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, “Leases -Targeted Improvements,” which provides an alternative transition method that allows entities to initially apply the new guidance at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The Company intends to adopt the new standard using this transition method.
This new guidance is effective for public companies in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. This guidance was effective for the Company on December 29, 2018, the first day of fiscal 2019.
The Company has substantially completed its evaluation of the new accounting standard and its impact on the Company’s lease portfolio. The Company believes the largest impact will be the recognition of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets, as the Company’s lease portfolio primarily consists of operating leases for facilities and equipment, which are not recognized on the consolidated balance sheets under current accounting standards. The Company expects to recognize right-of-use assets and corresponding lease liabilities of approximately $40 million to $50 million at the date of adoption. The results of operations are not expected to change significantly as a result of adopting the new standard. During the first quarter of fiscal 2019, the Company will finalize its accounting assessment and quantification of the impact of adoption on the Company’s financial statements and corresponding disclosures.
As the Company completes its evaluation, new information may arise that could change the Company’s current understanding of the impact of the new standard on its lease portfolio. The Company will continue to monitor industry activities and any additional guidance provided by regulators, standards setters, or the accounting profession, and adjust the Company’s assessment and adoption plans accordingly.