Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Logitech and its subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. The consolidated financial statements are presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2016, the Company completed the disposition of the Lifesize video conferencing business. As a result, the Company has classified the historical results of Lifesize video conferencing business as discontinued operations in its consolidated statements of operations. See "Note 4 - Discontinued Operations" for more information.
Unless indicated otherwise, the information in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements relates to the Company's continuing operations and does not include results of Lifesize video conferencing business, which is classified as discontinued operations.
The Company's fiscal year ends on March 31. Interim quarters are generally thirteen-week periods, each ending on a Friday of each quarter. For purposes of presentation, the Company has indicated its quarterly periods end on the last day of the calendar quarter.
Certain amounts from the comparative periods in the accompanying consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the consolidated financial statement presentation as of and for the year ended March 31, 2018.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions believed to be reasonable. Significant estimates and assumptions made by management involve the fair value of goodwill, intangible assets acquired from business acquisitions, warranty liabilities, accruals for customer programs and related breakage when appropriate, sales return reserves, allowance for doubtful accounts, inventory valuation, contingent consideration from business acquisitions and periodical reassessment of its fair value, share-based compensation expense, uncertain tax positions, and valuation allowances for deferred tax assets. Although these estimates are based on management’s best knowledge of current events and actions that may impact the Company in the future, actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
The functional currency of the Company's operations is primarily the U.S. Dollar. Certain operations use the Euro, Chinese Renminbi, Swiss Franc, or other local currencies as their functional currencies. The financial statements of the Company's subsidiaries whose functional currency is other than the U.S. Dollar are translated to U.S. Dollars using period-end rates of exchange for assets and liabilities and monthly average rates for net sales, income and expenses. Cumulative translation gains and losses are included as a component of shareholders' equity in accumulated other comprehensive loss. Gains and losses arising from transactions denominated in currencies other than a subsidiary's functional currency are reported in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.
Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria are met:
Evidence of an arrangement exists;
Delivery has occurred and title and risk of loss has transferred to a customer;
Price of a product is fixed or determinable; and
Collectability is reasonably assured.
For sales of most hardware peripherals products and hardware bundled with software essential to its functionality, these criteria are met at the time delivery has occurred and title and risk of loss have transferred to the customer.
Revenues from sales to distributors and authorized resellers are recognized upon shipment net of estimated product returns and expected payments for cooperative marketing arrangements, customer incentive and pricing programs. The estimated cost of these programs is recorded as a reduction of sales or as an operating expense if the Company receives a separately identifiable benefit from the customer and can reasonably estimate the fair value of that benefit. Significant management judgments and estimates are used to determine the cost of these programs in any accounting period. Certain customer programs require management to estimate the percentage of those programs which will not be claimed or will not be earned by customers based on historical experience and on the specific terms and conditions of particular programs. The percentage of these customer programs that will not be claimed or earned is commonly referred to as "breakage".
The Company enters into cooperative marketing arrangements with many of its customers, and with certain indirect partners, allowing customers to receive a credit equal to a set percentage of their purchases of the Company's products, or a fixed dollar credit for various marketing and incentive programs. The objective of these arrangements is to encourage advertising and promotional events to increase sales of the Company's products. Accruals for these marketing arrangements are recorded at the later of the date the revenue is recognized or the date the incentive is offered, based on negotiated terms, historical experience and inventory levels in the channel.
Customer incentive programs include consumer rebate and performance-based incentives. The Company offers performance-based incentives to its customers and indirect partners based on pre-determined performance criteria. Accruals for performance-based incentives are recognized as a reduction of the sale price at the time of sale. Estimates of required accruals are determined based on negotiated terms, consideration of historical experience, anticipated volume of future purchases, and inventory levels in the channel. Consumer rebates are offered from time to time at the Company's discretion for the primary benefit of end-users. Accruals for the estimated costs of consumer rebates and similar incentives are recorded at the later of the date the revenue is recognized or when the incentive is offered, based on the specific terms and conditions.
