|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements of ADTRAN®, Inc. and its subsidiaries (“ADTRAN” or the “Company”) have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations for reporting on Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. Accordingly, certain information and notes required by generally accepted accounting principles for complete financial statements are not included herein. The December 31, 2018 Consolidated Balance Sheet is derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary to fairly state these interim statements have been recorded and are of a normal and recurring nature. The results of operations for an interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results for the full year. The interim statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto included in ADTRAN’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed on February 28, 2019 with the SEC.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expense during the reporting period. Our more significant estimates include the obsolete and excess inventory reserves, warranty reserves, customer rebates, determination of the deferred and accrued revenue components of multiple element sales agreements, estimated costs to complete obligations associated with deferred and accrued revenue, estimated income tax provision and income tax contingencies, the fair value of stock-based compensation, impairment of goodwill, valuation and estimated lives of intangible assets, estimated pension liability, fair value of investments and the evaluation of other-than-temporary declines in the value of investments. Actual amounts could differ significantly from these estimates.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. ASU 2016-13 requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial instruments held at amortized cost. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326 Financial Instruments – Credit Losses, that clarifies receivables arising from operating leases are not within the scope of the credit losses standard, but rather, should be accounted for in accordance with the leases standard. ASU 2016-13 and ASU 2018-19 are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the effect ASU 2016-13 and ASU 2018-19 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. ASU 2017-04 simplifies the measurement of goodwill by eliminating step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. Under ASU 2017-04, entities will be required to compare the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. ASU 2017-04 is effective for annual or interim impairment tests performed in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted for annual or interim impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The amendments should be applied prospectively. We are currently evaluating whether to early adopt ASU 2017-04, but do not expect it will have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which changes the fair value measurement disclosure requirements of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement. The amendments in this ASU are the result of a broader disclosure project called, Concepts Statement No. 8 - Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting — Chapter 8, Notes to Financial Statements, which the FASB finalized on August 28, 2018. The FASB used the guidance in the Concepts Statement to improve the effectiveness of ASC 820’s disclosure requirements. ASU 2018-13 provides users of financial statements with information about assets and liabilities measured at fair value in the statement of financial position or disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. More specifically ASU 2018-13 requires disclosures about the valuation techniques and inputs that are used to arrive at measures of fair value, including judgments and assumptions that are made in determining fair value. In addition, ASU 2018-13 requires disclosures regarding the uncertainty in the fair value measurements as of the reporting date and how changes in fair value measurements affect performance and cash flows. ASU 2018-13 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. We are currently evaluating the effect of ASU 2018-13, but do not expect it will have a material effect on our financial statement disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-14, Compensation-Retirement Benefits-Defined Benefit Plans-General (Subtopic 715-20): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Defined Benefit Plans, which makes changes to and clarifies the disclosure requirements related to defined benefit pension and other postretirement plans. ASU 2018-14 requires additional disclosures related to the reasons for significant gains and losses affecting the benefit obligation and an explanation of any other significant changes in the benefit obligation or plan assets that are not otherwise apparent in other disclosures required by ASC 715. ASU 2018-14 also clarifies the guidance in ASC 715 to require disclosure of the projected benefit obligation (PBO) and fair value of plan assets for pension plans with PBOs in excess of plan assets and the accumulated benefit obligation (ABO) and fair value of plan assets for pension plans with ABOs in excess of plan assets. ASU 2018-14 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years ending after December 15, 2020. We are currently evaluating the effect of ASU 2018-14, but do not expect it will have a material effect on our financial statement disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40), Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. ASU 2018-15 clarifies certain aspects of ASU 2015-05, Customer’s Accounting for Fees Paid in a Cloud Computing Arrangement. Specifically, ASU 2018-15 aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementations costs incurred to develop or obtain internal use software. ASU 2018-15 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the effect of ASU 2018-15, but do not expect it will have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
During 2019, we adopted the following accounting standards, which had the following effects on our consolidated financial statements:
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 requires an entity to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and to disclose key information about the entity’s leasing arrangements. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases, which clarified certain aspects of ASU 2016-02, as well as, ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842), Targeted Improvements, which provided for an optional transition method which allowed for the application of the legacy lease guidance, including its disclosure requirements, for the comparative periods presented in the year of adoption, with the cumulative effect of initially applying the new lease standard recognized as an adjustment to retained earnings as of the date of adoption. In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-01, Leases (Topic 824) Codification Improvements, which removed the requirement for an entity to disclose in the interim periods after adoption, the effect of the change on income from continuing operations, net income, any other affected financial statement line item, and any affected per share amount. For lessors, the new leasing standard requires leases to be classified as a sales-type, direct financing or operating leases. These criteria focus on the transfer of control of the underlying lease asset. This standard and related updates were effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years.
The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2019, the effective date of our initial application, using the optional transition method. The Company has elected to carry forward the legacy (ASC 840) disclosures for comparative periods and therefore, did not adjust the comparative period financial information prior to January 1, 2019. In addition, the Company elected the package of practical expedients which allows for companies to not reassess whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases, not reassess historical lease classifications for expired or existing contracts and not reassess initial direct costs for existing leases. Additionally, the Company elected the practical expedients which allow the use of hindsight when determining the lease term, the short-term lease recognition exemption and the option to not separate lease and non-lease components. The adoption of this standard resulted in the recognition of a right-of-use asset and corresponding right-of-use liability on our Consolidated Balance Sheet of $10.3 million, mainly related to our operating leases for office space, automobiles and other equipment.
As a lessee, the adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our Consolidated Statement of Income or Statement of Cash Flow. See Note 12 for additional information.
As a lessor, the adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet, Consolidated Statement of Income or Statement of Cash Flow. Prior to and after adoption, all of our leases in which we are the lessor were classified as sales-types leases.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-08, Receivables – Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities, which shortened the amortization period for the premium on certain purchased callable debt securities to the earliest call date. ASU 2017-08 was effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The amendments were required to be applied through a modified-retrospective transition approach that required a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company adopted ASU 2017-08 on January 1, 2019, and the adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. ASU 2017-12 expanded and refined hedge accounting for both financial and non-financial risk components, aligned the recognition and presentation of the effects of hedging instruments and hedge items in the financial statements, and included certain targeted improvements to ease the application of current guidance related to the assessment of hedge effectiveness. In October 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-16, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Inclusion of the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) Overnight Index Swap (OIS) Rate as a Benchmark Interest Rate for Hedge Accounting, which permits the OIS rate based on SOFR as a U.S. benchmark interest rate. Both ASU 2017-12 and ASU 2018-16 were effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company adopted ASU 2017-12 on January 1, 2019, and the adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements as we currently do not have any hedging instruments.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement – Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Comprehensive Income. ASU 2018-02 allowed for an optional reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. ASU 2018-02 was effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company adopted ASU 2018-02 on January 1, 2019, and upon adoption reclassified $0.4 million of stranded tax effects created by rate changes related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 to retained earnings. See Note 13 for additional information.