The Company has agreements with certain of its customers that contain terms allowing price protection credits to be issued in the event of a subsequent price reduction. At management's discretion, the Company also offers special pricing discounts to certain customers. Special pricing discounts are usually offered only for limited time periods or for sales of selected products to specific indirect partners. Management's decision to make price reductions is influenced by product life cycle stage, market acceptance of products, the competitive environment, new product introductions and other factors. Accruals for estimated expected future pricing actions are recognized at the time of sale based on analyses of historical pricing actions by customer and by product, inventories owned by and located at distributors and retailers, current customer demand, current operating conditions, and other relevant customer and product information, such as stage of product life-cycle.
The Company grants limited rights to return products. Return rights vary by customer and range from the right to return defective products to the stock rotation rights limited to a percentage of sales approved by management. Estimates of expected future product returns are recognized at the time of sale based on analyses of historical return trends by customer and by product, inventories owned by and located at customers, current customer demand, current operating conditions, and other relevant customer and product information. Upon recognition, the Company reduces sales and cost of goods sold for the estimated return. Return trends are influenced by product life cycle status, new product introductions, market acceptance of products, sales levels, product sell-through, the type of customer, seasonality, product quality issues, competitive pressures, operational policies and procedures, and other factors.
Return rates can fluctuate over time but are sufficiently predictable to allow the Company to estimate expected future product returns.
The Company applies a breakage rate to reduce its accruals of customer incentive, cooperative marketing, and pricing programs based on the estimated percentage of these customer programs that will not be claimed or earned. The breakage rate is applied when the Company is able to reasonably estimate the amounts that will be ultimately claimed by customers. Significant management judgments and estimates are used to determine the breakage of the programs in any accounting period. The Company recognized an increase in net sales of $14.4 million during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year 2017, primarily as a result of change in the estimate of breakage. Significant management judgments and estimates are used to determine the breakage of the programs in any accounting period.
The Company regularly evaluates the adequacy of its estimates for cooperative marketing arrangements, customer incentive programs and pricing programs, and product returns. Future market conditions and product transitions may require the Company to take action to change such programs. When the variables used to estimate these costs change, or if actual costs differ significantly from the estimates, the Company would be required to record incremental increases or reductions to sales, cost of goods sold or operating expenses. If, at any future time, the Company becomes unable to reasonably estimate these costs, recognition of revenue might be deferred until products are sold to users, which would adversely impact sales in the period of transition.
Shipping and Handling Costs
The Company's shipping and handling costs are included in cost of goods sold in the consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented.
Research and Development Costs
Costs related to research, design and development of products, which consist primarily of personnel, product design and infrastructure expenses, are charged to research and development expense as they are incurred.
Advertising costs are recorded as either a marketing and selling expense or a deduction from revenue. Advertising costs paid or reimbursed by the Company to direct or indirect customers must have an identifiable benefit and an estimable fair value in order to be classified as an operating expense. If these criteria are not met, the payment is classified as a reduction of revenue. Advertising costs recorded as marketing and selling expense are expensed as incurred. Total advertising costs including those characterized as revenue deductions during fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016 were $233.7 million, $208.7 million and $181.7 million, respectively, out of which $36.7 million, $32.2 million and $23.6 million, respectively, were included as operating expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company classifies all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates their fair value.
All of the Company's bank time deposits have an original maturity of three months or less and are classified as cash equivalents and are recorded at cost, which approximates their fair value.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalents with various financial institutions to limit exposure with any one financial institution, but is exposed to credit risk in the event of default by financial institutions to the extent that cash balances with individual financial institutions are in excess of amounts that are insured.
The Company sells to large distributors and retailers and, as a result, maintains individually significant receivable balances with such customers. In fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, sales to one customer group represented 15%, 15% and 14%, respectively, of the Company's sales. In fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016, sales to another customer group represented 13%, 12% and 10%, respectively, of the Company's sales. No other sales to a single customer represented more than 10% of the Company's sales during fiscal years 2018, 2017 or 2016. As of March 31, 2018, three customer groups each represented 15%, 12% and 11% of total accounts receivable, respectively. As of March 31, 2017, two customer groups each represented 18% and 12% of total accounts receivable, respectively. Typical payment terms require customers to pay for product sales generally within 30 to 60 days; however, terms may vary by customer type, by country and by selling season. Extended payment terms are sometimes offered to a limited number of customers during the second and third fiscal quarters. The Company does not modify payment terms on existing receivables.
The Company manages its accounts receivable credit risk through ongoing credit evaluation of its customers' financial conditions. The Company generally does not require collateral from its customers.
Allowances for Doubtful Accounts
Allowances for doubtful accounts are maintained for estimated losses resulting from the Company's customers' inability to make required payments. The allowances are based on the Company's regular assessment of the credit-worthiness and financial condition of specific customers, as well as its historical experience with bad debts and customer deductions, receivables aging, current economic trends, geographic or country-specific risks and the financial condition of its distribution channels.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Costs are computed under the standard cost method, which approximates actual costs determined on the first-in, first-out basis. The Company records write-downs of inventories which are obsolete or in excess of anticipated demand or net realizable value based on a consideration of marketability and product life cycle stage, product development plans, component cost trends, historical net sales and demand forecasts which consider the assumptions about future demand and market conditions. Inventory on hand which is not expected to be sold or utilized is considered excess, and the Company recognizes the write-down in cost of goods sold at the time of such determination. The write-down is determined by the excess of cost over net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal and transportation. At the time of loss recognition, new cost basis per unit and lower-cost basis for that inventory are established and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances would not result in an increase in the cost basis.
As of March 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company also recorded a liability of $12.6 million and $7.2 million, respectively, arising from firm, non-cancelable, and unhedged inventory purchase commitments in excess of anticipated demand or net realizable value consistent with its valuation of excess and obsolete inventory. Such liability is included in accrued and other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Additions and improvements are capitalized, and maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. The Company capitalizes the cost of software developed for internal use in connection with major projects. Costs incurred during the feasibility stage are expensed, whereas direct costs incurred during the application development stage are capitalized.
Depreciation expense is recognized using the straight-line method. Plant and buildings are depreciated over estimated useful lives of twenty-five years, equipment over useful lives from three to five years, internal-use software over useful lives from three to seven years, tooling over useful lives from six months to one year, and leasehold improvements over the lesser of the useful life of the improvement or the term of the lease.
When property and equipment is retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are relieved from the accounts and the net gain or loss is included in operating expenses.
The Company's intangible assets principally include goodwill, acquired technology, trademarks, and customer relationships and contracts. Intangible assets with finite lives, which include acquired technology, trademarks, customer relationships and contracts, and others are carried at cost and amortized using the straight-line method over their useful lives ranging from four to eight years. Intangible assets with indefinite lives, which include only goodwill, are recorded at cost and evaluated at least annually for impairment.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, and finite-lived intangible assets, for impairment whenever events indicate that the carrying amounts might not be recoverable. Recoverability of property and equipment, and other finite-lived intangible asset is measured by comparing the projected undiscounted net cash flows associated with those assets to their carrying values. If an asset is considered impaired, it is written down to its fair value, which is determined based on the asset's projected discounted cash flows or appraised value, depending on the nature of the asset. For purposes of recognition of impairment for assets held for use, the Company groups assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which cash flows are separately identifiable.
Impairment of Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired in each business combination. The Company conducts a goodwill impairment analysis annually at December 31 or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist or if a decision is made to sell or exit a business. A significant amount of judgments are involved in determining if an indicator of impairment has occurred. Such indicators may include deterioration in general economic conditions, negative developments in equity and credit markets, adverse changes in the markets in which an entity operates, increases in input costs that have a negative effect on earnings and cash flows, or a trend of negative or declining cash flows over multiple periods, among others. The fair value that could be realized in an actual transaction may differ from that used to evaluate the impairment of goodwill.
In reviewing goodwill for impairment, an entity has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not (greater than 50%) that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If an entity elects to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that an impairment is more likely than not, the entity is then required to perform the quantitative impairment test, otherwise no further analysis is required. An entity also may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the quantitative impairment test. The ultimate outcome of the goodwill impairment review for a reporting unit should be the same whether an entity chooses to perform the qualitative assessment or proceeds directly to the quantitative impairment test.
The Company provides for income taxes using the asset and liability method, which requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and financial reporting purposes, and for operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. In estimating future tax consequences, expected future events are taken into consideration, with the exception of potential tax law or tax rate changes. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to amounts management believes are more likely than not to be realized.
The Company's assessment of uncertain tax positions requires that management makes estimates and judgments about the application of tax law, the expected resolution of uncertain tax positions and other matters. In the event that uncertain tax positions are resolved for amounts different than the Company's estimates, or the related statutes of limitations expire without the assessment of additional income taxes, the Company will be required to adjust the amounts of the related assets and liabilities in the period in which such events occur. Such adjustments may have a material impact on the Company's income tax provision and its results of operations.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying value of certain of the Company's financial instruments, including cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximates their fair value due to their short maturities.
The Company's investment securities portfolio consists of bank time deposits with an original maturity of three months or less and marketable securities (money market and mutual funds) related to a deferred compensation plan.
The Company's trading investments related to the deferred compensation plan are reported at fair value based on quoted market prices. The marketable securities related to the deferred compensation plan are classified as non-current trading investments, as they are intended to fund the deferred compensation plan long-term liability. Since participants in the deferred compensation plan may select the mutual funds in which their compensation deferrals are invested within the confines of the Rabbi Trust which holds the marketable securities, the Company has designated these marketable securities as trading investments, although there is no intent to actively buy and sell securities within the objective of generating profits on short-term differences in market prices. These securities are recorded at fair value based on quoted market prices. Earnings, gains and losses on trading investments are included in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company also holds non-marketable investments in equity and other securities that are accounted for as either cost or equity method investments, which are classified as other assets. The Company reviews the fair value of its non-marketable investments on a regular basis to determine whether the investments in these companies are other-than-temporarily impaired. The Company considers investee financial performance and other information received from the investee companies, as well as any other available estimates of the fair value of the investee companies in its review. If the Company determines that the carrying value of an investment exceeds its fair value, and that difference is other than temporary, the Company writes down the value of the investment to its fair value. The carrying value of cost investments is not adjusted if there are no identified adverse events or changes in circumstances that may have a material effect on the fair value of the investments.
Net Income (Loss) per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average outstanding shares. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed using the weighted average outstanding shares and dilutive share equivalents. Dilutive share equivalents consist of share-based awards, including stock options, purchase rights under employee share purchase plan, and restricted stock units (RSUs).
The dilutive effect of in-the-money share-based compensation awards is calculated based on the average share price for each fiscal period using the treasury stock method.
Share-Based Compensation Expense
Share-based compensation expense includes compensation expense, reduced for estimated forfeitures, for share-based awards granted based on the grant date fair value. The grant date fair value for stock options and stock purchase rights is estimated using the Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing valuation model. The grant date fair value of RSUs which vest upon meeting certain market conditions is estimated using the Monte-Carlo simulation method. The grant date fair value of time-based and performance-based RSUs is calculated based on the market price on the date of grant, reduced by estimated dividends yield prior to vesting. With respect to awards with service conditions only, compensation expense is recognized ratably over the vesting period of the awards. For performance-based RSUs, the Company recognizes the estimated expense using a graded-vesting method over requisite service periods of one to three years when the performance condition is determined to be probable. The performance period and the service period of the market-based grants of the Company granted are both approximately three years and the estimated expense is recognized ratably over the service period.
Effective April 1, 2017, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-09 and accounts for forfeitures as they occur. Refer to "Recent Accounting Pronouncements Adopted" below for details of the impact from the change in accounting.
Product Warranty Accrual
The Company estimates cost of product warranties at the time the related revenue is recognized based on historical warranty claim rates, historical costs, and knowledge of specific product failures that are outside of the Company's typical experience. The Company accrues a warranty liability for estimated costs to provide products, parts or services to repair or replace products in satisfaction of the warranty obligation. Each quarter, the Company reevaluates estimates to assess the adequacy of recorded warranty liabilities considering the size of the installed base of products subject to warranty protection and adjusts the amounts as necessary. When the Company experiences changes in warranty claim activity or costs associated with fulfilling those claims, the warranty liability is adjusted accordingly. If actual product failure rates or repair costs differ from estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liabilities would be required and could materially affect the Company's results of operations.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the total change in shareholders' equity during the period other than from transactions with shareholders. Comprehensive income (loss) consists of net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss). Other comprehensive income (loss) is comprised of currency translation adjustments from those entities not using the U.S. Dollar as their functional currency, unrealized gains and losses on marketable equity securities, net deferred gains and losses and prior service costs and credits for defined benefit pension plans, and net deferred gains and losses on hedging activity.
The Company periodically repurchases shares in the market at fair value. Shares repurchased are recorded at cost as a reduction of total shareholders' equity. Treasury shares held may be reissued to satisfy the exercise of employee stock options and purchase rights and the vesting of restricted stock units, or may be canceled with shareholder approval. Treasury shares that are reissued are accounted for using the first-in, first-out basis.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company enters into foreign exchange forward contracts to reduce the short-term effects of currency fluctuations on certain foreign currency receivables or payables and to hedge against exposure to changes in currency exchange rates related to its subsidiaries' forecasted inventory purchases. These forward contracts generally mature within four months.
Gains and losses for changes in the fair value of the effective portion of the Company's forward contracts related to forecasted inventory purchases are deferred as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until the hedged inventory purchases are sold, at which time the gains or losses are reclassified to cost of goods sold. Gains or losses from changes in the fair value of forward contracts that offset translation losses or gains on foreign currency receivables or payables are recognized immediately and included in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company's restructuring charges consist of employee severance, one-time termination benefits and ongoing benefits related to the reduction of its workforce, lease exit costs, and other costs. Liabilities for costs associated with a restructuring activity are measured at fair value and are recognized when the liability is incurred, as opposed to when management commits to a restructuring plan. One-time termination benefits are expensed at the date the entity notifies the employee, unless the employee must provide future service, in which case the benefits are expensed ratably over the future service period. Ongoing benefits are expensed when restructuring activities are probable and the benefit amounts are estimable. Costs to terminate a lease before the end of its term are recognized when the property is vacated. Other costs primarily consist of legal, consulting, and other costs related to employee terminations are expensed when incurred. Termination benefits are calculated based on regional benefit practices and local statutory requirements.
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. Reportable segments are operating segments that meet certain quantitative thresholds. As a result of the divestiture of the Lifesize video conferencing business on December 28, 2015, the composition of the Company's previously reported segments changed, such that the remaining peripheral segment is the only segment reported in continuing operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Adopted
In July 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2015-11, "Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (Topic 330)" (ASU 2015-11). Topic 330 previously required an entity to measure inventory at the lower of cost or market, with market value represented by replacement cost, net realizable value or net realizable value less a normal profit margin. ASU 2015-11 requires an entity to measure inventory at the lower of cost and net realizable value and is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company adopted this standard effective April 1, 2017, which has not had a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718)": Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting" (ASU 2016-09). ASU 2016-09 simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payments, including immediate recognition of all excess tax benefits and deficiencies in the income statement, changing the threshold to qualify for equity classification up to the employees' maximum statutory tax rates, allowing an entity-wide accounting policy election to either estimate the number of awards that are expected to vest or account for forfeitures as they occur, and clarifying the classification on the statement of cash flows for the excess tax benefits and employee taxes paid when an employer withholds shares for tax withholding purposes. ASU 2016-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company adopted this standard effective April 1, 2017. Changes to the statements of cash flows related to the classification of excess tax benefits were implemented on a retroactive basis and accordingly, to conform to the current year presentation, the Company reclassified $9.7 million and $2.1 million of excess tax benefits previously reported under financing activities to operating activities for the year ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, on its consolidated statements of cash flows. Under the new standard, the Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. The change in accounting for forfeitures resulted in a cumulative-effect adjustment to decrease retained earnings as of March 31, 2017 by $3.3 million. The Company further recognized a cumulative-effect adjustment to increase retained earnings as of March 31, 2017 by $57.2 million upon adoption of the new guidance to account for gross excess tax benefits of $75.2 million that were previously not recognized because the related tax deduction had not reduced current income taxes, offset by a valuation allowance of $18.0 million to reduce the deferred tax assets to amounts that are more likely than not to be realized.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, "Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (Topic 350)" (ASU 2017-04), which removes Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. ASU 2017-04 is effective for annual or any interim goodwill impairments in annual periods beginning December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this standard effective April 1, 2017, which has not had a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting" (ASU 2017-09), which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. ASU 2017-09 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted, including adoption in any interim period for which financial statements have not yet been issued. The Company adopted this standard effective April 1, 2017, which has not had a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements To Be Adopted
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)" (ASU 2014-09) which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements under ASC 605, Revenue Recognition. Topic 606 outlines a new, single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. Under the new model, recognition of revenue occurs when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The new standard requires reporting companies to disclose the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The new standard will become effective for the Company on April 1, 2018 (the adoption date). The Company will adopt Topic 606 utilizing the modified retrospective transition method, which recognizes the cumulative effect of initially applying Topic 606 as an adjustment to retained earnings at the adoption date. The Company has identified major revenue streams, performed an analysis of its contracts to evaluate the impact of Topic 606, and drafted its accounting policies, and is substantially complete with its evaluation of the impact this new standard will have on its accruals for customer programs. The Company does not expect the adoption to have a material impact to the nature and timing of its revenues, results of operations or retained earnings at the date of adoption. The Company has determined that certain allowance balances for customer incentive, cooperative marketing and pricing programs and customer return rights currently presented net within accounts receivable may need to be presented within current liabilities upon adoption.
Under ASC 605, accruals for certain cooperative marketing arrangements, customer incentive programs and pricing programs are recognized as a reduction of revenue at the later of when the related revenue is recognized or when the program is offered to the customer. Under Topic 606, these programs qualify as variable considerations and are recorded as a reduction of the transaction price at the contract inception based on the expected value method. Certain of these programs will require the Company to record an estimate of yet to be committed future sales incentives with respect to revenue already recognized upon adoption.
Under Topic 606, variable consideration must be estimated at the outset of the arrangement, subject to the constraint guidance to ensure that a significant revenue reversal will not occur. As a result, upon adoption of Topic 606, breakage will be recognized sooner as compared to the existing revenue guidance.
The Company will continue to monitor additional changes, modifications, clarifications or interpretations of Topic 606, which may impact current expectations. It is possible that during the first quarter of fiscal year 2019, the Company could identify items that result in additional changes to its consolidated financial statements other than what is described above.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01 “Financial Instruments- Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (Subtopic 825-10)” (ASU 2016-01), which amends certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments, including the requirement to measure certain equity investments at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-01 will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and has adopted this guidance effective April 1, 2018.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02 "Leases (Topic 842)" (ASU 2016-02), which requires the recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities arising from operating leases in the statement of financial position. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company expects the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have a material impact on its consolidated balance sheets, but is still in the process of evaluating the full impact, and will adopt the standard effective April 1, 2019.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16 "Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory" (ASU 2016-16), which eliminates the deferral of income tax effects of intra-entity asset transfers until the transferred asset is sold to an unrelated party or recovered through use. ASU 2016-16, however, does not apply to intra-entity transfer of inventory. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim reporting periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted but only in the first interim period of a fiscal year. The cumulative effect of change on equity upon adoption is to be quantified under the modified retrospective approach and recorded as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-16 will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and has adopted this guidance effective April 1, 2018.
In December 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18 "Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash" (ASU 2016-18), which requires that a statement of cash flows explains the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim reporting periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this standard should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-18 will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and has adopted this standard effective April 1, 2018.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, "Business Combination (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business" (ASU 2017-01), which changes the definition of a business to assist with evaluating when a set of transferred assets and activities is a business. ASU 2017-01 is effective for annual or any interim periods in annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect that the adoption of ASU 2017-01 will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and has adopted this standard effective April 1, 2018.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, "Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost" (ASU 2017-07), which requires that the Company disaggregate the service cost component from the other components of net benefit cost, and also provides guidance on how to present the service cost component and the other components of net benefit cost in the income statement and allow only the service cost component of net benefit cost to be eligible for capitalization. The standard is effective for the Company for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-07 will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and has adopted this guidance effective April 1, 2018.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, "Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities" (ASU 2017-12), which improves the financial reporting of hedging relationships to better portray the economic results of an entity’s risk management activities in its financial statements and simplifies the application of the hedge accounting guidance. ASU 2017-12 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect that the adoption of ASU 2017-12 will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and has adopted this standard effective April 1, 2018.